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Groundwater are water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs.

See Also

{{Navbox |name=Permaculture |image=TurkishForest.jpg |basestyle=font-size: 95%; background-color:Aquamarine; |title=Permaculture Design Science - "Permanent Culture" - "Permanent Agriculture"

|groupstyle=font-size: 90%; color:MidnightBlue; background-color:#DFFFD4; |liststyle=font-size: 85%; background-color:#FFFFFF;

|group1=Ethics |list1=1. Earth care 2. People care 3. Reinvesting surplus

|group2=Water |list2=Aquaponics - Aquaculture ponds barren land recovery • Berm Bioswale Earth works Greywater Hugelkultur Irrigation Replacing irrigation with Permaculture Natural swimming pool Desert greening Rainwater harvesting Swales on contour Water conservation

|group3=Soil Building |list3=Chop and drop mulching Compost Compost tea Beyond compost Composting toilet Cover crop Diatomaceous earth Desert greening Hugelkultur Humanure Humus Nitrogen fixation No tilling Sheet mulching Soil survey Urine and gardening Wind and berms

|group4=Techniques |list4=Biodiversity Bio-mimicry Cast iron Conservation vs. environmentalism Contour Edge effect Electric tractor Food as medicine Food preservation Food storage Function stacking Holistic management HUSP Interplanting Invest in tangibles Keyhole bed Microclimate Natural building recycling Renewable energy Rocket mass heater Rumford fireplace Solar dehydrator TEFA - Textured food all-year round Wildcrafting Wofati Zones

|group5=People |list5=Jason Akers (The Self-Sufficient Gardener) • Martin Crawford (Creating a Forest Garden) • Alan Enzo Ben Falk (The Resilient Farm and Homestead) • Sepp Holzer (Sepp Holzer’s Permaculture) • Masanobu Fookuoka (The One-Straw Revolution) • Toby Hemenway (Gaia's Garden) • David Holmgren (Permaculture - Principles and Pathways beyond Sustainability) • Ben Law (The Woodland Way) • Geoff Lawton (Permaculture Research Institute) • Art Ludwig Bill Mollison (Founder Permaculture - A Designers Manual) • Mike Oehler Dean Pain Joel Salatin (You Can Farm) • Allan Savory (Holistic Management Handbook - Healthy Land, Healthy Profits) • Christopher Shein Mark Shepard (Restoration Agriculture - Real-World Permaculture for Farmers) • Darby Simpson Willie Smits Jack Spirko (PermaEthos) • Ruth Stout Eric Toensmeier (Edible Forest Gardens) • Josiah Wallingford Paul Wheaton ( / Permaculture Playing Cards) • Bill Wilson Marjory Wildcraft (Food Production Systems for a Backyard or Small Farm)

|group6=Animals in permaculture |list6=Bees Bugs, Weeds, Funguses, and Microorganisms Chickens Chicken tractor Free range Fungi Honey bees Livestock guardian dogs Managed intensive rotational grazing (mob grazing) • Mason bees Paddock-shift system Pigs Pollinators Rotational grazing

|group7=Plants in Permaculture |list7=Apple tree Bamboo Black locust Close-grown crops Comfrey Companion planting Dandelion Food forest Herb spiral Intercropping Leguminous plant Mulberry Mullein Perennial plants Plant guild Pioneer species Polyculture Rhubarb Stinging nettles Sunchokes Support species Tree planting


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