In 1834 he fought in an uprising in Genoa, and was forced to flee to South America. There, as a guerrilla leader, he became famous in the revolutions in Brazil and Uruguay. In 1848, the "Year of Revolutions," he came back to Italy to fight with Mazzini's short-lived Republic. He was forced to flee again, this time to the United States until 1854. Again returning to Italy, he was successful in waging war with his "Red Shirts," an all volunteer army, fighting against the Austrian forces from 1859 to 1862. The Austrians were engaged in their own conflicts with France, and so Garibaldi was able to conquer Sicily and Naples. By ceding his gains to King Victor Emmanuel, a new Italian nation was born.
Garibaldi served in the Italian Parliament in 1874 until 1876.
See also: Garibaldi Biscuits
The New American Desk Encyclopedia, Penguin Group, 1989