Greenwich Mean Time

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Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT, is the global time standard that is the mean solar time anywhere along the Greenwich Meridian. Because noon (the time when the sun is the highest overhead) does not occur at exactly the same point in every twenty-four day during the course of the year, we use the average ("mean") of each apparent noon as a standard that is called mean solar time. [1] The Greenwich Meridian (Prime Meridian or Longitude Zero degrees) marks the starting point of every time zone in the World. Physically, it is marked by a brass bar and accompanying symbol in the forecourt of the Museum which replaced the original Royal Observatory at Greenwich in south-east London.

The meeting of the hemispheres - East is right, West is left.

For every 15˚ change in longitude away from the Prime Meridian, there is one hours' difference in local time, compared to that at Greenwich. Towards the east of Greenwich, the local time will be ahead of GMT, whilst to the west, local time will lag GMT. This has not only resulted in the world being divided into 24 time zones, but also large land masses and individual countries being divided into several time zones.

Although GMT has been replaced by atomic time (Coordinated Universal Time or UTC) it is still widely regarded as the correct time for every international time zone.

Allowance also needs to be made for Daylight Saving Time, or Summer Time Zones, where applicable, which include an offset of an extra hour.

The International Date Line is an imaginary line running approximately between time GMT+12 and GMT-12, that separates two consecutive calendar days. The date in the Eastern hemisphere, to the left of the line - time zone M (Mike)- is always one day ahead of the date in the Western hemisphere, to the right of the International Date Line - time zone Y (Yankee).

It has been recognized as a matter of convenience and has no force in international law.

Contents

Time Zones

Map displaying the world's time zones

The following is an alphabetical list of countries, per time zone [2]

GMT - 12

  • Baker Island
  • Howland Island

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GMT - 11

  • American Samoa
  • Jarvis Island
  • Kingman Reef
  • Midway Islands
  • Niue
  • Palmyra Atoll
  • Samoa

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GMT - 10

  • Cook Islands
  • French Polynesia
  • Johnston Atoll
  • Tokelau, New Zealand
  • United States (Hawaii)
  • United States (Aleutian Islands)

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GMT - 9

  • French Polynesia
  • United States (Alaska)

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GMT - 8

  • Canada (British Columbia, Vancouver, Yukon, Whitehorse)
  • Mexico (Baja California, Tijuana, Ensenada, Mexicali)
  • Pitcairn
  • United States (California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Idaho)

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GMT - 7

  • Canada (Alberta, Northwest Territories)
  • Mexico (Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Nayarit, Sinaloa)
  • United States (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, N Dakota, Oregon, S Dakota, Utah, Wyoming)

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GMT - 6

  • Belize
  • Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan)
  • Easter Island, Chile
  • Costa Rica
  • Galapagos Islands, Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Mexico (Mexico City, Acapulco, Monterrey, Veracruz, Guadalajara, Cancun)
  • Nicaragua
  • United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska (Eastern), Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin

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GMT - 5

  • Bahamas
  • Brazil (Acre-Rio Branco)
  • Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Nunavut)
  • Cayman Islands
  • Colombia
  • Cuba
  • Ecuador
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Navassa Island
  • Panama
  • Peru
  • Turks And Caicos Islands
  • United States (New York, District Of Columbia, Florida, Massachusetts, Georgia, Michigan, Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Kentucky (Eastern And Central), Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, N Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, S Carolina, Tennessee (Eastern), Vermont, Virginia, W Virginia)

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GMT - 4

  • Anguilla
  • Antigua And Barbuda
  • Aruba
  • Barbados
  • Bermuda
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil (Manaus)
  • Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island)
  • Chile
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Falkland Islands
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guadeloupe
  • Guyana
  • Martinique
  • Montserrat
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Paraguay
  • Puerto Rico
  • Saint Kitts And Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent And The Grenadines
  • Trinidad And Tobago
  • Virgin Islands
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Antarctica (O'Higgins Station, Palmer Station)

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GMT - 3

  • Argentina
  • Brazil (Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Brasilia, Recife, Maceio, Salvador, Fortaleza)
  • French Guiana
  • Greenland (Nuuk)
  • Saint Pierre And Miquelon
  • Suriname
  • Uruguay

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GMT - 2

  • Brazil (Fernando De Noronha)
  • South Georgia And South Sandwich Islands

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GMT - 1

  • Cape Verde
  • Greenland (East)
  • Portugal (Azores)

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GMT

  • Burkina Faso
  • Canary Islands
  • Cote D'Ivoire
  • Faroe Islands
  • The Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Morocco
  • Portugal
  • Saint Helena
  • Sao Tome And Principe
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • United Kingdom
  • Western Sahara

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GMT + 1

  • Albania
  • Andorra
  • Algeria
  • Angola
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Benin
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Congo, Republic Of The
  • Congo, Democratic Republic Of The (Kinshasha)
  • Croatia
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Macedonia
  • France
  • Gabon
  • Germany
  • Gibraltar
  • Hungary
  • Italy
  • Liechtenstein
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Monaco
  • Namibia
  • Netherlands
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • San Marino
  • Serbia And Montenegro
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Tunisia
  • Vatican

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GMT + 2

  • Belarus
  • Botswana
  • Bulgaria
  • Burundi
  • Congo, Democratic Republic Of The (Lubumbashi)
  • Cyprus
  • Egypt
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • Gaza Strip
  • Greece
  • Israel
  • Jordan
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Libya
  • Lithuania
  • Malawi
  • Moldova
  • Mozambique
  • Romania
  • Russia (Zone 1)
  • Rwanda
  • South Africa
  • Swaziland
  • Syria
  • Turkey
  • Ukraine
  • West Bank
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

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GMT + 3

  • Bahrain
  • Comoros
  • Djibouti
  • Ethiopia
  • Eritrea
  • Iraq
  • Kenya
  • Kuwait
  • Madagascar
  • Qatar
  • Russia (Zone 2)
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Yemen

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GMT + 4

  • Armenia
  • Azerbaijan
  • Georgia
  • Mauritius
  • Oman
  • Reunion
  • Russia (Zone 3)
  • Seychelles
  • United Arab Emirates

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GMT + 5

  • Kazakhstan
  • Maldives
  • Pakistan
  • Russia (Zone 4)
  • Tajikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan

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GMT + 6

  • Bangladesh
  • Bhutan
  • British Indian Ocean Territory
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Russia (Zone 5)

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GMT + 7

  • Cambodia
  • Christmas Island, Australia
  • Indonesia
  • Laos
  • Russia (Zone 6)
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam

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GMT + 8

  • Australia (Western Aus)
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • China
  • Hong Kong
  • Indonesia (Western)
  • Macau
  • Malaysia
  • Mongolia
  • Philippines
  • Russia (Zone 7)
  • Singapore
  • Taiwan

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GMT + 9

  • East Timor
  • Indonesia (Eastern)
  • Japan
  • Korea, North
  • Korea, Republic Of
  • Palau
  • Russia (Zone 8)

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GMT + 10

  • Australia (ACT, New South Wales, Victoria, Queesland, Tasmania)
  • Guam
  • Micronesia, Federated States Of
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Russia (Zone 9)

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GMT + 11

  • New Caledonia
  • Russia (Zone 10)
  • Solomon Islands
  • Vanuatu

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GMT + 12

  • Fiji
  • Kiribati
  • Marshall Islands
  • Nauru
  • New Zealand
  • Russia (Zone 11)
  • Tuvalu
  • Wake Island
  • Wallis And Futuna
  • Antarctica (Amundsen-Scott - Pole, Mcmurdo Station, Scott Station)

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External Links

References

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