Halton Arp (1927-2013) was an American astronomer, the author of 1987 book "Quasars, redshifts and controversies"  who for the reason of not believing in the Big Bang hypothesis was taken away the telescope time from, and in this way forced to emmigrate from the US. He presently lives in Germany continuing his reaserch of quasars that he considers local to their galaxies rather than remote objects at cosmological distances. In 1993 Arp co-athored with J. Narlikar a paper on geometry of spacetime  that proposed the idea of flat spacetime (also proposed by others) . Arp's research contradicts the idea of expanding universe and confirms the idea that the universe is stationary as it was shown with relativistic physics and Newtonian math in 1985, when it was discovered that the Hubble constant of stationary universe is
where c is speed of light in vacuum, RE is radius of curvature of space (called "Einstein's radius"), G is Newtonian gravitational constant, and ρ is density of space  and so the cosmological redshift is exactly Arp's Intrinsic redshift with which one may measure the average density of universe (and possibly also the density of space around quasars).
- Ho = 70km / s / Mpc implies
- ↑ John G. Hartnett (31 December 2013). Big-bang-defying giant of astronomy passes away. creation.com. Retrieved on 14 January 2014. “Halton Arp passed away on Saturday morning 28th December 2013 in Munich, Germany.”
- ↑ Arp, Halton, 1987, "Quasars, redshifts and controversies", Interstallar Media,2153 Russel Street, Berkeley, CA, ISBN 0-941325-00-8.
- ↑ Narlikar, J. & Arp, H., 1993, "Flat spacetime cosmology - a unified framework for extragalactic redshifts", Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X) vol. 405, no. 1, The American Astronomical Society, p.51-56, Bibliographic code: 1993 ApJ...405...51N
- ↑ See a detailed explanation of the mechanism of Einsteinian gravitation Gravitation demystified. It explains the Einsteinian gravitational force as inertial push at the quantum level in flat spacetime.
- ↑ See Essay:Hubble redshift in Einstein's universe. Except conservapedia (before access to the paper were blocked by the University of Warsaw, Poland) it was never published by any mainstream scientific journal and therefore remains unknown to the physicists and astronomers