Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) longer form Chapters 15-21

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Introduction

Index

Fifteen

Chapter 15 Bible texts

Now Herodias had a grudge against John the baptizer, whom Herod had imprisoned, and wanted to kill him. But she could not, for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he was much perplexed; and yet he heard him gladly. But then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you."

He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom."

She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"

She said, "The head of John the Baptizer."

She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter."

The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he did not wish to refuse her. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John’s head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison, and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother.

At that time, Herod the tetrarch heard the report concerning Jesus; King Herod heard this, and said to his servants, “This is John the Baptizer. He is risen from the dead. That is why these powers work in him”, for his name had become known, and he said, “John the Baptizer has risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him.”

But others said, “He is Elijah.”

Others said, “He is a prophet, or like one of the prophets.”

But Herod, when he heard this, said, “This is John, whom I beheaded. He has risen from the dead.”

When his followers heard this, they came and took up his corpse; his disciples came, and took the body, and buried it, and laid it in a tomb. Thus Herod was persuaded that John was indeed dead. Then they went and told Jesus. "When Herod’s birthday came, the daughter of Herodias danced among them and pleased Herod. Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatever she should ask. She, being prompted by her mother, said, ‘Give me here on a platter the head of John the Baptizer.’

"The king was grieved, but for the sake of his oaths, and of those who sat at the table with him, he commanded it to be given, and he sent and beheaded John in the prison. His head was brought on a platter, and given to the young lady; and she brought it to her mother."

They testified that when they heard this they went and took the body, and buried it, and laid it in a tomb, and came and told Jesus.

Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him, and he was very perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead, and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the old prophets had risen again. Herod said, “I beheaded John, but who is this about whom I hear such things?”

He sought to see him.

Now when Jesus heard this, the apostles, when they returned, gathered themselves together to Jesus; the apostles told him what things they had done, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had Taught.

He said to them, “You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile.”

For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat.

He took them and withdrew from there in a boat. They went away in the boat to go to a deserted place apart by themselves, to a city called Bethsaida, to a desert region of the Jordan, west of the city, which is situated across from it on the east side, the other side of the Jordan river; from Capernaum a distance of about seven miles. But the multitudes, perceiving it, followed him. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him at an open and deserted area on the western side of the Jordan river.

Jesus came out, and he saw a great multitude. Jesus went out, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd. He welcomed them, and he began to Teach them many things, spoke to them of God’s Kingdom, and healed their sick, and he cured those who needed healing.

Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand. The day began to wear away.

When it was late in the day, when evening had come, his disciples came to him, saying, “This place is deserted, and the hour is already late. Send the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food.”

And the twelve came and said to him, “Send the multitude away, that they may go into the surrounding villages and farms, and lodge, and get food, for we are here in a deserted place.”

His disciples came to him, and said, “This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat.”

But he answered them, Jesus said to them, “They do not need to go away. You give them something to eat.”

They asked him, “Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat?”

Jesus therefore lifting up his eyes, and seeing that a great multitude was coming to him, said to Philip, “Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat?”

He said this to test him, for he himself knew what he would do. Philip answered him, “Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may receive a little.”

He said to them, “How many loaves do you have? Go see.”

When they knew, they said, “Five, and two fish.”

One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, “There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are these among so many?”

They told him, “We only have here five loaves and two fish.”

They said, “We have no more than five loaves and two fish, unless we should go and buy food for all these people.”

For they were about five thousand men.

He said, “Bring them here to me.”

Now there was much grass in that place. Jesus said, “Have the people sit down.”

He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass; he commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. He said to his disciples, “Make them sit down in groups of about fifty each.”

They did so, and made them all sit down. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand, in addition to women and children.

And he took the five loaves and the two fish. Jesus took the loaves; and looking up to heaven, looking up to the sky, he blessed them, and broke them. He broke the loaves, and having given thanks, he distributed to the disciples. And he gave the broken loaves to the disciples, gave them to the disciples, to set before the multitude. He gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two broken fish among them all. And the disciples gave to the multitudes, to those who were sitting down; likewise also of the fish as much as they desired.

They ate and were all filled. They all ate, and were filled. When they were filled, he said to his disciples, “Gather up the broken pieces which are left over, that nothing be lost.”

So they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves, which were left over by those who had eaten. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish, of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. They gathered up twelve baskets of broken pieces that were left over. Those who ate were about five thousand men, in addition to women and children.

When therefore the people saw the sign which Jesus did, they said, “This is truly the Prophet who comes into the world.”

Jesus therefore, perceiving that they were about to come and take him by force to make him king, immediately Jesus made the disciples get into the boat. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and go ahead of him to the other side of the Jordan river, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away, while he sent the multitudes away. After he had taken leave of them, after he had sent the multitudes away, he withdrew again to the mountain by himself; he went up into the mountain by himself to pray. When evening had come, he was there alone.

When evening came, it was now dark, and Jesus had not come to them. His disciples went down to the sea. They entered into the boat, and were going over the sea west to Capernaum; from Bethsaida a distance of about seven miles. When evening had come, the boat was in the middle of the sea, and he was alone on the land.

The sea was tossed by a great wind blowing. But the boat was now in the middle of the sea, distressed by the waves, for the wind was contrary.

When therefore they had rowed about twenty-five or thirty stadia, about three or four miles, and seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, in the fourth watch of the night, Jesus came to them, walking on the sea. About the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them. But they saw Jesus walking on the sea, and drawing near to the boat; and they were afraid. When they saw him walking on the sea, they supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; for they all saw him, and were troubled. When the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, “It is a ghost!” and they cried out for fear.

But immediately Jesus spoke to them, he immediately spoke with them, saying, “I AM! Do not be afraid”, and he said to them, “Cheer up! I AM! Do not be afraid.”

Peter answered him and said, “Lord, if it is you, command me to come to you on the waters.”

He said, “Come!”

Peter stepped down from the boat, and walked on the waters to come to Jesus. But when he saw that the wind was strong, he was afraid, and beginning to sink, he cried out, saying, “Lord, save me!”

Immediately Jesus stretched out his hand, took hold of him, and said to him, “You of little faith, why did you doubt?”

They were willing therefore to receive him into the boat. He got into the boat with them; and when they got up into the boat, the wind ceased. Immediately the boat was at the land where they were going. And they were very amazed among themselves, and marveled; for they had not understood about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened. Those who were in the boat came and worshiped him, saying, “You are truly the Son of God!”

When they had crossed over, they came to the land of Gennesaret, they came to land at Gennesaret, and moored to the shore. When they had come out of the boat, immediately the people recognized him. When the people of that place recognized him, they sent into all that surrounding region, and ran around that whole region, and began to bring those who were sick, on their mats, to where they heard he was, and brought to him all who were sick; and they begged him that they might just touch the fringe of his garment. As many as touched it were made whole.

Wherever he entered, into villages, or into cities, or into the country, they laid the sick in the marketplaces, and begged him that they might just touch the fringe of his garment; and as many as touched him were made well.

On the next day, that is, the day after the feeding of the five thousand, the multitude that stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other boat there, except the one in which his disciples had embarked, and that Jesus had not entered with his disciples into the boat, but his disciples had gone away alone. However boats from Tiberias came near to the place where they ate the bread after the Lord had given thanks. When the multitude therefore saw that Jesus was not there, nor his disciples, they themselves got into the boats, and came to Capernaum, seeking Jesus. When they found him on the other side of the sea, in the synagogue, as he Taught in Capernaum, they asked him, “Rabbi, when did you come here?”

Jesus answered them, “Most certainly I tell you, you seek me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate of the loaves, and were filled. Do not work for the food which perishes, but for the food which remains to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you. For God the Father has sealed him.”

They said therefore to him, “What must we do, that we may work the works of God?”

Jesus answered them, “This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.”

They said therefore to him, “What then do you do for a sign, that we may see and believe you? What work do you do? Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness. As it is written,

‘He gave them bread out of heaven to eat.’ ”

Jesus therefore said to them, “Most certainly, I tell you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world.”

They said therefore to him, “Lord, always give us this bread.”

Jesus said to them, “I AM the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will not be hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty. But I told you that you have seen me, and yet you do not believe. All those whom the Father gives me will come to me. He who comes to me I will in no way throw out. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. This is the will of my Father who sent me, that of all he has given to me I should lose nothing, but should raise him up at the last day. This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.”

The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, “I AM the bread which came down out of heaven.” They said, “Is this not Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, ‘I have come down out of heaven?’ ”

Therefore Jesus answered them, “Do not murmur among yourselves. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. It is written in the prophets,

‘They will all be taught by God.’

"Therefore everyone who hears from the Father and has learned, comes to me. Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. Most certainly, I tell you, he who believes in me has eternal life. I AM the bread of life. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness and they died. This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. I AM the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, “How can this man give us his flesh to eat?”

Jesus therefore said to them, “Most certainly I tell you, unless you actually eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you do not have life in yourselves. He who actually eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is indeed food, and my blood is indeed drink. He who actually eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who physically feeds on me, he will also live because of me. This is the bread which came down out of heaven—not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who actually eats this bread will live forever.”

He said these things in the synagogue, as he Taught in Capernaum. Therefore many of his followers, when they heard this, said, “This is a hard saying! Who can listen to it?”

But Jesus knowing in himself that his followers, his disciples murmured at this, said to them, “Does this cause you to stumble? Then what if you would see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before? It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. But there are some of you who do not believe.”

For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.

He said, “For this cause I have said to you that no one can come to me, unless it is given to him by my Father.”

At this, many of his followers went back, and walked no more with him. Jesus said therefore to the twelve, “You do not also want to go away, do you?”

Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom would we go? You have the words of eternal life. We have come to believe and know that you are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”

Jesus answered them, “Did I not choose you, the twelve, and one of you is a devil?”

Now he spoke of Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, for it was he who would betray him, being one of the twelve.

After these things, Jesus was walking in Galilee, for he would not walk in Judea, because the Jews sought to kill him.

Mark 6:19-29
Matthew 14:12
Matthew 14:6-11
Matthew 14:1-2
Mark 6:14-16
Mark 6:29
Matthew 14:12 adapted
Luke 9:7-9
Matthew 14:13a
Matthew 14:13a
Mark 6:30
Luke 9:10a
Mark 6:31
Luke 9:10b
Matthew 14:13b
Mark 6:32
Luke 9:11a
Matthew 14:13c
Mark 6:33
Matthew 14:14a
Mark 6:34a
Matthew 14:14b
Luke 9:11b
Mark 6:34b
John 6:4
Luke 9:12a
Mark 6:35a
Matthew 14:15
Luke 9:12b
Mark 6:35b-36
Matthew 14:16
Mark 6:37a
Luke 9:13a
Mark 6:37b
John 6:5-7
Mark 6:38
John 6:8-9
Matthew 14:17
Luke 9:13b-14a
Matthew 14:18
John 6:10ab
Matthew 14:19a
Mark 6:39
Luke 9:14b-15
John 6:10c
Matthew 14:19b
Mark 6:41a
Luke 9:16a
John 6:11a
Matthew 14:19c
Mark 6:41b
Luke 9:16b
Matthew 14:19c
Mark 6:41c
Luke 9:16c
John 6:11b
John 6:11c
Matthew 14:19d
Mark 6:41d
Luke 9:16d
Matthew 14:19e
John 6:11d
Luke 9:17a
Mark 6:42
Matthew 14:20a
John 6:12
John 6:13
Matthew 14:20b
Luke 9:17b
Mark 6:43
Mark 6:44
Matthew 14:21
John 6:14
John 6:15a
Matthew 14:22a
Mark 6:45a
Matthew 14:22b
Mark 6:45b
Matthew 14:22c-23a
Mark 6:46
John 6:15b
Matthew 14:23b
John 6:16a
John 6:17b
John 6:16b
John 6:17a
Mark 6:47
John 6:18
Matthew 14:24
John 6:19a
Mark 6:48a
Matthew 14:25
Mark 6:48b
John 6:19b
Mark 6:49-50a
Matthew 14:26
Mark 6:50b
John 6:20
Matthew 14:27
Mark 6:51
Matthew 14:28-32
John 6:21b
Mark 6:51b-52
Matthew 14:33
Matthew 14:34
Mark 6:53-54
Matthew 14:35a
Mark 6:55
Matthew 14:35b-36
Mark 6:56
John 6:22–7:1


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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"daughter of Herodias": "young lady"

(WEB) Matthew 14:11, Mark 6:22.
The Greek κορασιον korasion is typically translated simply as "girl" or "damsel". According to the Oxford Pocket Greek-English Dictionary, κορασιον means a girl who is not even a teen-ager. See also Strong's number 2877: a (little) girl:—damsel, maid.
The spectacle of a pre-adolescent girl dancing in front of a group of adult men has immoral overtones. This is evident from the fact that "an opportunity came" (RSVCE) for Herodias to use her daughter as a means of manipulating Herod. Scripture offers support for this conclusion in Luke 3:19, which gives an adequate indication of his moral character: "But Herod the tetrarch, who had been reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things that Herod had done"—.

"Then they went and told Jesus."

The account of Mark is given first, followed by the account of Matthew. The two are not redacted together in this Harmony of the Gospel. Here Mark's account is presented as relating the more details, and the account of Matthew is presented as giving the primary facts, probably given directly to Jesus by John's disciples with Peter present.
According to the most ancient tradition, found in Africanus and Eusebius, and not disputed before the second half of the nineteenth century, the Gospel of Matthew was the first to be written, and Mark's was the second. Mark traveled extensively with Peter as his amanuensis (companion, assistant and secretary, 1 Peter 5:13), and after Peter's martyrdom he put down in writing the details of the events in the ministry of Christ which Peter had constantly recalled and related in his preaching and teaching. Most of the Gospel of Mark is an expansion upon much of Matthew's Gospel, presenting additional detail. The hypothesis of Marcan primacy advanced in the 19th century by German textual critics and biblical theologians as part of Otto von Bismarck's anti-Catholic Kulturkampf—which proposes that Matthew, writing later, drew upon Mark's account and summarized and rearranged the details of his narrative—has more recently in the 21st century come under renewed scrutiny and found to be defective and lacking sufficiently substantial documentary support.[1]
The positioning of the elements of the redacted texts here achieves a reasonable explanation of the difference in Herod's response to the reported actions of Jesus and the apostles in Matthew and Mark ("he is John, whom I beheaded") and Luke ("John I beheaded, but who is this?"). It is reasonable to assume that while the disciples of John had not yet come to claim his body, Herod believed that the man he was now hearing about was John risen from the dead and therefore had miraculous powers; but after John's disciples came and petitioned Herod for the release of his body and had taken it and buried it in a tomb, then Herod knew that John was certainly dead, and that the man he was hearing about could not be John. When the texts of the Gospels are taken as true, this explanation is completely reasonable, as it does not present a contradiction or difficulty in reconciling them. This is what is called in scientific research an elegant solution, because of its reasonable simplicity.

"he blessed them, and broke them."

Many have difficulty visualizing this. A fruitful method of studying the Gospel involves mentally participating in the scene as a spectator and "watching what happened as it unfolds".
Various attempts by stage and film directors in their methods of representing the distribution of the loaves and fishes have not always been entirely convincing, especially when dozens of whole loaves and whole fish are cinematically made to suddenly appear, instantly heaped up in two large baskets.
However, clues to the actual method of distribution are in the text. First, Jesus breaks the loaves and divides the fishes into pieces about the size of a child's hand, presumably into one of the available hand-baskets there (Mark 6:43). Then he begins to give these fragments of broken pieces to the disciples out of the basket, piece after piece, one after another, continually breaking up more and more of them in the basket and then into the disciples' baskets, without emptying the first basket; and the more he gives them the more there seems to be, until the entire crowd of 5,000 men besides women and children have eaten all they could hold. In this way, the miracle gradually unfolds. Many commentators have seen in this miracle a foreshadowing of the distribution of Christian Communion and the proliferation and spread of the Gospel. Paul says in his First Letter to the Corinthians that "there is one bread" and "we all partake of the one bread" (1 Corinthians 10:16-17).

"the prophet who comes into the world.

The Prophet promised by Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15-19).
Compare Luke 1:76; 7:16; John 1:21, 25; 6:14; 7:40; Acts 3:22-23; 7:37.

Luke 9:17-18 appears to omit a large part of the Gospel narrative.

Such gaps illustrate the usefulness of a Harmony of the Gospel as a tool for understanding and for appreciating both the reliable integrity of the scriptures and the teaching of the faith of Christianity in Jesus Christ. Where one appears to lack the others provide.
Luke 9:17. A comparative reading of the Gospels discloses that in the narrative of the Gospel of Luke, between verses 17 and 18 of chapter 9, Luke has not included after verse 17 the events related in Matthew 14:21–16:13, Mark 6:44–8:26, John 6:16–7:1.
Luke 9:18 parallels Matthew 16:14 and Mark 8:24.
John 7:1 is a brief summary parallel of Matthew 17:1-23, Mark 9:1-32, and Luke 9:28-45, disclosing similar omissions in the Gospel of John.
A comparative reading of the Gospels also discloses that John too did not include after the miracle of the feeding of the 5,000 and the discourse in the synagogue at Capernaum, any of the events related in Matthew 14:21–16:13 and Mark 6:44–8:26; just as he did not include the events of Matthew 4:18–14:13, Mark 1:15–6:30, and Luke 4:15–9:11 before the healing of the man at the pool of Bethzatha (John 5).
No satisfactory explanation for such omissions in the Gospels has been discovered. See Psalm 131. Mysteries are provided to humble the pride of intellect—not to dismiss it, but to keep it honest while it continues with its valuable work. See Hypothesis and Historical-critical method (Higher criticism).

"I AM" Greek ἐγώ εἰμι ego eimi.

This is also the Greek translation of the Tetragrammaton of God's NAME in the Septuagint Old Testament.
See "I AM" Sayings in the Fourth Gospel, compiled by Felix Just, S.J., PhD.
Twenty–four of these are emphatic, explicitly including the pronoun "I" (Greek ἐγώ ego - "I am" ἐγώ εἰμι ego eimi), which would not be necessary in Greek grammar.
John 4:26; 6:20; 6:35; 6:41; 6:48; 6:51; 8:12; 8:16; 8:18; 8:23 (twice); 8:24; 8:28; 8:58; 10:7; 10:9; 10:11; 10:14; 11:25; 13:19; 14:6; 14:9; 15:1; 15:5; 18:5; 18:6; 18:8.
In all other New Testament books, “I am” occurs a total of eighty–six times (in the present tense; not counting, "I was" or "I will be"), of which only twenty–four are emphatic.
Matthew 14:27; 22:32; 24:5; 26:22, 25;
Mark 6:50; 13:6; 14:62;
Luke 1:19 (the angel Gabriel); 21:8; 22:70; 24:39;
Acts 9:5; 10:21; 18:10; 22:3, 8; 26:15, 29;
Revelation 1:8, 17; 2:23; 21:6; 22:16.
Many translators add "he" to the text where it does not appear in the Greek, as in John 18:5 and 8 "I am [he]". This is an example of eisegesis in which the translator obscures the fuller significance and meaning of Jesus' words by "correcting" the Bible (Revelation 22:18-19). Moreover, many commentaries on the "I AM" texts listed here say nothing about this unusual form of utterance by Jesus in referring to himself. Defenders of the addition of "he" to the "I AM" texts suggest that it is a legitimate dynamic translation of meaning in proper English, as distinct from a literal formal translation word-for-word "which might only confuse the ordinary reader". Perhaps the worst possible rendering of this text says, "Relax! It's only me!"
In the Hebrew Bible, the meaning of God's name (YHWH) is closely related to "I am" (see Exodus 3:14; 6:2; Deuteronomy 32:39; Isaiah 43:25; 48:12; 51:12; etc.). In the LXX, most of these passages are translated with the Greek expression ἐγώ εἰμι ego eimi:
Exodus 3:14 – God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM." And he said, "Say this to the people of Israel, I AM has sent me to you."
14 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Θεὸς πρὸς Μωυσῆν λέγων· ἐγώ εἰμιὤν. καὶ εἶπεν· οὕτως ἐρεῖς τοῖς υἱοῖς ᾿Ισραήλ· ὁ ὢν ἀπέσταλκέ με πρὸς ὑμᾶς.
Exodus 6:2 – And God said to Moses, "I [am] the LORD" (Ego Kyrios).
2 ᾿Ελάλησε δὲ ὁ Θεὸς πρὸς Μωυσῆν καὶ εἶπε πρὸς αὐτόν· ἐγὼ Κύριος·
Deuteronomy 32:39a – "See now that I, even I, am [he], and there is no god beside me;"
39 ἴδετε ἴδετε ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστι Θεὸς πλὴν ἐμοῦ·
Isaiah 48:12 – "Hearken to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called! I am He, I am the first, and I am the last."
12 ῎Ακουέ μου, ᾿Ιακὼβ καὶ ᾿Ισραήλ, ὃν ἐγὼ καλῶ· ἐγώ εἰμι πρῶτος, καὶ ἐγώ εἰμι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα,
Thus, many interpreters believe that in the Gospel of John Jesus is making divine claims, saying "ἐγώ εἰμι".

"everyone who sees the Son"

John 6:40.
Greek θεωρῶν theoron "sees" KJV "SEETH", keyed to Strong's number 2334 θεωρέω theoreo, be a spectator (literally or figuratively, intensively):--behold, consider, look on, perceive.
Compare John 12:45, "He who sees me sees him who sent me" and John 14:19, "Yet a little while, and the world will see me no more, but you will see me". The same Greek term is used.
  • Greek text John 6:40
    τοῦτο δέ ἐστι τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πέμψαντός με, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ θεωρῶν τὸν υἱὸν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον, καὶ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν ἐγὼ τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ.
  • Greek text John 12:45
    καὶ ὁ θεωρῶν ἐμὲ θεωρεῖ τὸν πέμψαντά με.
  • Greek text John 14:19
    ἔτι μικρὸν καὶ ὁ κόσμος με οὐκέτι θεωρεῖ, ὑμεῖς δὲ θεωρεῖτέ με, ὅτι ἐγὼ ζῶ καὶ ὑμεῖς ζήσεσθε.
Compare also:
John 6:36, "But I told you that you have seen me, and yet you do not believe"
John 20:25, "We have seen the Lord"
John 20:29, "Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe.
See interlinear texts:
John 6:36 ἑωράκατέ
John 20:25 Ἑωράκαμεν
John 20:29 ἑώρακάς.
See Strong's number 3708. ἑράω hŏraō:— behold, perceive, see.
Orthodox and Catholic Christians who accept the traditional teaching of the ancient apostolic Church actually believe that in the Divine Liturgy and the Holy Mass they actually see Jesus Himself in the form of bread and wine in literal fulfilment of the promises of John 6:35-69, 12:45 and 14:19 (see Transubstantiation and Real presence).
Compare John 20:24-29, which includes all of those who do not see him and who do believe. There is no textual critical linguistic support for the figurative interpretation that Jesus can be seen with the "eyes of faith" by those who do not actually see him with their eyes. (See Job 19:26-27, "from my flesh I shall see God...my eyes shall behold, and not another". Compare Acts 9:27; 1 Corinthians 9:1; 1 Peter 1:8.)

"he who actually eats my flesh"

—Greek τρώγων trogon
This word τρώγων trogon literally means, "eat, gnaw, munch, crunch" (the KJV "EATETH" keyed to Strong's number 5176. τρώγω trogo).
The τρώγων trogon form of the word τρώγω trogo is found in the New Testament only in the Gospel of John 6:54-58, and 13:18 ("He who ate my bread..."). It has a literal, physical concrete meaning only, unlike the more common Greek word φαγεῖν phagein "eat" which has both a literal and figurative or metaphorical meaning (see Strong's number 5315 φάγω phago, to eat, literally or figuratively).
Biblical commentaries which unequivocally state that there is virtually no difference between the two words reveal that the writer is either incompetent and ignorant of Greek or is being dishonest.
There is no linguistic evidence that this word for eat, eats, eating, ate, τρώγων, was used metaphorically as a figure of speech, but was simply only a literal, physical concrete term for chewing and craunching or grinding teeth (somewhat noisily) while eating, as in eating bread or meat.
See Strong's number 5176 τρώγω trogo, its concrete physical meaning probably strengthened from a collateral form of the base of trauma (wound) and tribos (rut, worn track) through the idea of corrosion or wear; or perhaps rather of a base of trugon (dove, murmuring, cooing sound) and trizo (to creak or squeak) through the idea of a craunching sound; to gnaw or chew, generally to simply eat.
The New American Bible (1986) footnote to John 6:54-58 states that the verb τρώγων used in these verses is not the classical Greek verb used of human eating, but that of animal eating: "munch", "gnaw". And it says this may be part of John's emphasis on the reality of the flesh and blood of Jesus, but also says the same verb eventually became the ordinary verb in Greek meaning "eat". However, it does not say that it ever became a metaphorical term allowing a figurative meaning, such as delighting in the Lord's doctrinal teaching and "eating it up" and eagerly engaging in a long and involved deep study of the New Testament as "really sinking your teeth into it".
Instead, the Jews and even some of Jesus' own disciples actually understood him as intentionally expressing the literal meaning of chewing his flesh with their teeth, in John 6:52, 60, in which they understood that he literally meant to eat him. This unequivocal statement of Jesus provoked a response of incredulity: "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" and, "This saying is hard; who can listen to it?" (or "who can accept it?"). This is identical to the objection raised against the doctrine of the real presence by Berengar of Tours, Ulrich Zwingli and others. Jesus responds to them by re-emphasizing what he said. He does not privately explain to his closest disciples, the apostles, that they and the others who had left him did not understand his meaning. He does not say that he was speaking parabolically, symbolically, spiritually. Instead, astonishingly, he only says to the Twelve, "Do you also want to leave?"
Fundamentalists and most evangelical Christians absolutely reject the plain, literal word trogon in these passages of the Gospel and firmly maintain that the literal meaning is impossible, an "idolatrous heresy" and impious superstition. Fundamentalist illustrator Jack Chick as a warning against Catholic doctrine graphically represents the communion wafers given to the people by Catholic priests as inhabited by demons which enslave them (1 Timothy 4:1). Many Christians firmly and boldly declare against the literal Catholic reading of the text of John 6 that to eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood is to be spiritually united to him entirely by fully accepting his person and his doctrine personally, accepting Jesus as one's own personal Savior and living the life of Christ (Galatians 2:20), thus drawing spiritual nourishment from him through the Holy Spirit.
But solely on the basis of the text alone their doctrinal position has actually no linguistic foundation or basis in fact in these passages of the New Testament (John 6:54-58; 13:18). And no texts of these passages in the extant manuscripts of the Gospel of John have any other wording than the literal, concrete, physical term τρώγων. In addition to this fact, all biblical commentaries written on these passages, whether accepting or rejecting the literal reading of their meaning, quote the Greek text as we have it even now and admit the literal meaning of the Greek as posing a difficulty for some as to a proper interpretation. It is difficult only if the literal meaning of this strictly literal word is not doctrinally acceptable. Those who do accept the literal meaning firmly and boldly declare that they only "take Jesus at his word".
On the sola scriptura principle that scripture interprets scripture, the biblical metaphor of eating the flesh and drinking the blood of men is found all throughout the Bible to refer only to the violence done to the innocent, the orphan, the widow and the poor by the wicked oppressor, by corrupt nations and peoples, evil kings, governors and judges, by the tax collector and the landlord, "who eat up my people as if they were eating bread" (Psalm 14:4); and it also refers to the merited destruction inflicted on those oppressors in return by almighty God, in reprisal for their repressive and destructive policies and their acts of evil rapine in raids, invasion and war. Numbers 23:24; Deuteronomy 32:42-43; Psalms 27:2, 30:9, 76:4; Proverbs 29:10; Isaiah 49:26; Jeremiah 19:9, 46:10; Ezekiel 11:3-11, 39:17-20; Daniel 7:5; Micah 3:2-3; James 5:3; Revelation 19:18, 21.
"...consume them in wrath, consume them till they are no more..." Psalm 59:13a; "...I will make your oppressors eat their own flesh, and they shall be drunk with their own blood as with wine." Isaiah 49:26a; "That day is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance, to avenge himself on his foes. The sword shall devour and be sated, and drink its fill of their blood." Jeremiah 46:10a.
The words of Jesus promise that those who eat his flesh and drink his blood have eternal life, and warned those listening to him that if they do not eat his flesh and drink his blood they do not have life. Those who eat the flesh and drink the blood of the sinless Jesus are not those who are punishing him in reprisal for any evil he has ever inflicted on mankind. He testified to the Father that those who crucified him knew not what they were doing, and asked him to forgive them. St. Paul stated that if the rulers of the world knew the secret and hidden wisdom of God, they would not have crucified him (1 Corinthians 2:8). But they did this out of envy and hatred for him (Matthew 27:17-18). John wrote that the Jews persecuted Jesus all the more because he called God his Father (John 5:16-18). None of these loved him. Simply on the basis of the biblical text alone, the interpretation that Jesus was using a metaphor is not supported by the evident pattern of metaphor as used in all the rest of the Bible, a metaphor signifying oppressive violence and cruelty, and the effect of the divine retribution inflicted on evil persecutors.
There is historical and documentary evidence that early Greek and Latin Church doctrine before the year 110 already held to the literal meaning of actually eating the flesh and drinking the blood of Jesus in order to "be partakers of the divine nature" (2 Peter 1:4), pointing also to the words "my flesh is food indeed (ἀληθῶς in fact, in reality, actually), my blood is drink indeed (ἀληθῶς in fact, in reality, actually)".
See Strong's number 230. ἀληθῶς alethos, indeed, surely, of a surety, truly, of a truth, in truth, verily, very.
Ignatius of Antioch in his letter to the church at Smyrna (c. 110) said regarding the heretics (the heterodox), "they do not admit that the Eucharist is the flesh of our Savior Jesus Christ, the flesh which suffered for our sins and which the Father, in His graciousness, raised from the dead."
See also
John 6:52-58 (boldface emphasis added)
52 ἐμάχοντο οὖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι λέγοντες· πῶς δύναται οὗτος ἡμῖν δοῦναι τὴν σάρκα φαγεῖν; 53 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς. 54 ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον, καὶ ἐγὼ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ. 55 ἡ γὰρ σάρξ μου ἀληθῶς ἐστι βρῶσις, καὶ τὸ αἷμά μου ἀληθῶς ἐστι πόσις. 56 ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἐν ἐμοὶ μένει, κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ. 57 καθὼς ἀπέστειλέ με ὁ ζῶν πατὴρ κἀγὼ ζῶ διὰ τὸν πατέρα, καὶ ὁ τρώγων με κἀκεῖνος ζήσεται δι’ ἐμέ. 58 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, οὐ καθὼς ἔφαγον οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν τὸ μάννα καὶ ἀπέθανον· ὁ τρώγων τοῦτον τὸν ἄρτον ζήσεται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.
John 13:18 (boldface emphasis added)
18 οὐ περὶ πάντων ὑμῶν λέγω· ἐγὼ οἶδα οὓς ἐξελεξάμην· ἀλλ’ ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ, ὁ τρώγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὸν ἄρτον ἐπῆρεν ἐπ’ ἐμὲ τὴν πτέρναν αὐτοῦ.
(The following is edited, revised and adapted from an article in Wikipedia)—
Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Roman Catholics, who together constitute the majority of Christians, hold that the consecrated elements in a valid celebration of the Eucharist indeed become the body and blood of Christ. This belief is held also by some Reform and Protestant Christian churches, Lutherans and Anglicans, though they generally deny transubstantiation.
While there is a large body of theology noting the many Scriptural supports for transubstantiation, in general, Orthodox and Catholics consider it unnecessary to "prove" from texts of Scripture a belief that they see as held by Christians without interruption from the earliest, apostolic times. They point out that the Church and its teaching existed before it assembled and canonized the New Testament, and even before any individual part of the New Testament was written. They also point out that early Christians such as Ignatius of Antioch, Justin Martyr, and Clement of Rome (who were much closer to the event than those who later proposed a figurative interpretation of the Eucharist), described the Eucharist as truly the body and blood of Christ. They see nothing in Scripture that in any way contradicts this ancient Christian belief that the reality beneath the visible signs in the Eucharist is the body and blood of Christ and no longer bread and wine. Instead, they see this teaching as the same teaching in the Bible's reports of what Christ himself and Paul the Apostle taught.
As scriptural support for this doctrine, as required by their sola scriptura position, Protestants who believe that in the Eucharist the bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ turn to the words of Jesus himself at his Last Supper, as reported in the Synoptic Gospels and Saint Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians. In that context, Jesus said of what to all appearances were bread and wine: "This is my body ... this is my blood" or, in the case of what appeared to be wine, "... this cup is the new covenant in my blood".
Many Protestants who hold to the literal meaning of the Bible inconsistently reject a literal interpretation of these words. They compare them to non-literal expressions by Jesus such as "I am the door", "I am the vine", "You are the salt of the earth ... You are the light of the world" (Matthew 5:13-14), "Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the Sadducees" (Matthew 16:6-12). In this last example, the disciples thought that the reason Jesus said it was because they had brought no bread; but Jesus explained that he was referring to the teaching of the Pharisees and the Sadducees.
These Protestants add that "eating and drinking" is sometimes used metaphorically, as of Jeremiah "eating" God's words (Jeremiah 15:16), or David speaking of water as blood, since it was obtained at the risk of the lives of his men (2 Samuel 23:17).
The word "is" has also been taken as indicating a metaphor. Those who hold that Jesus' words, "This is my body", "This is my blood", were not metaphorical claim that there is a marked contrast between metaphorical figurative expressions, which of their nature have a symbolic meaning, and what Jesus said about concrete things such as the bread and wine.
In the phrase "This is my body" as expressed in the original Greek (Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου), the word "τοῦτο" ("this" or "this thing") is a grammatically neuter pronoun, and so of the same grammatical gender as the noun "σῶμα" (body), but of a different grammatical gender from that of the word "ἄρτος" (bread), which is a masculine noun. Some claim that this is an indication of the change of the reality from bread (ἄρτος) to body (σῶμα).
As indications that the bread and wine are indeed changed to the body and blood of Christ, appeal is made to expressions used by Saint Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, in particular his rhetorical question, "The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ?" (1 Corinthians 10:16), and his statement, "Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty concerning the body and blood of the Lord." (1 Corinthians 11:27). Protestant commentators, such as Matthew Henry (1662–1714) say that use of the word "bread" shows there has been no change.
Paul's subsequent recommendation, "Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment on himself" (1 Corinthians 11:28-29, emphasis added), has likewise been interpreted either as indicating the reality of the disputed change or as implying no such change. Marvin R. Vincent, in particular, objected to what he called the mistaken King James Version translation of κρῖμα in verse 29 as "damnation", rather more literally as "judgment".
It has been noted that Paul wrote: "Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty concerning the body and blood of the Lord" (emphases added). (KJV translators changed the word "or" to "and" for doctrinal reasons not supported by the actual text.) This has been interpreted as stating that unworthy participation and partaking of either the bread or the cup of the Lord involves guilt concerning both the body and blood of the Lord, as an indication of the presence of Christ in each of the two cases in support of the Catholic and Orthodox doctrine that the visible appearance of the bread conceals the real substance of the "body, blood, soul and divinity of Christ" and that the visible appearance of the wine conceals the real substance of the "body, blood, soul and divinity of Christ". Such an interpretation asserts that in receiving Communion the believer partakes of the divine nature of Jesus himself.
—(adapted from an article in Wikipedia: Transubstantiation: sections "History" and "Theology")
However, many who statistically and nominally belong to the majority of Christians, publicly representing themselves as members of those major denominations that officially teach the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist or Communion, do not believe in it. They are numerically a large minority. See for example the following article:
But the majority of Christians "take him at his word", literally. The reasoning used by those who have been taught to believe that they actually receive in Communion the literal, Real Presence of Jesus Christ himself, is briefly exemplified in the Roman Catholic Baltimore Catechism #3 Lesson 22 - On the Holy Eucharist
Q. 878. How do we know that it is possible to change one substance into another?
A. We know that it is possible to change one substance into another, because (I) God changed water into blood during the plagues of Egypt; (2) Christ changed water into wine at the marriage of Cana; (3) Our own food is daily changed into the substance of our flesh and blood; and what God does gradually, He can also do instantly by an act of His will.
Q. 879...in these changes the appearance also is changed, but in the Holy Eucharist only the substance is changed while the appearance remains the same.
Q. 880. How do we show that Christ did change bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood?
A. We show that Christ did change bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood: (I) From the words by which He promised the Holy Eucharist; (2) From the words by which He instituted the Holy Eucharist; (3) From the constant use of the Holy Eucharist in the Church since the time of the Apostles...
See also Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) 1373-1381.
Partaking in Communion of the Real Presence of Jesus Christ under the appearance of bread and wine is also seen as the complete fulfillment of all the prefiguring Levitical sacrifices made at the altar of the Tabernacle in the wilderness and the Temple, in which, after the offering is made, a portion of the consecrated sacrifice is given (back) to the worshipper to eat (Leviticus 1 through 8).
Fundamentalists and many Evangelical Christians firmly maintain that repeatedly offering Jesus as a sacrifice again and again in worship condemns to hell those who do so, "seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh" (KJV Hebrews 6:6b, in the context of Hebrews 6:4-8). It is held to be evidence of a "falling away" from the pure doctrine of Christ into blasphemy and superstition as part of the Great Apostasy, which they consistently teach began as early as the beginning of the second century.
See the Fundamentalist article "The Apostasy: An Era of Spiritual Darkness".
Eastern Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholics and Protestants who believe in the Real Presence, who together constitute the majority of Christians, respond that it is Jesus himself as the High Priest who offers to the Father and presents in worship at the altar on earth and in heaven his one, unique sacrifice of himself, made once only in a bloody manner for all time for all sinners, in eternity, and through all centuries now made present in an unbloody manner, as in the upper room on the night he was betrayed, as both sacrifice and food for all his people in every time and place, that they all might "see the Son of Man" and "partake of the divine nature" (John 6:36, 40; 2 Peter 1:4). These Christians firmly and boldly declare according to their reading of the literal word τρώγων in the text of John 6 that to eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood is to be physically and spiritually united to him entirely by fully accepting his person and his doctrine personally, accepting Jesus as one's own personal Savior and living the life of Christ (Galatians 2:20), thus drawing spiritual nourishment from him by the power of the Holy Spirit. For them, to receive Communion unworthily is to be guilty of the Body and Blood of the Lord (1 Corinthians 10:15-17, 11:29; Hebrews 12:18-24; 2 Peter 1:4; Acts 20:28).
There appears to be no middle ground in the controversy over the interpretation of these verses in John's Gospel.
If the consecrated bread and wine are not actually the body, blood, soul and divinity of Jesus Christ present in the physical appearances ("under the signs") of bread and wine as true signs of his Presence, but are simply "emblems" or symbols of his covenant, then to treat the natural, created bread and wine made from wheat and grapes, blessed and then solemnly consecrated in worship of God, as if they are actually Jesus Christ himself who is God and man is to commit superstitious idolatry by worshiping created things ("creatures") as if they were God (Romans 1:25).
If the blessed and solemnly consecrated bread and wine are actually the body, blood, soul and divinity of Jesus Christ present in the physical appearances ("under the signs") of bread and wine as true signs of his Presence, then to treat him present in this form as if they are only symbols, not signs, and as if they are only natural, created bread and wine made from wheat and grapes ("creatures"), presented as "emblems" or symbols of the covenant, and not actually Jesus Christ himself the high priest who is God and man truly and really present but veiled in this form, is to commit blasphemy and sacrilege against his Person, to crucify the Son of God afresh, and to treat as an unholy, ordinary thing the real blood of the covenant that bought and sanctifies God's people, the blood of God (Hebrews 10:28-31; 1 Corinthians 11:29; Acts 20:28; John 6:36).

Note to the reader
Conservapedia cannot tell readers what to believe. It can only present in encyclopedic form all the relevant reliable information, free of liberal and atheistic bias. After considering all the evidence, and carefully verifying it from other sources, the question that each reader must answer is: What does the Bible say? How do you read its meaning? What makes sense to you? This was the approach of Jesus himself (Luke 10:26; John 10:25-26, 38; John 8:46-47). See Josh McDowell's Evidence That Demands a Verdict, and the works of Peter Kreeft. See also Christian apologetics and Exegesis.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

So Herodias waited for her opportunity, which came on Herod's birthday when he had a feast for his noblemen, ranking army officers, and high-ranking officials in Galilee. Herodias's daughter entered the room and danced, so pleasing Herod and his guests that the king exclaimed to the little girl, "Ask me whatever you like, and I will grant it!" And he swore to her, "I will give you whatever you want from me, up to half of my kingdom."

She went to ask her mother, "What should I ask for?" Her mother replied, "The head of John the Baptist."

So she returned quickly to the tetrarch and responded, "I want John the Baptist's head on a platter."

Herod was very sorry. But because he had taken an oath and faced embarrassment in front of his guests if he declined, he complied. The king immediately sent an executioner, ordering him to bring John the Baptist's head. The executioner went to the prison and beheaded him. The executioner brought the head on a platter and gave it to the little girl, who gave it to her mother.

At that time, Herod the tetrarch heard the news about Jesus.

The tetrarch, Herod Antipas, heard news of this,

He told his servants, "This is John the Baptist. He must have risen from the dead, and that's why these extraordinary signs take place through him."

as word of Jesus had spread fast and far. It was said that he was John the Baptist had risen from the dead, and miraculous powers were shown in his works. Others rumored that he was Elijah, while others still called him a prophet like those of the Old Testament. Herod succumbed to the rumors and opined, "He is John, who I had murdered, back from the dead."

When John's students heard what had happened, they came and claimed his body and placed it in a tomb.

His students came, claimed the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.

But on the occasion of Herod's birthday, Herodias' daughter danced in the middle of the men and pleased Herod. For that reason he swore to her that he would give her whatever she asked. She, having before been prompted by her mother, said, "Give me the head of John the Baptist on a plate."

And the king was distressed. But because he had sworn before his dinner guests, who were watching this whole affair, he gave orders that it be given to her. He sent orders to the prison to cut John's head off. His head was brought in on a plate, and given to the girl, and she brought it to her mother.

His students came, claimed the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.

Now Herod Antipas, tetrarch of the region, heard about everything Jesus had done, and he was confused, because some said that John the Baptist had risen from the dead, some that Elijah had reappeared, and others that another of the ancient prophets had been resurrected. And Herod said, “I had John the Baptist executed, but who is this man I hear all these things about, then?” And he wanted to see Him.

When Jesus heard about it,

The Apostles gathered around Jesus and told him about all the things they had done and what they had taught.

When His students returned to Jesus, they told Him everything they had done.

Jesus told them, "Come with me privately to a desert place and rest". Because there were so many people coming and going, the apostles had not even had time to eat.

Then He took them with Him, and they went privately into the town of Bethsaida.

He left that place by boat and went to a desert place.

They sailed in a boat to a desert place to meet in private.

The people, when they discovered this, followed Him there,

When the people heard about this, they followed Him on foot out of the cities.

When people saw them leaving, many of them recognized Jesus, so they hurried from their cities and got there before Jesus and the apostles did. The people crowded around Jesus when he arrived.

Jesus went out and saw a great crowd,

When Jesus got out of the boat He saw the large crowd of people,

and felt sorry for them, because they reminded Him of a flock of sheep without a shepherd. So He started to teach them many things.

and had pity on them, and healed those among them who were ill.

and so He met them, and spoke to them about the Kingdom of God, and healed those of them who were unwell.

At this time the Jewish Passover feast was about to begin.

As the day drew to an end,

But when the day was nearly over,

That evening, his students came to him, saying, "This place is a desert, and it's late. Send the crowd away, so that they might go into the villages and buy themselves something to eat."

His twelve best students came up to Him, and said, “Send the crowd away, so that they can go into the settlements near here, to find food and a place to sleep, because we are in a desert here.”

His students approached Jesus and said, "We're in the middle of nowhere and it is going to get dark. "Send this crowd into the surrounding villages in order to buy themselves bread to eat."

But Jesus told them, "They don't have to leave; why don't you give them something to eat?"

Jesus replied "You should give them something to eat,"

But He said to them, “Give them something to eat.”

and the students asked Him, "Should we go and spend two hundred shillings and buy some bread for them to eat?"

When Jesus looked around, and saw the huge crowd that coming with Him, he said to Philip, "Where will we buy bread, so that they can eat?"

He said this to test him, because Jesus had already decided what He planned to do. Philip answered him, "Two hundred denarii of bread is not enough to guarantee that each person can get even a little bit."

Jesus answered, "How many loaves do you have? Go check."

After the students found out, they told him that they had five loaves of bread and two fish.

One of His disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, told him, "There is a young boy here who has five barley loaves and two small fish, but what use are these when faced with so many?"

And they told Him, "We have only five loaves of bread and two fish."

And they said, “We have only five loaves of bread and two fish, unless we were to go and buy food for everyone.”

For there were about five thousand men in that place.

He said, "Bring them here to Me."

So Jesus said, "Have the people sit down." Now this place was covered with a lot of grass,

And He ordered the crowd to sit down on the grass,

Jesus told them to have everyone sit in groups on the grass.

So Jesus said to His students, “Make them sit down in groups of fifty.”

So they made everyone sit down.

After they did, everyone sat down in long rows, of fifty or a hundred people.

so a total of five thousand men sat down.

When Jesus had the five loaves and two fish,

and took the five loaves and two fish.

Then Jesus took the five loaves and the two fish,

Then Jesus took the loaves,

Looking up to heaven,

he looked to heaven,

and while looking up to Heaven,

blessed them,

blessed the food, and broke the loaves.

he broke the loaves

and after giving thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated. He did the same thing with the fish,

He gave them to His students to feed the people, and split the two fish among everyone.

and then passed them to His students to give to the crowd.

and gave them to His students, and the students gave them to the crowd.

and everyone got as much as they wanted.

The whole crowd ate until they were satisfied,

After everyone was finished eating, they were all full.

They all ate, and were satisfied.

When everyone was completely satisfied, He told His disciples, "Gather up the left over pieces, so that nothing is wasted."

So they gathered up the pieces that were left over from the original five barley loaves after everyone had eaten, and they filled twelve baskets.

The students picked up twelve small baskets full of crumbs and the leftovers of fish.

They filled twelve small baskets with the leftover pieces of bread.

and the remains of the meal filled twelve baskets.

Five thousand men had filled their stomachs on those two loaves of bread and five fish.

About five thousand men, in addition to women and children, had eaten.

When the people saw the miracle Jesus performed, they were saying, "This is truly the prophet who is coming into the world."

Therefore Jesus knew that they were intending to come and seize Him, in order to force Him to become king,

At once Jesus ordered His students to get aboard a boat,

Then Jesus had his students board their boat,

and to go ahead of Him to the opposite shore,

to go to Bethsaida ahead of him, while he bid the people farewell.

while He sent the crowds away. When He had sent the crowds away,

After he sent the people away, he went to a mountain to pray.

and so, once again, He slipped away alone into hills.

He went up into a mountain to pray in private. When evening fell, He was there alone.

When evening came,

By this time it was dark, and Jesus had not yet joined them.

His disciples went down to the sea,

got into a boat, and headed across the sea to Capernaum.

In the evening, the students' boat was in the middle of the lake, and he remained on the land alone.

A strong wind began blowing, and the sea started getting rough.

The boat had already gone furlongs away from land and was tossed by the waves, because the wind was a contrary wind.

So they had rowed about three or three and a half miles

He saw them rowing hard, since they were traveling into the wind: about the fourth watch of the night, he walked on the surface of the lake and came to the boat, nearly passing it.

In the fourth watch of the night Jesus went out to them, walking on top of the sea.

But when they saw him walking on water, they thought it must have been a ghost, and cried out. They all saw Him, and were terrified.

when they saw Jesus walking on the sea, coming close to the boat, and they were terrified.

And when the students saw him walking on top of the sea, they were troubled, and said among themselves, "It's a ghost!" And they cried out in fear.

And immediately Jesus spoke to them,

But He said to them, "It's Me. Stop being afraid."

He spoke to them right away, and said, "Fear not, for I am. Do not be afraid."

saying, "Cheer up! It's I. Don't be afraid."

And Peter in answer said, "Lord, if that's You, tell me to come to You on top of the water."

And He said, "Come." And Peter got down out of the boat and walked on the water, to go to Jesus.

But when he saw how the wind was blowing, he was afraid. He started sinking, and cried out, "Lord, save me!"

At once Jesus held out His hand, and caught him. And He asked him, "You of little faith, why didn't you trust Me?"

Then they were delighted to bring Him into the boat,

They went aboard the boat, and the wind stopped blowing.

He boarded the ship and the wind died down:

and immediately the boat reached the land exactly where they were heading.

they were very much amazed.

They had not understood the miracle of the loaves, because they had not opened their minds.

Then those who were in the boat came and fell down at His feet, saying, "You are definitely the Son of God!"

And when they had crossed the lake, they came into the country of Gennesaret.

After they crossed the lake, they came to the land of Gennesaret and pulled up to the shore. When they had come off the boat, everyone immediately recognized Jesus.

And when the men of that place realized that He was present,

They ran throughout the nearby area and carried all the sick people, in beds, to the place where Jesus was said to be.

they sent messengers into all the surrounding countryside, and brought to Him everyone who had anything wrong with them, and begged Him merely to let them touch the hem of His robe. Whoever so touched Him was made well.

Wherever he went - villages, cities, or the countryside - people laid the sick in the streets, and begged Jesus to let them touch him, even just the edge of his coat. Everyone who touched him was healed.

The next day the crowd that had remained on the other side of the sea recalled that there were no other boats there, except the one that His disciples had used, that Jesus was not with His disciples when they got into the boat, and that His disciples had set out alone. However, since then, other small boats from Tiberias had arrived at the place where they ate bread after the Lord had given thanks. When the crowd saw that neither Jesus nor His disciples were there, they got into boats and crossed to Capernaum looking for Jesus. When they found Him on the other side of the sea, they said to Him, "Rabbi, when did you get here?"

Jesus answered them and said, "Truly, Truly, I say to you, you are searching for me, not because you saw miracles, but because you ate the loaves and were satisfied. Do not work for food that spoils, but for food that leads to eternal life, which the Son, a human being, shall give you, because God the Father has given Him permission to do this."

So they said to Him, "What do we have to do so that we can do the works of God from now on?"

Jesus answered and said to them, "This is how you do the work of God: believe in the One He sent."

Then they responded to Him, "What sign do you do so that we can see and believe you? What proof do you have? Our forefathers ate manna in the desert, just as it is written, 'He gave them bread from heaven to eat.'"

Then Jesus responded, "Truly, truly, I say to you, Moses is not the one who gives you bread from heaven, but rather, it is My Father who gives you the real bread from heaven. You see, the bread of God is the One who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world."

Then they said to Him, "Lord, give us this bread from now on."

And Jesus responded, "I am the bread of life. The one who walks with me will never get hungry, and the one who believes in me will never get thirsty. I told you that you have seen me, and still you do not believe. Everyone the Father gives to me shall come to me, and I will never drive out anyone who comes to me. Because I did not come down from heaven so that I could do what I want, but to do what the One who sent Me wants. And this is what the One who sent me wants: that I should not lose even one of those whom He has given to me, but that they should all rise again on the last day. Because this is what my Father wants: That everyone who sees the Son, and believes in Him, should have eternal life, and I shall raise him up on the last day."

Then the Jews started grumbling about Him, because He said, "I am the bread which came down from heaven."

They also said, "Isn't this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we have always known? So how can He say, 'I have come down from heaven?'"

Then Jesus responded and said to them, "Stop grumbling with each other. No one is able to come to me unless the Father who sent me drew him, and I will raise him up on the last day. It is written in the prophets, 'And God shall teach them all.' Therefore everyone that listens to and learns from the Father comes to me. No one has seen the Father, except the One who is from God's side, He has seen the Father. Truly, truly, I say to you, the one who believes in me has eternal life. I am the bread of life. Your forefathers ate manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that someone could eat from it and not die. I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread, he shall live forever. And the bread that I shall give to secure the life of the world is my flesh."

Then the Jews argued angrily with each other, saying, "How can this man give us His flesh to eat?"

To which Jesus responded, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh and drink the blood of the Son, a human being, you do not have life in you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I shall raise him up on the last day. Because my flesh is real food, and my blood is real drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I reside in him. Just as the living Father sent me, and I live through the Father, so the one who eats me shall live through me. This bread that came down from heaven is not like the bread that your forefathers ate, because they died. The one who eats from this bread shall live forever."

He said these things while teaching in the Synagogue in Capernaum. When many of His disciples heard this, they said, "That is a harshly offensive speech. Who could possibly accept it?"

But Jesus knew deep inside when His disciples were grumbling about this, and He asked them, "Does this offend you? What if you see the Son, a human being, ascending up to where He was before? It is the spirit that gives life while the flesh gives no benefit of any kind. The words that I am speaking to you are spirit and life. But there are some among you who do not believe."

Because Jesus knew from the beginning who did not believe and who would betray Him. So He said, "This is why I told you that no one can come to me unless he has an invitation from the Father."

As a result many of His disciples turned away and no longer associated with Him. So Jesus said to the Twelve, "You don't also want to leave, do you?"

Simon Peter replied, "Lord, where could we go? You have the facts of eternal life. And we believe and are sure that thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God. We have been completely confident for some time now that you are the Holy One of God." Jesus responded to them, "I personally chose the twelve of you, didn't I? And still, one of you is a slanderer."

He was talking about Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, because he was the one of the twelve who was going to betray Him.

After these things Jesus traveled around in Galilee, as He did not want to travel in Judaea, because the Jews were plotting to murder Him.

Sixteen

Chapter 16 Bible texts

Now the feast of the Jews, the Feast of Booths, was at hand. His brethren therefore said to him, “Depart from here and go into Judea, that your disciples also may see your works which you do. For no one does anything in secret while he seeks to be known openly. If you do these things, reveal yourself to the world.”

For even his brethren did not believe in him.

Jesus therefore said to them, “My time has not yet come, but your time is always ready. The world cannot hate you, but it hates me, because I testify about it, that its works are evil. You go up to the feast. I AM not going up this feast, because my time is not yet fulfilled.”

Having said these things to them, he stayed in Galilee. But when his brethren had gone up to the feast, then he also went up, not publicly, but as it were in secret. The Jews therefore sought him at the feast, and said, “Where is he?”

There was much murmuring among the multitudes concerning him. Some said, “He is a good man.”

Others said, “Not so, but he leads the multitude astray.”

Yet no one spoke openly of him for fear of the Jews.

But when it was now the middle of the feast, Jesus went up into the Temple and Taught. The Jews therefore marveled, saying, “How does this man know letters, having never been educated?”

Jesus therefore answered them, “My Teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the Teaching, whether it is from God, or if I AM speaking from myself. He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory, but he who seeks the glory of him who sent him is true, and no unrighteousness is in him. Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill me?”

The multitude answered, “You have a demon! Who seeks to kill you?”

Jesus answered them, “I did one work and you all marvel because of it. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy. If a boy receives circumcision on the Sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me, because I made a man completely healthy on the Sabbath? Do not judge according to appearance, but judge righteous judgment.”

Therefore some of them of Jerusalem said, “Is this not he whom they seek to kill? Behold, he speaks openly, and they say nothing to him. Can it be that the rulers indeed know that this is truly the Christ? However we know where this man comes from, but when the Christ comes, no one will know where he comes from.”

Jesus therefore cried out in the Temple, Teaching and saying, “You both know me, and know where I AM from. I have not come of myself, but he who sent me is true, whom you do not know. I know him, because I AM from him, and he sent me.”

They sought therefore to take him; but no one laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come. But of the multitude, many believed in him. They said, “When the Christ comes, he will not do more signs than those which this man has done, will he?”

The Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring these things concerning him, and the chief priests and the Pharisees sent officers to arrest him. Then Jesus said, “I will be with you a little while longer, then I go to him who sent me. You will seek me, and will not find me. You cannot come where I AM.”

The Jews therefore said among themselves, “Where will this man go that we will not find him? Will he go to the Dispersion among the Greeks, and Teach the Greeks? What is this word that he said, ‘You will seek me, and will not find me;’ and ‘Where I am, you cannot come’?”

Now on the last and greatest day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink! He who believes in me as the Scripture has said—from within him will flow rivers of living water.”

But he said this about the Spirit, which those believing in him were to receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified. Many of the multitude therefore, when they heard these words, said, “This is truly the Prophet.”

Others said, “This is the Christ.”

But some said, “What, does the Christ come out of Galilee? Has the Scripture not said that the Christ comes of the offspring of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was?”

So a division arose in the multitude because of him. Some of them would have arrested him, but no one laid hands on him. The officers therefore came to the chief priests and Pharisees, and they said to them, “Why did you not bring him?”

The officers answered, “No man ever spoke like this man!”

The Pharisees therefore answered them, “You are not also led astray, are you? Have any of the rulers believed in him, or of the Pharisees? But this multitude that does not know the law is cursed.”

Nicodemus (he who came to him by night, being one of them) said to them, “Does our law judge a man, unless it first hears from him personally and knows what he does?”

They answered him, “Are you also from Galilee? Search, and see that no prophet has arisen out of Galilee.”

Everyone went to his own house, but Jesus went with his disciples over the brook Kidron to the Mount of Olives, where there was a garden, into which he and his disciples entered; for Jesus often met there with his disciples.

Now very early in the morning, he came again into the Temple, and all the people came to him. He sat down and Taught them. The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman taken in adultery. Having set her in the middle, they told him, “Teacher, we found this woman in adultery, in the very act. Now in our law, Moses commanded us to stone such women. What then do you say about her?”

They said this testing him, that they might have something to accuse him of. But Jesus stooped down and wrote on the ground with his finger. But when they continued asking him, he looked up and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him throw the first stone at her.”

Again he stooped down and wrote on the ground with his finger. They, when they heard it, being convicted by their conscience, went out one by one, beginning from the oldest, even to the last. Jesus was left alone with the woman where she was, in the middle. Jesus, standing up, saw her and said, “Woman, where are your accusers? Did no one condemn you?”

She said, “No one, Lord.”

Jesus said, “Neither do I condemn you. Go your way. From now on, sin no more.”

Again, therefore, Jesus spoke to them, saying, “I AM the light of the world. He who follows me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life.”

The Pharisees therefore said to him, “You testify about yourself. Your testimony is not valid.”

Jesus answered them, “Even if I testify about myself, my testimony is true, for I know where I came from, and where I am going; but you do not know where I came from, or where I AM going. You judge according to the flesh. I judge no one. Even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for I AM not alone, but I AM with the Father who sent me. It is also written in your law that the testimony of two people is valid. I AM one who testifies about myself, and the Father who sent me testifies about me.”

They said therefore to him, “Where is your Father?”

Jesus answered, “You know neither me nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also.”

Jesus spoke these words in the treasury, as he Taught in the Temple. Yet no one arrested him, because his hour had not yet come. Jesus said therefore again to them, “I AM going away, and you will seek me, and you will die in your sins. Where I go, you cannot come.”

The Jews therefore said, “Will he kill himself, because he says, ‘Where I am going, you cannot come’?”

He said to them, “You are from beneath. I AM from above. You are of this world. I AM not of this world. I said therefore to you that you will die in your sins; for unless you believe that I AM, you will die in your sins.”

They said therefore to him, “Who are you?”

Jesus said to them, “Just what I have been saying to you from the beginning. I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you. However he who sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him, these I say to the world.”

They did not understand that he spoke to them about the Father. Jesus therefore said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I AM, and I do nothing of myself, but as my Father Taught me, I say these things. He who sent me is with me. The Father has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.”

As he spoke these things, many believed in him. Jesus therefore said to those Jews who had believed him, “If you remain in my word, then you are truly my disciples. You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.”

They answered him, “We are Abraham’s offspring, and have never been in bondage to anyone. How do you say, ‘You will be made free’?”

Jesus answered them, “Most certainly I tell you, everyone who commits sin is the bondservant of sin. A bondservant does not live in the house forever. A son remains forever. If therefore the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed. I know that you are Abraham’s offspring, yet you seek to kill me, because my word finds no place in you. I say the things which I have seen with my Father; and you also do the things which you have seen with your father.”

They answered him, “Our father is Abraham.”

Jesus said to them, “If you were Abraham’s children, you would do the works of Abraham. But now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth which I heard from God. Abraham did not do this. You do the works of your father.”

They said to him, “We were not born of sexual immorality. We have one Father, God.”

Therefore Jesus said to them, “If God were your father, you would love me, for I came out and have come from God. For I have not come of myself, but he sent me. Why do you not understand my speech? Because you cannot hear my word. You are of your father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of lies. But because I tell the truth, you do not believe me. Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? He who is of God hears the words of God. For this cause you do not hear, because you are not of God.”

Then the Jews answered him, “Do we not say well that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon?”

Jesus answered, “I do not have a demon, but I honor my Father and you dishonor me. But I do not seek my own glory. There is one who seeks and judges. Most certainly, I tell you, if a person keeps my word, he will never see death.”

Then the Jews said to him, “Now we know that you have a demon. Abraham died, as did the prophets; and you say, ‘If a man keeps my word, he will never taste of death.’ Are you greater than our father, Abraham, who died? The prophets died. Who do you make yourself out to be?”

Jesus answered, “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say that he is your God. You have not known him, but I know him. If I said, ‘I do not know him,’ I would be like you, a liar. But I know him and keep his word. Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day. He saw it, and was glad.”

The Jews therefore said to him, “You are not yet fifty years old! Have you seen Abraham?”

Jesus said to them, “Most certainly, I tell you, before Abraham came into existence, I AM.”

Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Jesus was hidden, and went out of the Temple, having gone through the middle of them, and so passed by.

And outside the Temple, as he passed on from there, he saw a man blind from birth. His disciples asked him, “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?”

Jesus answered, “This man did not sin, nor did his parents; but, that the works of God might be revealed in him. I must work the works of him who sent me while it is day. The night is coming, when no one can work. While I AM in the world, I AM the light of the world.”

When he had said this, he spat on the ground, made mud with the saliva, anointed the blind man’s eyes with the mud, and said to him, “Go, wash in the pool of Siloam” (which means “Sent”).

So he went away, washed, and came back seeing. It was a Sabbath when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. The neighbors therefore, and those who saw that he was blind before, said, “Is this not he who sat and begged?”

Others were saying, “It is he.”

Still others were saying, “He looks like him.”

He said, “I am he.”

They therefore were asking him, “How were your eyes opened?”

He answered, “A man called Jesus made mud, anointed my eyes, and said to me, ‘Go to the pool of Siloam and wash.’ So I went away and washed, and I received sight.”

Then they asked him, “Where is he?”

He said, “I do not know.”

They brought him who had been blind to the Pharisees. It was a Sabbath when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. Again therefore the Pharisees also asked him how he received his sight. He said to them, “He put mud on my eyes, I washed, and I see.”

Some therefore of the Pharisees said, “This man is not from God, because he does not keep the Sabbath.”

Others said, “How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?”

There was division among them. Therefore they asked the blind man again, “What do you say about him, because he opened your eyes?”

He said, “He is a prophet.”

The Jews therefore did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and had received his sight, before they called the parents of him who had received his sight, and asked them, “Is this your son, whom you say was born blind? How then does he now see?”

His parents answered them, “We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; but how he now sees, we do not know; or who opened his eyes, we do not know. He is of age. Ask him. He will speak for himself.”

His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. Therefore his parents said, “He is of age. Ask him.” So they called the man who was blind a second time, and said to him, “Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.”

He therefore answered, “I do not know if he is a sinner. One thing I do know: that though I was blind, now I see.”

They said to him again, “What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?”

He answered them, “I told you already, and you did not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You do not also want to become his disciples, do you?”

They insulted him and said, “You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. We know that God has spoken to Moses. But as for this man, we do not know where he comes from.”

The man answered them, “How amazing! You do not know where he comes from, yet he opened my eyes. We know that God does not listen to sinners, but if anyone is a worshiper of God, and does his will, he listens to him. Since the world began it has never been heard of that anyone opened the eyes of someone born blind. If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.”

They answered him, “You were altogether born in sins, and do you Teach us?”

Then they threw him out.

Jesus heard that they had thrown him out, and finding him, he said, “Do you believe in the Son of God?”

He answered, “Who is he, Lord, that I may believe in him?”

Jesus said to him, “You have both seen him, and it is he who speaks with you.”

He said, “Lord, I believe!” and he worshiped him.

Jesus said, “I came into this world for judgment, that those who do not see may see; and that those who see may become blind.”

Those of the Pharisees who were with him heard these things, and said to him, “Are we also blind?”

Jesus said to them, “If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say, ‘We see.’ Therefore your sin remains.

“Most certainly, I tell you, one who does not enter by the door into the sheep fold, but climbs up some other way, is a thief and a robber. But one who enters in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. The gatekeeper opens the gate for him, and the sheep listen to his voice. He calls his own sheep by name, and leads them out. Whenever he brings out his own sheep, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice. They will by no means follow a stranger, but will flee from him; for they do not know the voice of strangers.”

Jesus spoke this parable to them, but they did not understand what he was telling them. Jesus therefore said to them again, “Most certainly, I tell you, I AM the sheep’s door. All who came before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them. I AM the door. If anyone enters in by me, he will be saved, and will go in and go out, and will find pasture. The thief only comes to steal, kill, and destroy. I came that they may have life, and may have it abundantly. I AM the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. He who is a hired hand, and not a shepherd, who does not own the sheep, sees the wolf coming, leaves the sheep, and flees. The wolf snatches the sheep, and scatters them. The hired hand flees because he is a hired hand, and does not care for the sheep. I AM the good shepherd. I know my own, and I AM known by my own; even as the Father knows me, and I know the Father. I lay down my life for the sheep. I have other sheep, which are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will hear my voice. They will become one flock with one shepherd. Therefore the Father loves me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No one takes it away from me, but I lay it down by myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. I received this commandment from my Father.”

Therefore a division arose again among the Jews because of these words. Many of them said, “He has a demon, and is insane! Why do you listen to him?”

Others said, “These are not the sayings of one possessed by a demon. It is not possible for a demon to open the eyes of the blind, is it?”

Jesus departed from there with his disciples and returned to Galilee.

John 7:2–8:1
John 18:1, 2b
John 8:21–0:21

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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

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Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"I am not going up this feast"

John 7:8.
This is the literal construction of Jesus' statement according to the earliest Greek texts, preserving a double meaning which includes foreknowledge of his resurrection and ascension: "going up".
See John 3:14 "lifted up". Later, in the spring of the following year he did "go up" at the feast of Passover and Unleavened Bread when he was lifted up on the cross and after his crucifixion and resurrection when he ascended to the Father.
Some later manuscripts and translations add the words "yet" and "at" (this feast), or "to" (this feast), rendering it as follows: "I am not yet going up to this feast / I am not yet going up at this feast". It is true that he was not yet going to suffer the Passion and be raised from the dead, for his time had not yet come. But this change of the text to a "not yet" reading as referring more immediately to the Feast of Booths almost completely obscures the richer, fuller significance of Jesus' words to his brethren, having a deeper meaning than they knew at the time, but which those who followed him later understood after he was raised from the dead. Compare John 2:18-22, 12:16.
Readers of the scriptures who are unfamiliar with the characteristic biblical play on words and the frequent double meanings expressed in statements uttered by the prophets and by Jesus, and as seen in the writings of Paul and the evangelists, when they are confronted by the more literal reading of John 7:8, "I am not going up this feast", they are scandalized by what seems to them to be a lie spoken by Jesus: He says he is not going up to the feast, but then he goes up to the feast. This is a hard saying; who can accept it? For this reason they prefer the addition of words that seem necessary to "make sense" of it according to their own limited personal understanding of scripture and of Greek, as if the statement of Jesus referred only to going up to the Feast of Booths in Jerusalem. This is a primary example of the kind of misinterpretation and manipulation of scripture that Peter warns against (2 Peter 1:20, 3:16-18; also Revelation 22:18-19). Compare Matthew 13:12-16 and Jeremiah 8:8. See Eisegesis.
It is better to adjust our understanding to scripture than to adjust scripture to our understanding.

"He who believes in me[,] as the Scripture has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water."

John 7:38.
See multiple versions and commentaries. Compare John 4:14 and especially Deuteronomy 18:18-19.
Jesus appears to be making a general reference to the scriptures as in Matthew 2:23. See Isaiah 44:3; Isaiah 55:1; Isaiah 58:11; Ezekiel 47:1; Ezekiel 47:12; Zechariah 13:1; Zechariah 14:8; Joel 3:1; Joel 3:20.
Many read the statement "from within him will flow rivers of living water" as a specific scriptural text supposedly cited by Jesus. They look in vain for such a text in the Old Testament, because it is not a quotation. According to Chrysostom, Theophylact, Euthymius Zigabenus, Calovius, and most others up to the time of the Reformation, it is a statement by Jesus of the benefit of fully believing in him "based on a faith which is conformable to Scripture", that is, based on what Scripture says about him in accordance with its words (see John 5:39).
Ancient manuscripts of the scriptures contain no punctuation marks. In English translations a simple removal of the first comma in the sentence makes this more evident, that it is not a quotation from the Old Testament. This has been done here in this Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version). The early manuscripts of the Greek New Testament have no punctuation marks and no spaces between words. Jesus is saying that whoever believes in him just as the Scripture says, according to what the whole of the Scripture (the Bible) testifies about him, will have "in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life" (John 4:14) and that it will flow out of him. This promise of the Lord, preceded by the Greek formula of quotation, καθὼς εἶπεν ἡ γρ, which normally introduces a quotation, is an almost identical citation of a text in the Book of Sirach (rejected as inspired scripture by the Protestant Reformation) which says,
"I went forth like a canal from a river and like a water channel into a garden. I said, 'I will water my orchard and drench my garden plot'; and lo, my canal became a river, and my river became a sea. I will again make instruction shine forth like the dawn, and I will make it shine afar; I will again pour out teaching like prophesy, and leave it to all future generations." (Sirach 24:30-33 RSVCE.)
The English text in John might be better rendered grammatically with different punctuation as follows: "He who believes in me as the Scripture has said—from within him will flow rivers of living water.” This does not alter the words of the inspired text. Those textual critics, translators and commentators who represent Jesus here as apparently quoting a text of scripture that "does not exist" (in the Protestant canon), give enemies of the Bible yet one more additional pretext to deny the inspiration of the scriptures in support of their contention that the Bible is full of mistakes. When they are convinced that there is no such text in the Old Testament, there is no justification for them to read this verse as if Jesus made a mistake or that the writer of the Gospel was scripturally incompetent or that a portion of sacred scripture has been lost.
This is similar to the kind of mistaken reading represented in translations of Matthew 27:9-10 by the eisegetical insertion of punctuation which falsely represents the factual statement of what the chief priests, "some of the sons of Israel", actually did with the thirty pieces of silver, making it a textual citation from Jeremiah instead. Placing a period after "Jeremiah" would greatly improve the accuracy of the reading of the verse in English.
"Then was fulfilled what had been spoken by the prophet Jeremiah."
(Matthew adverts to the whole of the prophesy of Jeremiah chapter 19 regarding the "field of blood", the smashing of the potter's jar, and the announcement of the judgment to come on Jerusalem, but he does not explicitly quote the prophesy. He next reports what the chief priests did with the money.)
"And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom a price had been set by some of the sons of Israel, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed" [me].
There is some inconclusive, almost non-existent, manuscript evidence that the word μοι "me" was an inadvertent scribal addition to the Greek text around the 3rd or 4th century, in the mistaken belief that the text was in fact a quotation from Jeremiah [2]. While this possibility is largely regarded as speculative, and has not yet been conclusively proven, such a possibility, demonstrated to the satisfaction of professional textual critics, would remove much of the mystery surrounding this text. The word "me" is not included in the translations of Matthew 27:10 in the OJB (Orthodox Jewish Bible), NLT (New Living Translation), MSG (The Message), PHILLIPS (J. B. Phillips), and VOICE (The Voice). As with the above reading of John 7:38, a conservative belief in the inerrant accuracy of scripture together with a revision of punctuation based on that supposition, removes much of the problem, suggesting a resolution of the apparent mystery.
According to Acts 4:26-28 the chief priests actually did "as the Lord directed".
"they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him on whom a price had been set by some of the sons of Israel, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord directed."
Most scholars and textual critics mistakenly take this last text in Matthew as a quotation from Zechariah 11:13. Yet they are generally willing to acknowledge the fact that the words given by St. Matthew neither represent the Greek version of Zechariah 11:13, nor the original Hebrew of that text. This is most probably because it is not actually a quotation from Zechariah, but a statement of fact about what the chief priests did with the thirty pieces of silver, expressed by Matthew with bitter irony and grief in speaking of the price set by his fellow Jews, "some of the sons of Israel", and "laid" on Jesus (Exodus 21:30; see St. Paul's grief over them, Romans 9:1-8; 10:1-2). The mystery created by a critical reading of the text as if it was intended by the writer as a direct quotation from Jeremiah is due to the fact that Matthew usually gives the particular text of the prophets fulfilled in the Gospel narrative as evidence that Jesus is the expected Messiah, but he does not always do so (see Matthew 2:23; 12:5; 16:4; 26:54). In Matthew 27:9-10 he does not quote the text from Jeremiah. He says the chief priests fulfilled what had been spoken by the prophet Jeremiah. The text about the thirty pieces of silver is rather a direct reference to Exodus 21:28-32, to the price to be laid on a slave that was gored by an ox (v. 32), a price which the chief priests paid to Judas. The reader of Matthew should bear in mind that he was writing primarily to the Jewish believers in Christ, who knew the scriptures from childhood. The reader of John should bear in mind that Jesus could not have been quoting as a saying of scripture a text that does not exist in the Tanakh, and that he had already promised to give the living water that springs up to eternal life to those who believe in him.
Both Matthew 27:9-10 and John 7:38 are primary examples of how a mistaken interpretive reading of the unpunctuated words of the early Greek text based on assumptions about the author's immediate intent can present an opaque mystery that may not in fact exist.

John 7:53–8:11

The most reliable early manuscripts omit this text in John, but do have it in Luke.
Textual analysis shows that the language and style of this text is not consistent with the language and style of the Johannine texts we have in the New Testament. It has most resemblance to the language of Luke, and has been found there after Luke 21:38, or appended to the end of John or to the end of Luke.
It is reasonable to speculate that various Christian scribes and copyists were unable to reconcile Luke 20:40, "And no one dared to ask him any more questions", with the fact that the Jews brought to Jesus the woman "caught in the act of adultery" and asked him the question, "In the Law Moses commanded us to stone such women. Now what do you say?" However, there is a difference in asking a rhetorical question on disputed points of doctrine in the Torah of Moses as in the Talmud, and asking him to render a judgment on a particular case. This Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) retains this account here in accordance with centuries of traditional rendering of the text as received since the fourth and fifth centuries, according to Jerome's Vulgate and the standard Greek Bible of the East. In accordance with the majority opinion of expert conservative textual critics and the corresponding conservative policy regarding this text as expressed in the Conservative Bible Project the text here is also repeated again and inserted at the place corresponding to Luke 21:38 in the redacted account of the controversies with the Jews during the week before Passover, immediately before the Passion Narratives. This offers the reader opportunity to compare the context.
Those who accept the fulfillment of the promise of Jesus in John 16:13 regarding apostolic tradition and what is called the sensus fidei in what has been handed down to us over all the centuries of Christianity do not lightly remove this passage from the Bible. For this reason most translations and editions of the Bible do not omit it entirely. See Hebrews 13:17, Revelation 22:19 and Apostolic succession.
See
John 7:53 "They went each to his own house" RSVCE
This verse is not found in P66, P75, Sinaiticus or Vaticanus nor most early manuscripts. Alexandrinus and Ephraemi Rescriptus are too damaged to know for sure, but the space that would have been available on the damaged page strongly suggests that it was not in either of them. It is found in Bezae Cantabrigiensis and many other later manuscripts. Most scholars agree that it is not original to John.
John 8:1-11 See

"we found this woman in adultery, in the very act."

They did not bring the man.
The woman does not deny the charge.
There are only three possibilities, each of them speculative. Either (1) the man ran away before they could hold him, (2) he was too strong for them when they took hold of him and he escaped their grasp, or (3) he was a deliberate participant in a plot against Jesus through a strategy of cunning legal entrapment by victimizing a woman they knew could be easily compromised by clever manipulation and seduction, in which she was clearly prepared to commit the act and there was absolutely no doubt about her intention, but in which the man himself, in acting his part to that point, had not actually disrobed (completely), and at that moment the waiting authorities burst into the room as witnesses. This last speculative possibility is a form of what is currently called a "police sting operation" against organized prostitution and slavery. It is also called a "set up". Given what is known of the Jews from both the New Testament and the legal traditions related in the Talmud, and given the fact that the man involved "in the very act" was not also accused and brought to Jesus along with the woman, this is the most probable explanation. The law of Moses says nothing about this kind of entrapment and manipulation.

"And outside the Temple, as he passed on from there, he saw a man blind from birth."

John 9:1 has been amplified here for clarification by addition of "outside the temple" and "on from there". These additions do not read into the text any meaning that is not there. The Greek text is Καὶ παραγων ειδεν ανθρωπον τυφλον, "and passing on; he found a man blind"—Καὶ παράγων ("and passing by", "and passing on", "and proceeding") indicates that this action occurred immediately after the attack of His enemies in the temple. The direct connection, by means of καί "and", with the preceding words of John 8:59 ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ—καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ διελθὼν διὰ μέσου αὐτῶν, καὶ παρῆγεν οὕτως—and the correlation of παράγων in John 9:1 Καὶ παραγων ειδεν ανθρωπον τυφλον—indicates that the episode of the man born blind must be placed soon after Jesus had left the temple, while he was still on his way, and on the very same day. The fact that Jesus "hid himself" from his attackers in the Temple strongly suggests that they did not see where he went, did not see him exit, and were therefore unable to follow him, not knowing were he was. Having left the temple, where the Jews were going to stone him, as Jesus and his disciples were passing through one of the streets of the city, they found a blind beggar. He and his disciples were not being pursued when he saw the blind man.
Some commentators do not take notice of the clearly stated fact in the text that Jesus had hidden himself and departed from the temple; and by passing over this detail and then erroneously assuming that the Jews pursued Jesus out of the temple into the street and ran after him, they firmly declare that he could not have so immediately had the calm encounter with the blind man "as he passed on from there" with his disciples. This is an example of eisegesis by omission, in taking away from the meaning of the words of the book (Revelation 22:19). They have a "blind spot". From this reasoning they conclude that this episode occurred on another day (in the winter), even while they acknowledge that the textual evidence indicates that it happened immediately after Jesus left the temple and passed by or passed on. Liberal textual critics see the smooth transition from John 8:59 to 9:1 as a defect in the text, an interpolation based on the wording of the previous verse, and the connecting Καὶ (9:1) as a possible copyist's error introducing confusion by an "improbable" linking of "two separate occasions" involving breaking the Sabbath; because they take John 10:22 as an observation by the writer of the Gospel that winter was the time of year when the healing of the man born blind occurred. But unlike the transition from John 8:59 to 9:1, there is textually no similarly compelling reason here in the reading of the Greek text to connect the episodes of John 9:1–10:21 and 10:22-42: "It was the feast of the Dedication at Jerusalem; it was winter". This statement is introduced in the text as suddenly as the beginning of a new chapter without any grammatical transition from the previous text of 10:21. See multiple commentaries on John 9:1

Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?

Some texts in the Old Testament demonstrate the doctrine that, after being conceived, a child could actually sin in the womb before being born; for example, Psalm 58:3 and Isaiah 48:8, and Hosea 12:2-3. Compare Romans 9:10-13.
A belief among some rabbis of the Jews influenced perhaps by Egyptian religion and Greek and Indian mystical philosophy held that souls exist in the presence of God before conception by their parents. Such beliefs are discussed in the Talmud. See Jeremiah 1:5, Wisdom 8:19-20 and notes, Ephesians 1:5, Josephus Wars 2.8.11 (154) "they come out of the most subtle air, and are united to their bodies as in prisons". The Sadducees utterly rejected such concepts.
These Jews thought that if the soul offended God in its heavenly pre-conceived existence it could be punished for its sin by being born with a congenital condition or birth defect.
They also believed that parents who sinned could be punished by the conception and birth of a defective child who was to bear its parents' guilt, and thereby openly expose their shame to the whole community, even if the child itself was personally innocent of sin.
In any case, a birth defect was regarded as the infallible consequence of sin. This is the view of the Pharisees who responded to the man's testimony by saying with total conviction, "You were born in utter sin".
The Jews were aware of a third possibility, presented in the Book of Job, in which a righteous Job, innocent of any sin he is aware of that could merit such devastating ruin as had fallen upon him, has been afflicted by Satan, who is eager to incite him to curse God. (Job 1–2).
Jesus tells them the man born blind was not guilty of sin but instead was entrusted and tasked with fulfilling a particular mission to glorify God, and that is the reason he was born blind.
See multiple commentaries on John 9:2, Hebrews 9:27, multiple commentaries on 2 Samuel 12:14.
See Kabbalah and Reincarnation.
Many Protestant churches teach that children "below the age of innocence" (Deuteronomy 1:39 and commentaries) cannot be guilty of sin. They absolutely reject the possibility that a child can sin after conception and before birth, in the womb, and therefore reject every literal reading (interpretation) of the Bible that supports such a possibility. They resolutely oppose the ancient Catholic doctrine of the necessity of baptizing infants as the ordinary means of cleansing them of Original sin. See the following articles:

"Jesus departed from there with his disciples and returned to Galilee."

(end of this chapter).
This is an amplification of the text for clarification.
There is a grammatical break in the text at John 10:21-22. This point in the narrative of John's Gospel appears from textual indications to be the appropriate place to insert the accounts of Matthew 15:1–19:15, Mark 7:1–10:16 and Luke 9:18-50 before the narrative of the Feast of the Dedication in winter (John 10:22-42) which follows and finds Jesus again in Jerusalem and ends with his subsequent return to Galilee before spring and his final journey to Jerusalem for the Passover.
The materials collated and redacted in this and the previous chapter of Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) and in those chapters that follow are those texts which have perennially presented the Gospel redactor with most difficulty and frustration over the question of how to combine them in a genuine chronological sequence that is true to the text. The Gospel of John presents textual critics and students of the Bible with unresolved difficulties over the appropriate placement of most of its narrative materials in harmony within the Synoptics, Matthew, Mark, Luke, because it contains few points of correspondence with them. An abundance of commentaries on the differences between them and the Gospel of John has been produced over the past several centuries. A few have given outstandingly well-informed and insightful opinions supported by extensive practical researches in the historical background of first century Palestine, together with historical, documentary, linguistical and textual analyses, which offer reasonable suggestions of how these apparent differences might be resolved. The most elegant and successful resolutions of the difficulties of correlating the Gospel narratives are derived from approaching the manuscripts of these texts as if they are reliable and factual historical documentation drawn on eyewitness testimony. Conservative textual critics are convinced by all indications from the body of available evidence and the constant witness of the Christian Faith over two millennia that the Four Gospels are in fact reliable, factual and historical.
The position of John 10:22-42 relative to the Synoptics is determined by a few factors and conservative assumptions.
  • The Gospels are all assumed to be chronological narratives, each one telling the story in historical time sequence.
  • The Feast of the Dedication in winter took place after the Passover and the episodes of the multiplication of the loaves and fishes (Matthew 14–15, Mark 6–8, Luke 9, John 6) and after the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7–9).
  • It took place before Jesus made his final journey to Jerusalem in the spring (Matthew 20:17-34, Mark 10:32-52, Luke 9:51–19:28).
  • Comparative reading of the Synoptic Gospels reveals in each of them gaps in narrative which allows insertion of material from one Gospel to another, for example, the obvious gap in Luke 9:17-18 which allows the insertion of Matthew 14:22–16:13, Mark 6:45–8:27, and John 6.
  • Places in the Greek text of the Synoptics where there is textually no grammatical element indicating a transition of moving from one episode immediately into another are interpreted as possible breaks which allows the redactor to insert into the narrative material presented by one Gospel which is not represented in another.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

About this time the Jewish feast of Tabernacles was approaching, So His brothers told Him, "Leave here and go into Judaea, so that your disciples can also see the works that you do. For no one who wants to be known publicly does anything in secret. If you are going to do these things, then show yourself to the whole world." Because not even His brothers believed in Him.

Then Jesus told them, "It is not yet the right time for me to do that, but anytime is a good time for you. The world cannot hate you, but it hates me, because I continually proclaim that everything it does is evil. You go to the festival. I am not yet going to this festival, because it's not yet the right time for me to do that."

After He said these things to them, He stayed in Galilee. However, after his brothers had left, He did go to the festival, although He did not let it be known publicly, but kept His attendance a secret. Of course, the Jews were looking for Him at the festival, asking, "Where is He?"

And there was a lot of arguing about Him in the crowds. On the one hand, some said, "He is a good man," but others said, "No He isn't. He deceives the masses." However, no one was talking about Him openly because they all feared the Jews.

Now about half way through the festival, Jesus went into the temple and was teaching. And the Jews were amazed, saying, "How can this man know the scriptures so well, since He did not train with a Rabbi?"

Jesus responded to them and said, "My teaching is not my own, but is from the One that sent me. If anyone is willing to do what God wants, he will know whether this teaching is from God or if what I am saying is merely from me. The one who speaks His own doctrines seeks His own glory, but the man who seeks to glorify the one who sent Him, that man is true, and there is no unrighteousness in Him. Moses gave you the law, didn't he? Yet none of you do what the law commands. So why are you plotting to murder me?"

The crowd answered, "You are demon-possessed. Who is plotting to murder you?"

Jesus answered and said to then, "I did one miracle, you are are all amazed. Because Moses gave you circumcision, you circumcise a man on the Sabbath. Of course, it is not actually from Moses, but from your forefathers. If a man receives circumcision on the Sabbath so that the law of Moses should not be broken, then why are you angry with me for healing the entire man on the Sabbath? Stop judging by appearance alone, but make judgments that are righteous and just."

At that point some of the people from Jerusalem were asking, "Isn't this the guy they were plotting to murder? Yet here He is, speaking publicly, and they are not saying anything to Him. Have our leaders already decided that this man is the Christ? How could that be? When Christ comes, no one will know where He came from, yet we know where this man is from."

Jesus was still teaching in the Temple, so He shouted, "Up to now, you have known me and where I am from, and that I have not come on my own authority, however, the One who sent me is true, and Him, you have not known. I know Him, because I am from Him, and He sent me."

Then despite trying to seize Him, no one laid a hand on Him, because it was not yet the right time. As a result, many in the crowd believed in Him. They said, "When Christ comes, he couldn't possibly do more miracles than this man has done, could He?"

The Pharisees heard that the crowds grumbling these things about Him, and so the Pharisees and the Chief Priests sent officers to arrest Him. Then Jesus told them, "I will only be with you for a little while longer, and then I am going to the One who sent me. You will look for me, and you will not find me, because you cannot go where I will be."

Then the Jews asked each other, "Where is he planning to go that we could not find Him? He's not planning to live among the Gentiles and teach Gentiles, is He? What could He possibly mean when He said, 'You will look for me and you will not find me,' and 'you cannot go where I will be'?"

On the last and greatest day of the festival, Jesus stood up and shouted, saying, "If anyone is thirsty, come to me and drink. The one who believes in me, as the scripture says, will have rivers of living water flowing from inside of him."

He was talking here about the Spirit, which those who believe in Him would receive. At this time the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified. Upon hearing these words, some from the crowd were saying, "This man is clearly a prophet." Others were saying, "This man is the Christ."

Yet others responded, "Christ cannot come out of Galilee, can He? The scripture says that the Christ comes from out of the town of Bethlehem, where David lived, and that He would be a descendant of David, doesn't it?"

So there was a division in the crowd because of Him. And although some of them wanted to seize Him, no one laid a hand on Him. When the officers returned to the Chief Priests and Pharisees, they asked them, "Why haven't you brought Him with you?"

The officers answered, "There has never been a man who speaks like this man."

To which the Pharisees responded, "You have not also been deceived, have you? Not one of the rulers of Pharisees have believed in Him, have they? But this ignorant mob who know nothing about the law are cursed."

Nicodemus, who had previously come to Jesus, and who was one of them, said, "Our law doesn't judge anyone before it hears his side and confirms His behavior first, does it?"

They responded and said to him, "You're not from Galilee also, are you? Go see for yourself and you will find that no prophet comes from out of Galilee."

[Then every one of them went home.]

[Jesus went to the Mountain of Olives.

He went out with His students over the Kidron brook. A garden grew there, and He and His students walked into it.

Jesus had gone there often with His students.

Early in the morning He came back to the temple where all the people were coming to Him, and sitting down, He taught them.

The scribes and Pharisees brought a woman to Him who had been caught committing adultery, and they shoved her into the center. They said to Him, "Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of adultery. In the law Moses commanded us that such a one should be stoned, so what do you say?"

They were saying this to test Him, so that they could accuse Him. But instead, Jesus bent down, and wrote in the dirt with his finger. But when they persisted in asking Him, He stood up and said to them, "The one among you who is sinless throw the first stone."

Then He bent back down and continued writing in the dirt. And after hearing this, they began to leave, beginning with the oldest, until the woman was standing alone in the center. When Jesus stood back up, and saw no one except the woman, He asked her, "Woman, where are they? Is there no one to condemn you?"

She answered, "No one, Lord."

Then Jesus said to her, "And I do not condemn you either. Go now, and do no sin any more."]

Shortly after this, Jesus spoke to them again, declaring, "I am the light of the world: whoever follows me shall not walk in darkness at all, but shall receive the light of life."

The Pharisees responded, "Because you act as your own witness, your testimony cannot be trusted."

Jesus replied, "Despite being my own witness, my testimony can be trusted because I know where I came from and where I'm going, but you have no idea where either of those are. You judge with human reasoning, while I judge no one. But even if I do judge, my judgment is true, because I am not alone: I and the Father who sent me [are both here]. It is also written in your law that the testimony of two men is trustworthy. I act as my own witness and the Father who sent me is also my witness."

So they responded, "Where is your Father?"

Jesus answered, "You don't know me or my Father. If you had known me, then you would have known my Father as well."

Jesus spoke these words in the treasury, while teaching in the temple, and no one arrested him, because it was not time for that yet.

A little later, Jesus told them, "I am leaving, and you will start hunting me, and so, you will die with your sins unforgiven. Where I am going, you cannot follow."

Then the Jews wondered, "Will He kill Himself? Is that what He means by, 'Where I am going, you cannot follow'?"

He responded, "You are from below, I am from above. You are from this world, I am not from this world. So I told you that you will die with your sins unforgiven, because if you do not believe that I Am, you will die with your sins unforgiven."

So they asked Him, "Who are you?"

And Jesus responded, "Who I have been telling you from the very beginning. I have many things to say that would condemn you, but the one who sent me is completely trustworthy, and I will only say those things that I have heard from Him."

They did not understand that He was talking about the Father. Then Jesus continued, "When you have lifted up the Son, a human being, then you will know that I Am, and that nothing I do is from me, but I only speak the things my Father has taught me. And the one who sent me is with me. He did not leave me alone, because I only do things which please Him."

As He spoke these things, many believed in Him. Then Jesus, speaking to the Jews who believed in Him, said, "If you build your life around my word, then you are truly my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free."

They responded, "We are the descendants of Abraham, and we have never, ever been enslaved, so what are you talking about when you say that we will become free?"

Jesus answered, "Truly, truly I say to you, everyone who commits sin is a bond-servant of sin. And the bond-servant does not remain in the house forever, but the Son stays forever. So if the Son sets you free, then you are really free. I am aware that you are Abraham's descendants, but you are plotting to murder me because my message is fully and completely rejected by all of you. I speak only that which I have seen while at my Father's side, but you do that which you have heard coming from your Father."

They responded, "Abraham is our Father."

To which Jesus replied, "If you were really Abraham's children, you would behave like Abraham. Instead, you are plotting to murder me, a man who has told you the Truth which I heard from God. Abraham did not behave like this. You behave like your father."

They responded to Him, "We are not illegitimate children; we only have one Father, God."

Then Jesus said, "If God were your Father then you would have loved me, because I came from God and am with you now. I have not come from myself, but He sent me. Do you know why you cannot understand the things I say? Because you refuse to listen to my message. You are from your father, the devil, and you deeply desire to do what your father wants. He was a murderer from the beginning and he has never stood for the Truth, because the Truth is not in him. Whenever he lies, he is speaking his real language, because he is not just a liar, he is the father of lying. So naturally, because I speak the Truth, you do not believe in me. Which of you can prove I am guilty of sin? If what I am saying is true, then why are you refusing to believe in me? The one who is from God hears the very words God speaks. You cannot hear them because you are not from God."

Then the Jews responded, "We really nailed it when we said you are a Samaritan and are demon possessed, didn't we?"

Jesus answered, "I am not demon possessed. On the contrary, I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. But while I do not pursue my own glory, there is one who pursues it, and He is the judge. Truly, truly, I say to you, If anyone holds firmly to my message, he shall never see death for all eternity."

Then the Jews said, "Now we know for sure that you are demon possessed. Abraham and the prophets are all dead, yet you say, If anyone holds firmly to my message, he shall never see death for all eternity. You are not greater than our father Abraham, are you? He and the prophets all died. Just who do you think you are?"

Jesus responded, "If I glorify myself, my glory is meaningless. It is my Father, whom you claim is your God, that glorifies me. You do not even know Him, but I do know Him, so if I were to say, 'I do not know Him,' then I would be a liar just like you. However, I do know him, and I hold firmly to His message. Your fore-father, Abraham, leaped with joy that he would be allowed to see my day, and when he saw it, he was very happy."

Then the Jews responded, "You are not even fifty years old, and you have seen Abraham?"

Jesus told them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham existed, I Am."

Then they picked up stones to throw at Him, but Jesus disappeared, and left the temple.

And as He was walking along, He saw a man who had been blind since birth. His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, whose sin caused his blindness? His or his parents?"

Jesus answered, "Neither this man nor his parents sinned. On the contrary, this was so that the works of God could be seen in him. I must pursue the works of the one who sent me while the daylight is here. The night is coming when no man will be able to do those works. While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. "

As He said these things, He spat on the ground, made clay with His spit, and spread the clay on the eyes of the blind man. He told the man, "Go wash this off in the pool of Siloam (which means, 'Having been Set Apart')."

So he went there, washed himself, and his eyesight returned. Then his neighbors who knew he had been blind wondered, "This is the man who sat and begged, isn't it?"

Some said, "It is he," but others said, "It's not him, just someone who looks like him." But the man said "I am he."

Then they asked him, "So how is it that you can see again?"

He answered, "A man named Jesus made clay, and rubbed it on my eyes, and told me, 'Go to the pool of Siloam and wash this off,' and I went there, washed it off, and regained sight."

"Where is he?" they asked.

"I don't know," he answered.

So they brought the formerly blind man to the Pharisees, because Jesus made the clay and restored his sight on the Sabbath. The Pharisees asked him again how he had his sight restored. He told them, "He put clay on my eyes, and I washed it off, and now I see."

This sparked a division among the Pharisees, because some of them said, "This man is not from God, because he does not strictly observe the Sabbath," while others said, "How can a sinful man do such miracles?"

So they asked the formerly blind man again, "What do you say of the one who returned your sight?"

The man replied, "He is a prophet."

But the Jews refused to believe that he had been blind and his sight was restored until his parents could be called. Then they questioned his parents, asking, "Is this your son, whom you claim was born blind? Then how can he see?"

Then his parents responded, "We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind. However, we have no idea how he can now see, nor who restored his sight. Ask him. He's an adult. He can speak for himself."

His parents said these things because they feared the Jews. For the Jews had already decided that if anyone claimed Jesus was the Christ, he would be thrown out of the synagogue. So His parents said, "He's an adult. Ask him."

So once again, they called the man who had been blind, and told him, "Give the glory to God. We have known that this man was a sinner for quite some time."

He responded, "I do not know if he is or is not a sinner. This one thing I know: I was blind, now I see."

So once again, they asked him, "What did he do to you? How did he restore your sight?"

He responded, "I told you already, and you refuse to listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You don't want to become his disciples, do you?"

Then they hurled insults at him, and said, "You are His disciple. We are the disciples of Moses. We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this guy, we don't know who sent Him."

The man responded, "Wow! Here is something truly amazing! He has restored my sight, and yet, somehow, you don't know who sent Him. It is well known that God does not listen to sinners, but if anyone is a true follower of God, and does what God wants, God does listen to him. And since the beginning of time no one has even heard of a man restoring the sight of one who was born blind, thus, if this man were not from God, He could not have done anything even remotely like this."

They responded to him, "You have been a sinner since birth, and you have the audacity to lecture us?" And they threw him out of the Synagogue.

He answered, "Can you tell me who he is, Lord, so that I can believe in him?"

Jesus responded, "Not only have you already seen Him, He is the very person who is speaking to you right now."

Then he declared, "Lord, I do believe." Then he worshiped Him.

Then Jesus said, "I came into this world to make a judgment, so that those who are blind would have their sight restored, and those who can see would become blind."

The Pharisees who were there and heard these things said to Him, "We are not blind, are we?"

Jesus responded, "If you were blind, then you would not be responsible for your sin, but since you say, 'we can see," you are accountable for your sin."

"Truly, truly, I say to you, the one who does not enter into the sheep yard by the gate, but climbs in another way is a thief and criminal. But the one who enters through the gate is the shepherd of the sheep. The gate keeper opens the gate for him, he calls his own sheep by name, the sheep listen to his voice, and he leads them out. When he brings his sheep out, he walks in the front, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice. They will never follow a stranger, but will run away from him, because they do not know the voice of strangers."

Jesus told them this parable, but they did not understand what He was talking about. So Jesus went on to explain, "Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the gate to the sheep. Everyone who came before me were thieves and criminals, but the sheep did not listen to them. I am the gate. If anyone enters through me, he shall be saved, and he shall enter through the gate, then continue on and find pasture. The thief does not come for any other reason except to steal, kill and destroy. I come so that they can have life, and have it exceedingly, abundantly beyond measure. I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives his life for the sake of sheep. The hired worker is not the shepherd and does not own the sheep. When he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and flees, so the wolf attacks the sheep, snatching some up, and scattering the rest. [The hired worker flees] because he is being paid a wage, and does not really care about the sheep. I am the good shepherd. I know my own sheep, and they know me, in the same way that my Father knows me, and I know my Father, and I lay down my life for the sheep. I have other sheep who are not from this sheep yard. I must also lead them, they shall hear my voice, and there shall be one sheep yard and one shepherd. Here is why the Father loves me; because I give my life so that I can take it back again. No one takes it from me, but rather, I myself give it. I have the authority to give it, and I have the authority to take it back afterward. This is the command I have freely taken from my Father's side.

Due to these words, a huge dispute once again developed among the Jews. Many of them said, "He has a demon and is insane. Why do you even listen to Him?"

But others said, "These are not the words of someone with a demon. Can a demon give sight to the blind?"

Seventeen

Chapter 17 Bible texts

Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying, “Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their hands when they eat bread.”

He answered them, “Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? For God commanded,

‘Honor your father and your mother,’

and,

‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.’

But you say, ‘Whoever may tell his father or his mother, “Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God,” he shall not honor his father or mother.’ You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying,

‘These people draw near to me with their mouth, and honor me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. And in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrine rules made by men.’ ”

He summoned the multitude, and said to them, “Hear, and understand. That which enters into the mouth does not defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man.”

Then the disciples came, and said to him, “Do you know that the Pharisees were offended when they heard this saying?”

But he answered, “Every plant which my heavenly Father did not plant will be uprooted. Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind. If the blind guide the blind, both will fall into a pit.”

Peter answered him, “Explain the parable to us.”

So Jesus said, “Do you also still not understand? Do you not understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body? But the things which proceed out of the mouth come out of the heart, and they defile the man. For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, sexual sins, thefts, false testimony, and blasphemies. These are the things which defile the man; but to eat with unwashed hands does not defile the man.”

Then the Pharisees and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is unwashed, hands, they found fault. (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. They do not eat when they come from the marketplace unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, “Why do your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?”

He answered them, “Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written,

‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. But they worship me in vain, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’

For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men—the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things.”

He said to them, “Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. For Moses said,

‘Honor your father and your mother;’

and,

‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.’

But you say, ‘If a man tells his father or his mother, “Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban,” ’ ” (that is to say, given to God,) “then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this.”

He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, “Hear me, all of you, and understand. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear!”

When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. He said to them, “Are you also without understanding? Do you not perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside cannot defile him, because it does not go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine?”—thus making all foods clean. Thus he declared all foods clean.

He said, “That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts, covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.”

From there he arose, and went away. Jesus went out from there, and withdrew into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, into the region of Tyre and Sidon.

Behold, a Canaanite woman came out from those borders, and cried, saying, “Have mercy on me, Lord, you son of David! My daughter is severely possessed by a demon!”

But he answered her not a word. His disciples came and begged him, saying, “Send her away; for she cries after us.”

But he answered, “I was not sent to anyone but the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”

But she came and worshiped him, saying, “Lord, help me.”

But he answered, “It is not appropriate to take the children’s bread and throw it to the dogs.”

But she said, “Yes, Lord, but even the dogs eat the crumbs which fall from their masters’ table.”

Then Jesus answered her, “Woman, great is your faith! Be it done to you even as you desire.”

And her daughter was healed from that hour.

He entered into a house, and did not want anyone to know it, but he could not escape notice. For a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet. Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. She begged him that he would cast the demon out of her daughter. But Jesus said to her, “Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children’s bread and throw it to the dogs.”

But she answered him, “Yes, Lord. Yet even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs.”

He said to her, “For this saying, go your way. The demon has gone out of your daughter.”

She went away to her house, and found the child having been laid on the bed, with the demon gone out.

Again he departed from the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and came to the east side of the sea of Galilee, through the middle of the region of Decapolis.

They brought to him one who was deaf and had an impediment in his speech. They begged him to lay his hand on him. He took him aside from the multitude, privately, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spat, and touched his tongue. Looking up to heaven, he sighed, and said to him, “Ephphatha!” that is, “Be opened!”

Immediately his ears were opened, and the impediment of his tongue was released, and he spoke clearly. He commanded them that they should tell no one, but the more he commanded them, so much the more widely they proclaimed it. They were astonished beyond measure, saying, “He has done all things well. He makes even the deaf hear, and the mute speak!”

Jesus departed from there, and came near to the sea of Galilee.

Matthew 15:1-20
Mark 7:1-24a
Matthew 15:21-28
Mark 7:24b-37
Matthew 15:29a

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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"The Disciples"

Those who read, or interpret, "the disciples" as strictly meaning only the Twelve Apostles, are in error because they are ignorant of the scriptures (Matthew 22:29).
Such a reading of the text is an example of eisegesis. The Twelve are often called "his twelve disciples" (Matthew 11:1; 20:17), but multiple references to "the disciples" in all the Gospels demonstrate that he had more than twelve disciples, whom he also called "brothers" and "sisters" and "mother". Mary herself was uniquely his mother, descended from David according to the flesh (Romans 1:3 and Hebrews 10:5), and she was also his mother and disciple from the very beginning in accordance with his words which he spoke here, because she heard the word of God and kept it: Isaiah 7:14, Matthew 1:23, Luke 2:51, John 2:5). See 1 Corinthians 15:5-7; Acts 1:14-15; John 6:66-71; Luke 6:13; Mark 4:10; Matthew 5:1, 8:18-22, 23:1.
The textual critic and the student of the Bible who sees "the disciples" as strictly referring only to the Twelve will have difficulty reconciling accounts in the Gospels which sound similar, and are read by them as being therefore identical. As a consequence, the words of Jesus may appear to them to be only approximately remembered, because in their comparative reading of similar texts the words are not identically phrased; for example, in Luke 6:17-49 and Matthew 5-7, or as here in Matthew 15:1-20 and Mark 7:1-23. The Gospels all speak of "the multitude of disciples" and of the "multitudes" and "crowds" of disciples who followed him (Matthew 12:15, 19:2; Mark 2:15; Luke 6:13, 19:37; John 4:39-42, 6:66-67). Twelve is not a multitude.
Any perceived internal discrepancy in the text of the New Testament, drawn from the mistaken principle that similarity of narrative demonstrates or proves identity of event, opens the reader up to the possibility proposed by doubting liberals and atheists who say that the Gospels are mythical constructions artfully arranged and drafted by the apostles and evangelists to gain the support of their credulous followers, and that they do not in fact reliably report the words and deeds of Jesus but as creative writers have put their own ideas into the mouth of a non-historical, dramatically constructed, literary figure of Jesus as a way of legitimizing their own points of view. See Jesus Seminar. However, just because it sounds the same does not mean it is the same. Jesus had more than twelve disciples. But he chose only twelve apostles from among them, and they were still his disciples among all of his disciples. What he revealed and taught to one group of his disciples he often revealed and taught again to another group of them, repeating the same lesson as often as necessary. According to St. Paul he had more than 500 disciples who saw him after he had risen from death (1 Corinthians 15:6).

Peter answered him, “Explain the parable to us.” Matthew 15:15
When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. Mark 7:17

The details of narrative in these two accounts indicate a possible progression, first Matthew 15:1-20, then Mark 7:1-23.
The redaction of these texts in sequence, goes from one initial informal confrontation by the Pharisees and scribes and Jesus' response to them, to a second, further insistent and more formal confrontation from a larger group of them and a more extensive answer in reply. There is a progression in his address to the multitude, from "Hear and understand", to the more insistent, "Hear, all of you, and understand". In the first account in Matthew Peter asks Jesus to explain the meaning to him and the twelve ("to us"), and he does. In the second account in Mark, we hear that the crowd of Pharisees and scribes, including additional numbers of them who have arrived (and they also observe the disciples eating with unwashed hands) "gather" against him for a more formal confrontation. And after answering the Pharisees and scribes (again) with an additional citation from Isaiah for greater emphasis and addressing both them and the crowds who have been listening, "Hear, all of you, and understand", he goes into a house away from them and the crowd, and the rest of his disciples come and ask him to explain the meaning, and he gives them the same teaching he had given to Peter and the twelve. In both accounts the same teaching is presented. For Matthew and for Mark as evangelists only one of these episodes of confrontation is necessary for the representation of Jesus' teaching on the matter.
A comparative reading of the two suggests to the conservative textual critic that it is more probable that Mark has added augmenting factual details to Matthew's account, rather than the possibility that Matthew is condensing what Mark had written.

The Canaanite woman and the Greek, a Syrophoenician woman.

Representatives of two different racial-ethnic groups of Gentiles (non-Jews). The seemingly subtle differences (but not actually) in narrative details suggests that these are two separate episodes.
The Syrophoenician woman, "having heard of him", is circumstantially represented by the sequential edit of this Harmony of the Gospel as probably having heard of Jesus from the Canaanite woman's testimony of how her daughter was healed. If so, then, in her own desperation to save her own daughter too, she is intentionally using the same words as a saying that she had heard from the Canaanite woman, a saying which was apparently so effective in eliciting Jesus' help. When addressing the Syrophoenician woman, Jesus tests her with the same words he spoke to the Canaanite woman, inviting her to give external, public evidence of a similar awareness of the privilege of the Jews as the children of God, which she also acknowledges; Jesus refers to the "saying" she uttered, but he does not refer to the words that the Canaanite woman says to him as any kind of a "saying".
The Gospels show that there were many who were afflicted with demonic possession in need of healing. It is not impossible that these two accounts represent two different healings. It is only necessary for the evangelist in his Gospel and for the preacher in his exhortations to relate one of them to represent Jesus' compassionate regard for those who are not among the lost sheep of the children of Israel but who recognize the truth that "salvation is from the Jews" (John 4:23; Romans 1:3 and 2:9-11).

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

Then several scribes and Pharisees from Jerusalem came to Jesus, and said, "Why do your students break the tradition of the elders? They don't wash their hands when they eat bread."

But He in answer asked them, "Why do you also break the commandment of God by means of your tradition? God gave this command: 'Honor your father and your mother,' and 'Anyone who curses his father or mother, let him be put to death.' But you say, 'Whoever says to his father or his mother, "If I help you in any way, I'm doing you a favor," then he does not honor his father.' You have canceled the Truth of God by your tradition. You hypocrites, Isaiah prophesied accurately about you, when he said, 'This people draws close to Me with their mouth, and honors Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me. But they woship Me in vain, when they teach the commandments of men as if they were doctrines.'"

And he called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and understand: And He summoned the crowd, and said to them, "Hear and understand: It is not what goes into the mouth that makes a man unclean, but what comes out of the mouth, this is what makes a man unclean."

Then His students came and said to him, "Did you know that the Pharisees were shocked after hearing what You said?"

But in answer He said, "Every plant that My heavenly Father has not planted will be torn up by its roots. Let them be. They are the blind leading the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both will fall into the ditch."

Then Peter in answer said, "Explain this parable to us."

And Jesus said, "Don't you understand anything yet? Don't you understand yet, that whatever goes in at the mouth goes into the belly, and is thrown down the toilet? But those things that come out of the mouth come from the heart, and they make the man unclean. Because from the heart come evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, sexually immoral thoughts and acts, lies, and blasphemies. These are what make a man unclean. But to eat with unwashed hands won't make a man unclean."

Jesus was approached by the Pharisees, and some of the scribes, who came from Jerusalem. They observed several of His students eating bread with ritually unclean, i.e., unwashed, hands, and used that to criticize Jesus. The reason for this was that the Pharisees, along with all the other Jews, had a tradition never to eat unless they had washed their hands. When they came from the public square, they did not eat unless they had washed first. They retained many other traditions, such as the washing of cups, pots, kettles, and tables. Then the Pharisees and the scribes asked Jesus, "Why don't your students follow the traditions of the elders, instead of eating bread with unwashed hands?"

He responded to them, "Isaiah had you hypocrites dead to rights, when he wrote: 'These people speak respectful words to Me, by their hearts are not with Me. They worship Me in vain, and their teachings are nothing more than rules made by men.' After turning away from the law of God, you cling to the rules of mere men. Isaiah also told them, 'You turn your backs on the commandment of God, in order to cling to your own customs.' For example: Moses said, 'Honor your father and mother; and whoever curses his father or mother should receive the death penalty'. But you allow a man to say to his father or mother, 'Whatever help I might have given you was instead given to God as a temple offering,' and excused him from helping his father or mother any further. You have made God's word and law useless with your tradition of revision, and many other actions like it."

When Jesus had called the people together around him, he said, "Listen to me, each of you, and know the truth. Nothing outside a man can enter him and corrupt him. Instead, that which comes from within can corrupt him. So if anyone wishes to know the truth, let him listen."

Afterward, when he had left the people and entered the house, His students asked Him about the parable. To this he responded, "Are you also so ignorant? Don't you see that anything which enters a man from outside cannot corrupt him, because it enters his stomach, not his heart, and then is eliminated?"

To this he added, "Anything that comes out of a man, it is that which corrupts him. Because, from inside of the heart come evil thoughts, adultery, fornication, murder, theft, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lustfulness, an evil eye, blasphemy, uncontrolled pride, and foolishness. All of these wicked things come from inside a man and corrupt him."

Then He left that place, and traveled to the borders of Tyre and Sidon.

Then Jesus went away from that place, and traveled to the coastal regions of Tyre and Sidon.

And a woman from Canaan came out of those same coastal regions, and cried out to him, saying, "Take pity on me, O Lord, Son of David. My daughter is terribly oppressed with a demon."

But He didn't say a word to her in answer. And his student came and begged him, saying, "Send her away, because she keeps crying out after us."

But He said in answer, "I am sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel."

Then she came and fell down at His feet, saying, "Lord, help me."

And in answer He said, "It is not proper to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs."

And she said, "Yes, Lord. But the dogs eat from the crumbs that fall from their masters' table." Then Jesus in answer said, "Woman, your faith is great. Let it be to you even as you wish." And her daughter was made well in that very moment.

He wanted to keep the place where He was staying a secret, but He had become so well-known that this was impossible. A woman whose daughter had been possessed by a demon heard the news of Him, came to Him and fell down before Him. She was Greek, a Syrophenician, and begged that he would throw the demon out of her daughter.

Jesus replied to her, "The children must first be fed, for it is wrong to take their bread and cast it among the dogs."

To this she answered, "Yes, Lord, but the dogs under the table can eat the children's crumbs."

So Jesus replied, "Go on your way; you have proved your faith, and the demon has been cast out of your daughter."

When she returned to her home, she found that her daughter was lying upon her bed and Satan had left her.

Leaving the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, Jesus reached Lake Tiberias, among the coasts of Decapolis. The people brought him a deaf man with a speech impediment, praying that he would lay hands upon him. Jesus took him away privately from the crowd. He put his fingers into the man's ears, spit, then touched his tongue. Looking up to heaven, he sighed and said, "Ephphatha," which means "be opened." The man's ears were immediately opened, and the muscles of his tongue healed, letting him speak clearly and understandably. Jesus ordered the people not to tell this story, but the more he ordered this, the more they spread the news. They were completely blown away, and said, "He has wielded great power in all things. He makes the deaf hear and the dumb speak."

And Jesus left that place, and came close to the sea of Galilee,

Eighteen

Chapter 18 Bible texts

And he went up into the mountain, and sat there. In those days, great multitudes came to him, having with them the lame, blind, mute, maimed, and many others, and they put them down at his feet. He healed them, so that the multitude wondered when they saw the mute speaking, the injured healed, the lame walking, and the blind seeing—and they glorified the God of Israel.

When there was a very great multitude, and they had nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples to himself, and said to them, “I have compassion on the multitude, because they have stayed with me now three days, and have nothing to eat. I do not want to send them away fasting. If I send them away fasting to their home, they will faint on the way, for some of them have come a long way.”

His disciples answered him, the disciples said to him, “From where could one satisfy these people with bread here in a deserted place? Where should we get so many loaves in a deserted place as to satisfy so great a multitude?”

Jesus said to them, he asked them, “How many loaves do you have?”

They said, “Seven, and a few small fish.”

He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground. And he took the seven loaves; he gave thanks and having given thanks, he broke them, and the fish—they had a few small fish. Having blessed and broken them, he said to serve these also, and gave them to his disciples to serve. He gave to the disciples, and the disciples to the multitudes, and they served the multitude. They all ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets full of the broken pieces that were left over. Those who had eaten were about four thousand. Those who ate were four thousand men, in addition to women and children. Then he sent them away, he sent away the multitudes.

Immediately he entered into the boat with his disciples, got into the boat, and came into the region of Dalmanutha.

The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. He sighed deeply in his spirit, and said, “Why does this generation seek a sign? Most certainly I tell you, no sign will be given to this generation.”

He left them, and again entering into the boat, departed north, continuing on to the other side. They forgot to take bread; and they did not have more than one loaf in the boat with them. He warned them, saying, “Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod.”

They reasoned with one another, saying, “It is because we have no bread.”

Jesus, perceiving it, said to them, “Why do you reason that it is because you have no bread? Do you not yet perceive, neither understand? Is your heart still hardened? Having eyes, do you not see? Having ears, do you not hear? Do you not remember? When I broke the five loaves among the five thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces did you take up?”

They told him, “Twelve.”

“When the seven loaves fed the four thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces did you take up?”

They told him, “Seven.”

He asked them, “Do you not yet understand?”

And they came into the borders of Magdala. The Pharisees and Sadducees came, and testing him, asked him to show them a sign from heaven. But he answered them, “When it is evening, you say, ‘It will be fair weather, for the sky is red.’ In the morning, ‘It will be foul weather today, for the sky is red and threatening.’ Hypocrites! You know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but you cannot discern the signs of the times! An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, and there will be no sign given to it, except the sign of the prophet Jonah.”

He left them, and departed northeast toward Bethsaida, east of the Jordan.

The disciples came to the other side and had forgotten to take bread. Jesus said to them, “Take heed and beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”

They reasoned among themselves, saying, “We brought no bread.”

Jesus, perceiving it, said, “Why do you reason among yourselves, you of little faith, ‘because you have brought no bread’? Do you not yet perceive, neither remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up? Nor the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many baskets you took up? How is it that you do not perceive that I did not speak to you concerning bread? But beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”

Then they understood that he did not tell them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the Teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

He came to Bethsaida. They brought a blind man to him, and begged him to touch him. He took hold of the blind man by the hand, and brought him out of the village. When he had spat on his eyes, and laid his hands on him, he asked him if he saw anything.

He looked up, and said, “I see men; for I see them like trees walking.”

Then again he laid his hands on his eyes. He looked intently, and was restored, and saw everyone clearly. He sent him away to his house, saying, “Do not enter into the village, nor tell anyone in the village.”

Jesus went out, with his disciples, and journeyed north into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. Now when Jesus came into the parts of Caesarea Philippi, on the way, as he was praying privately, the twelve disciples were with him, and he asked them, “Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am?”

He asked his disciples, saying, “Who do the multitudes say that I am?”

They answered, “Some say John the Baptizer, some, Elijah, and others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.” They told him, “John the Baptizer, and others say Elijah, but others: one of the prophets.” They said, “ ‘John the Baptizer,’ but others say, ‘Elijah,’ and others, that one of the old prophets has risen again.”

He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?”

Simon Peter answered, “The Christ of God. You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”

Jesus answered him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. I also tell you that you are Peter” (the word means "stone" and "rock"), “and on this rock I will build my Assembly, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. I will give to you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, and whatever you bind on earth is bound in heaven; and whatever you release on earth is released in heaven.”

But then he commanded the disciples that they should tell no one that he was Jesus the Christ. He warned them, and commanded them to tell this to no one, saying, “The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up.”

He commanded them that they should tell no one about him. He began to Teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. From that time, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. He spoke to them openly. Peter took him aside, and began to rebuke him, saying, “Far be it from you, Lord! This will never be done to you.”

But he turned, and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me, for you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of men.”

He, turning around, and seeing his disciples, rebuked Peter, and said, “Get behind me, Satan! For you have in mind not the things of God, but the things of men.”

Then Jesus said to his disciples, “If anyone desires to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, and whoever will lose his life for my sake will find it. For what will it profit a man, if he gains the whole world, and forfeits his life? Or what will a man give in exchange for his life? For the Son of Man will come in the glory of his Father with his angels, and then he will render to everyone according to his deeds. Most certainly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste of death, before they see the Son of Man coming in his Kingdom.”

He called the multitude to himself with his disciples, and said to them, “Whoever wants to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it; and whoever will lose his life for my sake and the sake of the Good News will save it. For what does it profit a man, to gain the whole world, and forfeit his life? For what will a man give in exchange for his life? For whoever will be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man also will be ashamed of him, when he comes in his Father’s glory, with the holy angels.”

He said to them, “Most certainly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death before they see God’s Kingdom come with power.”

Raising his voice, He said to all, “If anyone desires to come after me, let him deny himself, take up his cross, and follow me. For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever will lose his life for my sake, will save it. For what does it profit a man if he gains the whole world, and loses or forfeits his own self? For whoever will be ashamed of me and of my words, of him will the Son of Man be ashamed, when he comes in his glory, and the glory of the Father, and of the holy angels. But I tell you the truth: There are some of those who stand here who will in no way taste of death before they see God’s Kingdom.”

After six days, about eight days after these sayings, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain, brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves; he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray.

Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep. But when they were fully awake, as he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became white and dazzling. His clothing became glistening, exceedingly white, like snow, such as no fuller's earth on earth can whiten them. He was transformed before them. His face shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as the light, and he was changed into another form in front of them. Behold, two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah, who appeared in glory. Moses and Elijah appeared to them talking with him. They saw his glory, and the two men who stood with him. And they were talking with Jesus, and spoke of his exodus, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. And behold, a cloud came, overshadowing them. A bright cloud came and overshadowed them. Then they parted from him and entered into the cloud. And they, Peter, John and James, were afraid as they entered into the cloud. As they were parting from him, Peter answered, and said to Jesus (he did not know what to say), “Rabbi—Master—Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you want, let us make three tabernacles here: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah,” not knowing what he said.

For he did not know what to say, for they were very afraid. And while he said these things, while he was still speaking, behold, a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to him.”

When the disciples heard it, they fell on their faces, and were very afraid. When the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone.

Jesus came and touched them and said, “Get up, and do not be afraid.”

Lifting up their eyes, and suddenly looking around, they saw no one with them any more, except Jesus only; they saw no one, except Jesus alone.

On the next day, as they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, “Do not tell anyone what you saw, before the Son of Man has risen from the dead.”

He commanded them that they should tell no one what things they had seen, before the Son of Man shall have risen from the dead. They kept this saying to themselves, questioning what the “rising from the dead” meant. They were silent, and told no one in those days any of the things which they had seen. His disciples, they asked him, saying, “Then why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?”

Jesus answered them, “Elijah indeed comes first, and restores all things. How is it written about the Son of Man? that he should suffer many things and be despised. But I tell you that Elijah has come, and they have also done to him whatever they wanted to, even as it is written about him.”

Then he said to them, “Elijah indeed comes first, and will restore all things, but I tell you that Elijah has come already, and they did not recognize him, but did to him whatever they wanted to. Even so the Son of Man will also suffer by them.”

Then the disciples understood that he spoke to them of John the Baptizer.

When they had come down from the mountain, immediately a great multitude met him. All the multitude, when they saw him, were greatly amazed, and running to him, greeted him. Coming to the disciples, he saw a great multitude around them, and scribes questioning them. He asked the scribes, “What are you asking them?”

When they came to the multitude, behold, a man from within the crowd called out, one of the multitude answered, saying, “Teacher, I beg you to look at my son, for he is my only child. I brought to you my son, who has a mute spirit. Behold, a spirit takes him, he suddenly cries out, and it convulses him so that he foams, and it hardly departs from him, bruising him severely; and wherever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, and grinds his teeth, and wastes away. I asked your disciples to cast it out, and they were not able. I begged your disciples to cast it out, and they could not.”

Jesus answered, “Faithless and perverse generation! How long will I be with you? How long will I bear with you? Bring him here to me.”

The man came to him, kneeling down to him, and saying, “Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is epileptic, and suffers grievously; for he often falls into the fire, and often into the water. So I brought him to your disciples, and they could not cure him.”

Jesus answered, he answered him, “Faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you? How long shall I bear with you? Bring your son here. Bring him to me.”

They brought him to him, and while he was still coming, when he saw him, immediately the spirit convulsed him; the demon threw him down and convulsed him violently, and he fell on the ground, wallowing and foaming at the mouth.

He asked his father, “How long has it been since this has come to him?”

He said, “From childhood. Often it has cast him both into the fire and into the water to destroy him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us, and help us.”

Jesus said to him, “If you can believe, all things are possible to him who believes.”

Immediately the father of the child cried out with tears, “I believe. Help my unbelief!”

But when Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit; Jesus rebuked him, saying to him, “You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him, and never enter him again!”

After crying out and convulsing him greatly, the demon went out of him, it came out of him. The boy became like one dead, so much that most of them said, “He is dead.”

But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up; and he arose—Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. And the boy was cured from that hour.

They were all astonished at the majesty of God. But while all were marveling at all the things which Jesus did, he said to his disciples, “Let these words sink into your ears, for the Son of Man will be delivered up into the hands of men.”

But they did not understand this saying. It was concealed from them, that they should not perceive it, and they were afraid to ask him about this saying. Then the disciples came to Jesus privately, and said, “Why were we not able to cast it out?”

When he had come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, “Why could we not cast it out?”

He said to them, “Because of your unbelief. For most certainly I tell you, if you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, you will tell this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you. But this kind does not go out except by prayer and fasting.”

He said to them, “This kind can come out by nothing, except by prayer and fasting.”

They went out from there, and passed through Galilee. He did not want anyone to know it. For he was Teaching his disciples, and said to them, “The Son of Man is being handed over to the hands of men, and they will kill him; and when he is killed, on the third day he will rise again.”

But they did not understand the saying, and were afraid to ask him.

While they were staying in Galilee, Jesus said to them, “The Son of Man is about to be delivered up into the hands of men, and they will kill him, and the third day he will be raised up.”

They were exceedingly sorry.

Matthew 15:29b-31
Mark 8:1-3
Matthew 15:32
Mark 8:4
Matthew 15:33-34
Mark 8:5
Matthew 15:35
Mark 8:6
Matthew 15:36
Mark 8:7-8
Matthew 15:37-38
Mark 8:9
Matthew 15:39a
Mark 8:10-21
Matthew 15:39b–16:12
Mark 8:22-27
Matthew 16:13
Luke 9:18-19
Matthew 16:14
Mark 8:28
Matthew 16:15
Luke 9:20a
Mark 8:29a
Luke 9:20b
Mark 8:29b
Matthew 16:16-20
Luke 9:21-22
Mark 8:30-31
Matthew 16:21
Mark 8:32
Matthew 16:22-23
Mark 8:33
Matthew 16:24-28
Mark 8:34–9:1
Luke 9:23-27
Matthew 17:1
Mark 9:2
Luke 9:28
Mark 9:3
Luke 9:29
Luke 9:32a
Matthew 17:2
Luke 9:32b
Matthew 17:3
Mark 9:4
Luke 9:30-31
Mark 9:7
Matthew 17:5
Luke 9:34
Luke 9:33
Matthew 17:4
Mark 9:5-6
Luke 9:35
Matthew 17:6-8
Mark 9:8
Luke 9:36-37a
Matthew 17:9
Mark 9:9-10
Matthew 17:10
Mark 9:11-13
Matthew 17:11-13
Mark 9:13
Luke 9:37b
Mark 9:14-16
Luke 9:38-40
Matthew 17:14a
Mark 9:17-18
Matthew 17:14b-17
Mark 9:19
Luke 9:41
Mark 9:20a
Luke 9:42a
Mark 9:20b-26
Luke 9:42b
Mark 9:27
Matthew 17:18
Luke 9:43-45
Matthew 17:19
Mark 9:28
Matthew 17:20-21
Mark 9:29-32
Matthew 17:22-23

Compare
World English Bible text
Greek original text
Latin Vulgate text
NRSV text
Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
Conservative Bible text
multiple versions of any verse
multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"And they came into the borders of Magdala."

See McGarvey: The Four-fold Gospel: Third withdrawal from Herod's territory.

"I will give to you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven"

Matthew 16:19.
The Greek word σοι "to you" here is singular, not plural ὑμῖν "to you", and therefore was not addressed to the entire immediate group of his assembled disciples, as some would have it, but only to Peter.
In the later apparently parallel text of Matthew 18:18 the phrase "keys of the Kingdom of Heaven" does not appear (see verses 15-20). On the principle of sola scriptura, there is no linguistic textual basis for saying that Jesus gave the "keys" to all the apostles on that occasion, but only that he gave them all the collective authority to bind and loose together, an authority which is distinctly different from the authority to open and shut the "Kingdom of Heaven" (see Revelation 1:17-18; 3:7).
Catholics maintain that there is a significant distinction here, and that the previous occasion in Matthew 16:18 is a specific fulfillment of the prophesy in Isaiah 22:22 pointing to one man, not many.
Other Christians maintain that the "keys" are necessary to bind and to loose, to "open and no man shall shut, and shut and no man opens" (Revelation 3:7), thus equating binding and loosing with opening and shutting, and that this therefore does linguistically imply that all of the apostles were each given the "keys of the Kingdom of Heaven" simultaneously together in Matthew 18:18, so that what he had conferred on Peter is now expanded and conferred on them.
Old Testament parallels show that God gave to particular men divine authority to act, and that He obeyed their word: Exodus 14:15-16 and Joshua 10:12-14; see also 1 Kings 17:1, 2 Kings 20:9-11, Matthew 9:8, Luke 2:51, and John 9:31 and 20:21-23; Romans 13:1-2, 1 Timothy 1:19-20, Hebrews 13:17, and Revelation 3:7. Compare the Catholic Bible footnotes on these verses with multiple Protestant commentaries. The controversy over divine authority is a key doctrinal issue in the Protestant Reformation. See Apostolic succession.
There is a difference in Matthew 16:18 in the Greek words for "stone" and "rock". Petros Πέτρος is the masculine form, meaning "stone", "boulder" or "large rock", and petra πέτρα is the feminine form, meaning "stone", "boulder" or "massive rock". They essentially mean the same thing.

Πέτρος, Πέτρου, ὁ (an appellative proper name, signifying 'a stone,' a rock, ledge or cliff).
πέτρα, πέτρας, ἡ, from Homer down; the Septuagint reading for סֶלַע and צוּר; a rock, ledge, cliff.
See Strong's numbers 4074 and 4073.
See also 2786.

Κεφας, κεφα, ὁ (Chaldean כֵּיפָא, a rock), Cephas (equivalent to Πέτρος), the surname of Simon the apostle.
(Jesus did not give Simon Bar Jonah a feminine name.) A more literal translation of verse 18 is, "I tell you, you are Rock, and on this Rock I will build my gathering (my assembly)". Linguistically, according to the Greek construction, and Greek grammar, the person indicated by the phrase "on this rock" is Peter, not Jesus.

καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ The emphasis is on ΤΑΎΤῌ ταύτῃ, which points to Peter (not to Jesus, as Augustine would have us suppose), and to be understood thus: on no other than on this rock.
The equivalent Aramaic term in the Syriac Peshitta translation of the New Testament is κεφα Kepa / Cep-ha, simply "rock":
"I tell you, you are Kepha, and on this Kepha I will build my church.
The Greek form of this Aramaic word is "Cephas", pronounced "kepas". This can be seen as a fulfillment of the prophesy of the stone (rock) formed without hands which became a great mountain which filled the whole earth in Daniel 2:34-35, 44-45, and in Isaiah 2:1-5. Catholics point to the fact that the whole Catholic Church "founded by Jesus on Peter the Rock" is worldwide and the largest Christian denomination on earth.

Jesus said to his disciples: He called the multitude and said to them: He said to all.

Boldface emphasis is added to highlight the progression in this episode.
This illustrates the characteristic pattern of progressive reiteration and emphasis that Jesus frequently used in imparting his teaching, first to his apostles, then to the rest of his disciples, then to all.

fuller's earth, literally fuller.

Either the powdered compound (fuller's earth) used in solution to bleach cloth, or the name of the work of laundering and bleaching cloth and clothing, and thus the title of a worker who bleached cloth: a fuller. —"so as no fuller on earth can white them" Mark 9:3 KJV.
A fuller was one who thickened and shrank either wool newly shorn from the sheep, or cloth newly woven; the term also means one who washes or bleaches clothing in a vat of bleaching solution by treading them by foot, or beating them with sticks. Wood alkali from burnt wood ash was used in solution in the process, or sometimes putrid urine, for its acid. Due to the foul fumes, fullers worked outside the city gates.
The Hebrew term "fuller" comes from the root "to tread": kabas, Strong's number 3526.
Mark 9:3 is a literal reference. All other biblical references beside Mark 9:3 are metaphorical, referring to cleansing from sin: Psalm 51:7; Jeremiah 2:22, 4:14; Malachi 3:2 (Adapted from Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 2003, page 605: FULLER.)

Rabbi—Master—Lord

The Gospels relate the use of three different terms which are synonymous in meaning, each translatable as "Master" and "Lord".
  • Matthew 17:4 "Kurios" (Kyrios)
  • Mark 9:5 "Rabbi"
  • Luke 9:33 "Epistata".
See Strong's numbers 4461, 1988, 2962.
It is clear from the text that Peter was so fearfully astonished that he did not know what to say, so it is not impossible that he spontaneously used all three forms of address in his attempt to express appropriate respect and honor, immediately correcting himself by trying to improve what he said. Jesus is certainly their rabbi, teacher and master—and he is even more intimately their own personal master to whom they have given allegiance and devotion as the one they regard as the awaited Messiah—but more than Rabbi and Master his astonishing power and authority is revealed as one who is worthy to be addressed as Lord. It is sufficient in teaching for any of the Gospel writers to use any one of these terms for "Master" in relating what Peter said to Jesus.

Behold, a man from the crowd called out... When they came to the multitude, one of the multitude answered... A man came to him, kneeling down to him, and saying...

This is another situation that unfolds progressively:
  • the man calling out from within the crowd when he first sees Jesus,
  • then repeating his need as he desperately makes his way through them and Jesus comes to the multitude,
  • then finally coming to Jesus himself and kneeling to make his petition.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

and went up into a mountain and sat down there. Great crowds came to him, having with them people that were lame, blind, mute, maimed, and many others. They set them down at Jesus' ffeet, and He healed them, so that the crowd were bug-eye amazed, when they saw mute people speak, maimed people made whole, lame people walk, and blind people see. And they gave glory to the God of Israel.

The crowd that followed Jesus was enormous and had little to eat, so Jesus gathered His students and said, "I have great love and empathy for the people, who have been following Me for three days and now have nothing to eat. I am responsible for them, for if I send them away to their homes, they will collapse along the way, as many of them have come a great distance."

Then Jesus called His students to Him, and said, "I have compassion on the crowd, because they have been keeping up with Me now for three days, and have nothing to eat. I will not send them away hungry; they would pass out on the road if I did."

The students responded, "How can we feed these people bread out in the desert where food is scarce?"

And His students said to Him, "Where can we find enough bread out here in the desert, to feed a big crowd like this?" And Jesus said to them, "How many loaves to you have?" And they said, "Seven, and a few little fish."

Jesus asked them, "how many loaves do you have?" They replied, "seven."

And he ordered the crowd to sit down on the ground.

So he told the crowd to sit down, and taking the seven loaves and giving thanks unto God, he broke them and gave them to His students to distribute, and they did.

And He took the seven loaves and the fish, and gave thanks, and broke them, and gave them to his students, and the students gave them to the crowd.

They also had a few small fish, which he also blessed and had distributed. The people ate and were filled, and the students found that a surplus of seven large baskets of meat remained.

And all of them ate, and were satisfied. They took up the leftovers in seven large baskets. And four thousand men, in addition to women and children, ate that meal.

Four thousand people had eaten, and Jesus sent them on their way.

And he sent away the multitude, and took ship,

Jesus went into a boat with the students and traveled into Dalmanutha. The Pharisees came to Him and began to try to test Him with their questions, demanding a sign from heaven. In his soul he sighed deeply at their lack of faith, and he replied, "Why does this generation want a sign? I'll tell you the truth: you will not be given a sign." So he left them, returned to the boat and traveled across the lake.

The students had neglected to bring bread on board, and had not so much as one loaf aboard. And Jesus warned them, "I caution you, beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod."

They discussed this among themselves and decided, "He says this because we didn't bring bread."

And Jesus knew this and said, "Why do you think this is about bread? Do you still not perceive or understand the message? Have your minds been closed? You have eyes and ears, but do you see, hear, or even remember? When I distributed the five loaves among five thousand people, how many small baskets of remainders did you collect?"

"Twelve."

"And of the seven loaves given to the four thousand, how many large baskets remained?"

"Seven."

"Why do you still not understand?"

and came to the coastal region of Magdala.

The Pharisees and some Sadducees came and, wishing to test Him, asked Him to show them a sign from heaven. In answer, He said to them, "When it is evening, you say, 'The weather will be fair, because the sky is red.' And in the morning, 'The weather will be bad today, because the sky is red and threatening.' Do you mean to say that on the one hand, you can read the sky, but on the other hand, you can't read the signs of the times? A wicked and adulterous generation looks for a sign, but the only sign they're going to get is the sign of the prophet Jonah."

And He left them and went away. And when His students had come to the other side, they had forgotten to take bread. Then Jesus told them, "Be careful and watch out for the yeast of the Pharisees and the Sadducees."

And they said to themselves, "He said that because we haven't taken any bread with us."

When Jesus realized this, he told them, "You of little faith, why do you tell yourselves that it's because you didn't bring any bread? Don't you understand yet, or even remember the five loaves used to feed the five thousand, and how many small baskets you took up? Or the seven loaves used to feed the four thousand, and how many large baskets you took up? How can you fail to understand that I wasn't talking to you about bread, when I said that you should watch out for the yeast of the Pharisees and the Sadducees?"

Then they understood that He was telling them not to watch out for literal bread baker's yeast, but the teachings of the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

Jesus arrived at Bethsaida, where people brought a blind man and begged Jesus to touch him. Jesus took the hand of the blind man, and led him outside the village; Jesus spit on the man's eyes, and laid His hands upon him, asking if he could see. The man looked up and declared, "I only see men that look like walking trees." Jesus put His hands on the blind man's eyes again, and then told him to look up. The man's sight was restored, so that he could see every man around him clearly. Jesus sent him home and told him, "Do not enter the village or tell anyone there about this."

Jesus and the students then went to the towns around Caesarea Philippi, and while walking He asked them, "Whom do men say that I am?"

When Jesus came to the coastlines of Caesarea Philippi, He asked His students, "Whom do men say that I, the Son, a human being, am?"

When Jesus was away from the crowds, praying, and His best students were with Him, He asked them, “Who do the people say I am?”

They answered, “John the Baptist, but some say Elijah, and others one of the ancient prophets resurrected.”

And they said, "Some people say that you are John the Baptist; some say that you are Elijah; other say that you are Jeremiah or one of the prophets."

The students replied, "'John the Baptist.' But some say 'Elijah', and others say, 'One of the prophets.'"

He said to them, "But whom do you say that I am?"

And He said to them, “But who do you say I am?”

And He asked, "Who do you say I am?" to which

Peter answered, “The Messiah of God.”

Peter answered, "you are Christ."

And Simon Peter in answer said, "You are the Anointed One, the Son of the Living God." And Jesus said in answer, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. Because flesh and blood have not revealed it to you, but rather my Father in heaven. And I say also to you: Your name is Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hell will not win against it. And I say to you, You are Peter (Rock) and upon this Rock I will build My Church. The very Gates of Hell shall be breached by it! And I will give you the keys of the Kingdom of heaven. Whatever you make binding on earth will be binding in heaven, and whatever you set loose on earth will be set loose in heaven."

Then he gave His students an order to tell no man that He was Jesus the Christ.

Then Jesus warned and commanded them not to tell anyone this. Saying, “The Son of man must endure many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be resurrected on the third day.”

And He told them not to tell anyone about his true nature. He taught them of things that must pass, that the Son of Man would suffer great trials, be rejected by the elders, the leading priests, and the scribes, and would be killed, only to rise again to life in three days time.

From that time forward, Jesus began to demonstrate to His students that He would have to go to Jerusalem and suffer much harsh treatment from the elders and leading priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day.

He said this openly, but Peter took him aside and began to protest.

Then Peter took him aside and began to scold Him, saying, "Far from it, Lord! This will never happen to You." But He turned and said to Peter, "Get behind Me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to Me. You're not thinking about the things of God, but rather the things of men."

But Jesus turned and, looking at His students, rebuffed Peter. "Begone, Satan. You aren't thinking about Godly things, but the things of men."

Then Jesus told His students, "If any man wants to come after Me, he must deny himself, take up his cross, and follow Me. For whoever saves his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for My sake will find it. For how is a man better off, if he wins the whole world, and loses his own soul? And what can a man pay to buy back his soul? For the Son, a human being, will come in the glory of His Father with His messengers, and then He will reward every man according to the things he did. I tell you truly: Some people are standing here that will not experience death until they actually see the Son, a human being, coming in His Kingdom."

Then calling the people to Himself and the students, Jesus said, "Anyone who wants to follow Me must lay aside all thought for himself, pick up his cross, and follow Me. For he who seeks to save his life will lose it, while anyone persecuted to death for the sake of myself and the gospels will be saved. For what good is it for a man to win the whole world if he condemns his soul? Or What will a man pay in exchange for his soul? If anyone is ashamed of Me or My teaching to this adulterous, sinful generation, I, the Son of Man will be ashamed of them when I return with the glory of My Father and His Holy Messengers." Jesus said to them, "Truly I tell you, there are some of you standing here who will live to see the kingdom of God come with power."

And He said to all of them, “If any man wants to come after me, he should deny himself, carry his cross daily, and follow me. For whoever tries to save his life will lose it, but anyone who loses his life for me will save it. For what benefit is it to a man, if he gains the whole world, but loses himself? For if anyone is ashamed of Me and My words, the Son of man will be ashamed of him, when He comes in His glory and the glory of His Father, and the glory of the holy angels. But this is the truth, there are some standing here who will not die before they see the Kingdom of God.

Six days later, Jesus took Peter, James, and his brother John, and brought them up into a high mountain for a private meeting,

Six days later, Jesus took Peter, James, and John, and led them up into a high mountain, and was transfigured before them.

About eight days after Jesus said this, He took Peter, John and James, and they went up onto a mountain to pray.

His clothing became dazzling white, whiter than snow, whiter than any launderer on earth could make them.

As He prayed, His face seemed to change, and his clothing shone white.

But Peter and the others with Him were asleep, and when they awoke,

and he was transfigured before their eyes, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes were as white as light.

they saw His glory and the two men that were with Him.

And Moses and Elijah appeared, and talked with him.

And they saw Elijah and Moses, and they spoke with Jesus.

And He spoke with two men, Moses and Elijah, who appeared in splendor, and they spoke of His exodus to be achieved soon in Jerusalem.

Now a cloud came and cast a shadow all around,

a cloud appeared around them,

a bright cloud threw its shadow over them,

and they were afraid as it covered them.

As the men were leaving,

Peter said in answer to Jesus, "Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you wish, I will make three tents: one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah."

Peter said to Jesus, "Master, it is good for us to be here. Let us make three tents for the blessed, one for You, one for Moses, and one for Elijah." For he did not know what he was saying, so nervous were they.

Peter said to Jesus, “Teacher, it is good that we are here, let us build three shrines, one for You, one for Moses and one for Elijah,” for Peter did not know what he was saying. While Peter was speaking,

While he was still speaking,

and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son, with Whom I am well pleased. Listen to Him."

and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to Him!"

And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is My beloved Son, listen to him.”

And when the students heard it, they fell on their faces and were very much afraid. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, "Get up, and stop being afraid." And when they look up, they saw no one else but Jesus.

Then suddenly, when they looked around them, they could not see a single person, except Jesus and themselves.

When the voice had spoken, they saw that Jesus was alone. The students kept this secret, and told no man what they had seen. The next day,

And as they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus gave orders to them: "Don't talk about this vision to anyone, until the Son, a human being, rises from the dead."

As they came down the mountain, He ordered them not to tell anyone what they had seen until He, the Son of Man, had risen from the grave. Indeed, they kept his secret, but asked each other what such a resurrection would entail.

And His students asked Him, "Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?"

Then they asked Jesus, "Why do the scribes say that Elijah will come first?"

He responded, "It is true that Elijah must come first to restore everything. Likewise, it is written that the Son of Man must suffer a great deal and be regarded as worthless. But Elijah has already come, and the elite did to him whatever they wanted, as was prophesied."

And Jesus told them, "Of course Elijah has to come first, and restore everything. But I tell you that Elijah has already come, and they didn't recognize him, but have done to him what they wanted. Likewise also the Son, a human being, has to suffer at their hands."

Then the students understood that He was talking to them about John the Baptist.

when they had come down from the hill, a crowd of people came to meet Him.

Returning to His students, he found an enormous crowd gathered around them, with the scribes interrogating them. Immediately the whole crowd, seeing Jesus, ran to greet Him, amazed by His presence. Jesus demanded of the scribes, "What are you asking the people about?"

One of the men called out, “Teacher, please, look at my son, because he is my only child. A demon enters him, and he suddenly cries, and it makes him foam at the mouth and injures him, and it hardly ever leaves him. I asked your students to expel the demon, but they could not.”

But a man from the crowd ran forward and said, "Lord, I've brought you my son, who has a demon of dumbness. And wherever the demon takes him, he claws at himself, foams from the mouth, grinds his teeth, and his body wastes away. I asked Your students to exorcise him, but they couldn't."

And when they had come to the crowd, a certain man came to Him, kneeling down to Him, and saying, "Lord, have mercy on my son. He is mentally disturbed, and severely afflicted. He will often fall into fire and often into water. And I brought him to Your students, and they couldn't cure him."

Then Jesus in answer said, "Oh you faithless and perverse generation, how long am I going to be with you, and how long am I going to put up with you? Bring him here to Me.":

Jesus answered, “You unbelieving and disobedient generation, how long will I have to put up with you? Bring your son here.”

Jesus responded, "You faithless generation, how long can I be with you? How long will I put up with you? Bring your son to Me." They brought him.

So as he was coming, the demon threw him to the ground and injured him.

The demon, seeing Jesus, immediately threw the boy to the ground, where he flailed about, and foamed. Jesus asked the father, "How long has this afflicted him?"

"Since he was a child", the man replied. "Sometimes the demon throws him into the fire, other times into water in order to kill him. If it is true that you can do anything, please have compassion on us and help."

Jesus observed, "If you can believe; anything is possible to the believer."

The father cried out, tears filling his eyes, "I believe, Lord. Help my lack of faith!"

When Jesus saw the crowd of people running together, He scolded the evil spirit, telling him, "You deaf and mute spirit, I order you to leave him alone, and never to bother him again".

And Jesus scolded the demon, and he came out of him,

The spirit cried out and exited him violently. The boy looked so much like he was dead, that bystanders declared, "He's dead!"

But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up; and he arose. But Jesus took his hand and pulled him up, and he stood up.

And Jesus expelled the demon, healed the child, and gave him back to his father.

and the child was cured from that very moment.

And the crowd were all amazed by the power of the Lord. But while they were astonished at what Jesus had done, He said to His students, ”Listen carefully to Me: The Son of man will be delivered into the power of men.” But they did not understand what He meant, and they were too afraid to ask Him.

Then the students came to Jesus privately, and said, "Why couldn't we throw him out?"

When Jesus went indoors, His students privately asked him, "Why couldn't we cast him out?"

And Jesus told them, "It was on account of your lack of faith. Because I tell you truly, that if you have faith like a grain of mustard seed, you can say to this mountain, 'Take yourself away from here to someplace else,' and it will move, and nothing will be impossible for you." ["But this kind doesn't go out except by prayer and fasting."]

He told them, "That kind of spirit can only be driven out by prayer."

They moved on, passing through Galilee; Jesus kept a low profile. He taught His students, saying, "The Son of man shall be betrayed to men who shall murder him, but afterward he shall rise on the third day."

The students did not understand this, and were afraid to ask Jesus.

And while they were staying in Galilee, Jesus told them, "The Son, a human being, will be betrayed into the hands of men. And they will kill Him, and the third day He will rise again." And they were very sorry to hear that.

Nineteen

Chapter 19 Bible texts

He came to Capernaum.

An argument arose among them about which of them was the greatest. But they said nothing about this to him. Jesus, perceiving the reasoning of their hearts, took a little child, and set him by his side, and said to them, “Whoever receives this little child in my name receives me. Whoever receives me receives him who sent me. For whoever is least among you all, this one will be great.”

John answered, “Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we forbade him, because he does not follow with us.”

Jesus said to him, “Do not forbid him, for he who is not against us is for us.”

When they had come to Capernaum, those who collected the didrachma coins, the double-drachma coins, for the regular Temple tax came to Peter, and said, “Does your Teacher not pay the didrachma?”

He said, “Yes.”

When he came into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, “What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth receive toll or tribute? From their children, or from strangers?”

Peter said to him, “From strangers.”

Jesus said to him, “Therefore the children are exempt. But, lest we cause them offense, go to the sea, cast a hook, and take up the first fish that comes up. When you have opened its mouth, you will find a stater coin. Take that, and give it to them for me and you.”

And when he was in the house he asked them, “What were you arguing among yourselves on the way?”

But they were silent, for they had disputed with one another on the way about who was the greatest. He sat down, and called the twelve; and he said to them, “If any man wants to be first, he shall be last of all, and servant of all.”

He took a little child, and set him in the middle of them. Taking him in his arms, he said to them, “Whoever receives one such little child in my name, receives me, and whoever receives me, does not receive me, but him who sent me.”

John said to him, “Teacher, we saw someone who does not follow us casting out demons in your name; and we forbade him, because he does not follow us.”

But Jesus said, “Do not forbid him, for there is no one who will do a mighty work in my name, and be able quickly to speak evil of me. For whoever is not against us is on our side. For whoever will give you a cup of water to drink in my name, because you are Christ’s, most certainly I tell you, he will in no way lose his reward. Whoever will cause one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble, it would be better for him if he were thrown into the sea with a millstone hung around his neck.

“If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life maimed, rather than having your two hands to go into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire,

‘where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.’

“If your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life lame, rather than having your two feet to be cast into Gehenna, into the fire that will never be quenched—

‘where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.’

“If your eye causes you to stumble, cast it out. It is better for you to enter into God’s Kingdom with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire,

‘where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.’

"For everyone will be salted with fire, and every sacrifice will be seasoned with salt. Salt is good, but if the salt has lost its saltiness, with what will you season it? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another.”

In that hour the disciples, his followers came to Jesus, saying, “Who then is greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven?”

Jesus called a little child to himself, and set him in the middle of them, and said, “Most certainly I tell you, unless you turn, and become as little children, you will in no way enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. Whoever therefore humbles himself as this little child is the greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven. Whoever receives one such little child in my name receives me, but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble, it would be better for him if a huge millstone were hung around his neck, and that he were sunk in the depths of the sea.

“Woe to the world because of occasions of stumbling! For it must be that the occasions come, but woe to that person through whom the occasion comes! If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the eternal fire. If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire.

"See that you do not despise one of these little ones, for I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven. For the Son of Man came to save that which was lost.

“What do you think? If a man has one hundred sheep, and one of them goes astray, does he not leave the ninety-nine, go to the mountains, and seek that which has gone astray? If he finds it, most certainly I tell you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine which have not gone astray. Even so it is not the will of your Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish.

“If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. But if he does not listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the Assembly. If he refuses to hear the Assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. Most certainly I tell you, whatever things you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever things you release on earth will be released in heaven. Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the middle of them.”

Then Peter came and said to him, “Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Up to seven times?”

Jesus said to him, “I do not tell you up to seven times, but, up to seventy times seven. Therefore the Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who wanted to reconcile accounts with his servants. When he had begun to reconcile, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents. But because he could not pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, with his wife, his children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. The servant therefore fell down and knelt before him, saying, ‘Lord, have patience with me, and I will repay you all!’ The lord of that servant, being moved with compassion, released him, and forgave him the debt.

“But that servant went out, and found one of his fellow servants, who owed him one hundred denarii, and he grabbed him, and took him by the throat, saying, ‘Pay me what you owe!’

“So his fellow servant fell down at his feet and begged him, saying, ‘Have patience with me, and I will repay you!’ He would not, but went and cast him into prison, up unto the day he should pay back that which was due. So when his fellow servants saw what was done, they were exceedingly sorry, and came and told their lord all that was done. Then his lord called him in, and said to him, ‘You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt, because you begged me. Should you not also have had mercy on your fellow servant, even as I had mercy on you?’ His lord was angry, and delivered him to the tormentors, up unto the very day he should pay all that was due to him. So my heavenly Father will also do to you, if you do not each forgive your brother from your hearts for his misdeeds.”

When Jesus had finished these words, he arose from there. He departed from Galilee, and came into the borders of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Great multitudes followed him. Multitudes came together to him again, and he healed them there. As he usually did, he was again Teaching them.

Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?”

He answered, “What did Moses command you?”

They said, “Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her.”

But Jesus said to them, “For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. But from the beginning of the creation, God made them male and female. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife, and the two will become one flesh, so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate.”

In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. He said to them, “Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery.

They were bringing to him little children, that he should touch them, but the disciples rebuked those who were bringing them. But when Jesus saw it, he was moved with indignation, and said to them, “Allow the little children to come to me! Do not forbid them, for God’s Kingdom belongs to such as these. Most certainly I tell you, whoever will not receive God’s Kingdom like a little child, he will in no way enter into it.”

He took them in his arms, and blessed them, laying his hands on them.

Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason?”

He answered, “Have you not read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female, and said,

‘For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall be joined to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh’?

"So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, do not let man tear apart.”

They asked him, “Why then did Moses command us to give her a certificate of divorce, and divorce her?”

He said to them, “Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery.”

His disciples said to him, “If this is the case of the man with his wife, it is not expedient to marry.”

But he said to them, “Not all men can receive this saying, but those to whom it is given. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother’s womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven’s sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it.”

Then little children were brought to him, that he should lay his hands on them and pray; and the disciples rebuked them. But Jesus said, “Allow the little children, and do not forbid them to come to me; for the Kingdom of Heaven belongs to ones like these.”

He laid his hands on them, and departed from there.

Mark 9:33a
Luke 9:46-50
Matthew 17:24-27
Mark 9:33-50
Matthew 18:1–19:2
Mark 10:1-16
Matthew 19:3-15

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Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven."

Understood traditionally as a reference to the guardian angels. It is not a reference to the departed spirits of innocent children who have died and gone to heaven and now behold the face of God. Compare Matthew 22:29-33.

"whatever things you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever things you release on earth will be released in heaven."

Matthew 18:18. Compare John 20:23.
The Catholic Church, numerically constituting the majority of Christians, emphasizes the fact that in this passage relating the words addressed to the apostles together, Jesus does not speak of the "keys of the Kingdom of Heaven". This textual fact is cited in Catholic apologetics in defense of the doctrine of the primacy of Saint Peter as Prince of the Apostles. Compare Matthew 16:16-19 and 18:15-20; Romans 13:1-7.
The Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and The Episcopal Church, and all Evangelical, Reform and Fundamentalist churches absolutely reject Petrine Primacy. (See Chapter Seventeen above, marginal note on Matthew 16:18.)

"For everyone will be salted with fire, and every sacrifice will be seasoned with salt."

Mark 9:49
Compare 1 Corinthians 3:10-15; Leviticus 2:13.
See multiple commentaries on:

"how often shall my brother...?"

Matthew 18:21.
"brother" Greek ἀδελφός adelphos, literally a- "from" + delphos "the (same) womb", (my) from the womb:—(my) "brother".
See Strong's Concordance entries for BROTHER and BRETHREN, both keyed to Strong's number 80 ἀδελφός .
Greek text: 21 Τότε προσελθὼν αὐτῷ ὁ Πέτρος εἶπε· Κύριε, ποσάκις ἁμαρτήσει εἰς ἐμὲ ὁ ἀδελφός μου καὶ ἀφήσω αὐτῷ; ἕως ἑπτάκις
Significantly, no biblical commentary on this passage in Matthew relates this word ἀδελφός to Peter's own brother Andrew (Matthew 4:18, Mark 1:16, Luke 6:14, John 6:8). Instead, all Bible commentaries at this place, Protestant and Catholic alike, understand Peter to mean "neighbor" or "fellow Israelite". The New Testament does not say that Andrew is one of Peter's brothers, it says that Andrew is the brother of Peter. The word for brother in the New Testament is always adelphos ἀδελφός, and the word for brothers is always adelphoi ἀδελφοὶ.
Catholic commentaries on those passages speaking of the brothers of Jesus ἀδελφοὶ, in their defense of the doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity, carefully point out the broader Semitic usage of "brother" as "cousin", "relative", "neighbor", "fellow Israelite", "friend", "fellow believer", "comrade", by insisting that Jesus' brothers, or brethren (relatives), were not born of Mary's womb, but were his neighbors or his cousins, members of the same house and family of David as Joseph and Mary.
Protestant commentaries defending the narrower literal meaning of ἀδελφός as a "brother" born of the same mother, as a textually based means of refuting the Catholic doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity, do not discuss here at Matthew 18:21 any possible multiple offenses that may have been constantly committed against Peter by his own brother Andrew. They discuss instead the apparently broader intent, the broader meaning of Peter's "brother", and take for granted the general meaning of forgiving any one of our brothers, a fellow citizen and neighbor, who has offended us. This is not consistent. Moreover, the same word ἀδελφός in the plural form ἀδελφοὶ is also used of the one hundred and twenty brothers ἀδελφοὶ gathered together in Jerusalem after the ascension of the Lord Jesus Christ (Acts 1:15-16). Peter addresses the whole assembly, calling them all "brothers" ἀδελφοὶ. At that place in the text Protestant commentaries again inconsistently discuss the word ἀδελφοὶ according to its broader meaning of fellow disciples and believers.
Consider the narrower literal meaning of "brothers" in Acts according to the literalist meaning Protestant commentaries read into those passages speaking of the brothers of Jesus. It is not physically possible for one woman in her lifetime to give birth to one hundred and twenty male children ἀδελφοὶ who have grown to manhood; but it would be possible for one man to have impregnated several women who gave birth to all of his male children, making them all sons of one father grown to manhood, and making their father a promiscuous polygamist and adulterer, but they are not strictly and literally ἀδελφοὶ, that is, "a- from + delphos the (same) womb", they are not related from the womb. According to the strictly literal meaning of the Greek word they are one hundred and twenty ἀδελφοὶ from the womb of one woman. This appears absurd. No one believes such a reading of the text. However literal are the words ἀδελφός and ἀδελφοὶ the narrow meaning is not their literal meaning.
On the sole basis of the text of the Old and New Testaments together, and in accordance with the consistently broad meaning of the biblical term "brother" as used throughout the Bible in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, there is no firm textual ground for maintaining absolutely that Mary was the only possible mother of the brothers of Jesus, or that Peter was only referring to his brother Andrew.

"seventy times seven"

Others read "seven times seven".
Most commentaries explain this as a figure of speech indicating no limit.
The literal calculation of 70 x 7 = 490 times. A 24 hour day is 1440 minutes. Divided by 490, that is one offense every 2.93877551 minutes, literally every 2 minutes 55 and a half seconds. 490 offenses in a day. (it's possible)
70 years is 840 months, divided by 490 times = 1.714285714... per month. That is very close to one offense every 17.5 days for 70 years after the age of 15 (85 years old). (it's possible)

"for any reason?"

This Harmony of the Gospel arrangement of the two texts in separate sequence based on particular details in the narrative highlights the possibility that there were two confrontations.
In the first, Jesus is approached as a rabbi to render his judgment according to his reading of the law, and he gives his authoritative opinion.
In the second, the Pharisees are asking for a clarification of his opinion: on the one hand seeking for a loophole in his decision, his possible allowance of some exemption, as a justification for divorce, and if he offers none, to show him as one who sets aside the tradition of generations of elders of Israel as teachers of the people; and on the other hand to establish beyond any doubt by his own words that he opposed the prevalent injustice of using any trivial pretext whatever as grounds for divorce, in accordance with the word of the prophet Malachi (2:13-16) at the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. See Talmud.
When a lawyer (expert in the Torah) asked Jesus to render his rabbinical opinion on which was the great or primary commandment above all others in the law of Moses, Jesus similarly asked him how he read the law (Matthew 22:34-36).
See following articles giving excellent historical overview of what over the past several centuries has been historically called the scandal of Protestant rejection of the Bible in opposition to the teaching of Jesus Christ Himself on the indissolubility of marriage (see Martin Luther and Erasmus; also Heresy):
Those who opposed Jesus on doctrinal grounds frequently used casuisty and sophistry to entrap him in his words (Matthew 22:15-46, Mark 12:13-37, Luke 20:20-44; compare John 8:12-59). (See definitions of casuistry and sophism from dictionary.com.)

"eunuch"

A eunuch is literally one who has been castrated. Some men had this surgery done on them to make them eligible to serve in high-ranking households. Jesus does not ask that of men, but He figuratively suggests that a man might give up the privilege of marriage and intimacy as a celibate to serve the Lord full-time, without being divided, "for the sake of the Kingdom". Compare 1 Corinthians 7:32-35.
1 Timothy 4:1-3 is urgently cited by many as a biblical proof and warning that clerical celibacy and days of fasting and abstaining from meat are doctrines of devils.
"Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils;
Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;
Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth."
See Proof texts. See also 2 Peter 3:14-18.
When this passage (1 Timothy 4:1-3) is read within the context of the whole of the New Testament (e.g. Jesus' words about men making themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom, and Paul's recommendation of celibacy), and within the historical context of the development of the various heresies in the first century, Paul is referencing the various forms of Gnosticism, and Greek Mystery religions, to which he refers in Colossians 2:8-23, also sects such as the Ebionites and the Judaisers who insisted on obedience to the Mosaic Torah in abstaining from meats that Jesus had declared clean, "purging all meats" (Mark 7:19 "declaring all foods clean" RSV, NAB, and many other translations). Later, similar and more extreme forms of self-abasement were promoted by the Albigenses of Europe in the Middle Ages, who forbade marriage (but allowed fornication), and highly esteemed the committing of suicide by self-starvation ("the pure"), prompted by the visions reportedly experienced or claimed by their founders as being new revelations from God or as restorations of lost truth, which Church leaders denounced as error. Foxe's Book of Martyrs presents the campaign against them and against the Waldensians as a vile persecution of true Christians.
See Bible: Heresies based on abusive use of vernacular translations.

"Then little children were brought to him"

Three accounts are presented in the Gospels, one in Mark (10:13-31), one in Matthew (19:13-30), and one in Luke (18:15-29). There is enough difference in detail to justify presenting them as three separate incidents, two of them here (Mark and Matthew) representing a progressive unfoldment of revelation.
In the first one presented in this Harmony of the Gospel Jesus became indignant at initial attempts by the disciples to keep people from bothering him with little children, but in the second account he simply admonishes his disciples to allow them to come to him. Since Jesus had many disciples, it is not impossible that those represented here in the second account were not the same disciples Jesus had admonished the first time. After his first blessing of the children (Mark 10:13-16), there is an abrupt change or break in the Greek text, without any connecting transition, like the beginning of a new chapter. In contrast to this, after the second blessing of the children (Matthew 19:13-15) Jesus departs from there, and "As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him." (See following chapter next in this Harmony of the Gospel). Both of these episodes occur at the beginning of Jesus' final journey to Jerusalem according to the grammatical structure of the Greek text. In the Gospel of Luke the (third) account of "babies" (NIV) being brought to Jesus for blessing, followed immediately by the account of a "ruler" (archon), who is not identified as a "young man", who asks what he must do to inherit eternal life (18:15-30), occurs near the end of his journey to Jerusalem, just before he enters the town of Jericho (see Luke 9:51–19:1).

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

They arrived in Capernaum, where

An argument started among the twelve best students of Jesus, about which one of them would be the greatest. Then Jesus, seeing what they were thinking, had a child stand beside Him. He said to them, “Whoever receives this child in My name receives Me, and whoever receives Me receives Him that sent Me. The one who is the least important of you, he will be the greatest.”

And John answered, “Teacher, we saw a man expelling demons in Your name, and we ordered him to stop, because he did not follow You with us.”

And Jesus replied, “Do not obstruct him, for anyone who is not against us is on our side.”

And when they came back to Capernaum, the Temple tax collectors came to Peter, and said, "Doesn't your Teacher pay the Temple tax?"

He said, "Yes."

And when he had come into the house, Jesus stopped him, saying, "What are you thinking, Simon? Whom do the kings of the earth collect value-added and capitation taxes from? From their own children, or from foreigners?"

Peter said to Him, "From foreigners."

Jesus said to him, "Then the children are free. Still, so that we won't shock them, go to the sea, throw out a hook, and take the first fish that bites. When you open his mouth, you'll find a piece of money in it. Take that, and give it to them for me and for you."

as soon as they had gone into a house Jesus asked His students, "What were you arguing about on the highway?" But they were too ashamed to answer because they had been debating who was the greatest among them. Jesus sat down and summoned the Twelve, saying, "If anyone wants the highest rank, then he must first become the lowest of all, waiting on all."

Jesus then invited a child to join them, and after taking him in His arms, Jesus declared, "Whoever welcomes such a child in My Name, welcomes Me; and whoever welcomes Me, doesn't so much welcome Me but Him Who sent Me."

John replied: "Teacher, we saw a man casting out demons in Your Name, who was not one of our group. We told him to stop doing it, because he wasn't one of us."

But Jesus replied: "Do not forbid him! You see, no man who has carried out a powerful work in My Name can easily turn round and attack Me. Because he who is not our enemy is our ally. Anyone who gives you a drink of water in My Name, because you follow Christ, will not lose his reward in heaven. Anyone who corrupts or deceives a child who believes in me will wish he had had a millstone hung around his neck and had been cast into the sea.

"If your hand corrupts you, cut if off. Entering eternal life maimed is better than descending to Hell with both hands intact, where the fire burns forever. There, the condemned soul does not die, but burns forever.

"If your foot corrupts you, cut it off. It's better to limp into eternal life than walk steadily into Hell, into that unending fire. There, the condemned soul does not die, but burns forever.

"If your eye deceives you, remove it. Entering God's kingdom half-blinded is better than entering Hell's fires with sight intact. There, the condemned soul is always eaten by worms, and burns forever.

"Everyone will be salted by fire[, as every sacrifice will be salted with salt]. Salt is good, but if it loses its saltiness, how will you season the sacrifice? Have salt in yourselves, and have the divine tranquility of mind."

In that hour the students came to Jesus, and said, "Who is greatest in the Kingdom of heaven?"

And Jesus called a little child to him, and had that child stand in the middle of them, and said, "I tell you truly, unless you have been converted, and become like little children, you will not get into the Kingdom of heaven. So any person who humbles himself like this little child, will be greatest in the Kingdom of heaven. And any person who receives even one little child like this in My Name receives Me.

"But if any person causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to sin, it would be better for him if he had a very large millstone hung around his neck and he were drowned in the deep sea. How terrible it will be for the world because of stumbling blocks! Stumbling blocks must come, but woe to that man by whom the stumbling block comes!

"So if your hand or foot causes you to sin, cut them off, and throw them away from you: it is better to enter into life crippled or maimed than to have two hands or two feet and be thrown into the everlasting fire. And if your eye causes you to sin, gouge it out and throw it away from you: it is better for you to enter into life blind in one eye, than to have two eyes and be thrown into hellfire.

"Be careful not to look down on one of these little ones. For I tell you that in heaven their messengers always look at the face of My Father in heaven. [For the Son, a human being, came to save what was lost.]

"What do you think? If a man has a hundred sheep, and one of them were to wander off, wouldn't he leave the ninety-nine sheep and go into the mountains to look for the wandering sheep? And if he found it, I tell you truly: he would rejoice more about that sheep, than about the ninety-nine sheep that didn't wander off. Thus it is not the wish of your Father in heaven that one of these little ones should die.

"Furthermore: if your brother should sin against you, go and show him what he did wrong between you and him alone. If he listens to you, then you have won your brother over. But if he won't hear you, then take with you one or two others, so that 'in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be given standing.' And if he refuses to listen to them, then tell it to the church. And if he refuses to listen to the church, then regard him as you would a foreigner and a tax collector. I tell you truly: whatever you make binding on earth will be binding in heaven, and whatever you set loose on earth will be set loose in heaven. Again I tell you that if two of you agree on earth with respect to anything that they ask, it will be done for them by My Father in heaven. For where two or three come together in My Name, I am present in their midst."

Then Peter came to Him, and said, "Lord, how often will my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Seven times?"

Jesus told him, "I don't tell you seven times. I tell you, seventy times seven. In this context the kingdom of heaven is like a certain king, who was taking an audit from his slaves. And when he had started his audit, one was brought to him, who owed him ten thousand talents. But seeing that he did not have the money to pay, his lord ordered him to be sold, along with his wife and children and everything he had, to satisfy the debt. So the slave fell down and kissed his feet, saying, 'Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay you all.' Then that slave's lord took pity on him, and set him free, and forgave him the debt. But that slave went out, and found one of his fellow slaves who owed him a hundred shillings. He laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, and said, 'Pay me what you owe.' And his fellow slave fell down at his feet, and begged him, saying, 'Have patience with me, and I will pay you all.' Instead he went and had him thrown into prison, until he paid the debt. So when his fellow slaves saw what had been done, they were very sorry, and came and told their lord everything that had happened. Then his lord, after he had called him, said to him, 'You wicked slave, I forgave you all that debt, because you asked me to. 'Shouldn't you also have had pity on your fellow slave, even as I had pity on you?' And his lord was as angry as a magistrate might be, and delivered him to the torturers, until he should pay all that was due to him. So likewise My heavenly Father will do also to you, unless each and every one of you forgives his brother his sins, from your hearts."

And it happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, He left Galilee and came into the coastal regions of Judea beyond the Jordan. Great crowds followed Him, and He healed them there.

And he left that place, and went to the coasts of Judea on the far side of the Jordan river, and the people came to Him again, and He taught them again.

Some Pharisees came to him, and attempted to trick him by asking, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?"

And He answered them, "What did Moses command you?"

They said, "Moses said that a man could write a bill of divorcement, and divorce her."

Jesus answered them, saying "He wrote you this law because men's hearts are hardened. But from the beginning of time, God has made man, male and female. For this reason, men leave their parents and cling to a wife, and the two shall be one flesh, so that they are no longer two people, but one. What God has joined together, let no man tear apart."

In his house, later, His students asked the same question again. He said to them, "Any man who divorces his wife and marries another has committed adultery. And if a woman divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery."

Young children were brought to Jesus, that He might teach them. His students scolded those who brought the children, but when Jesus saw what His students were doing, He was very unhappy, and told them, "Do not forbid the children to come to me. Allow them there, for they are so like the kingdom of God. Truly I say to you, who ever does not receive the kingdom of God the way a child does, he shall not enter into it."

Jesus took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them.

The Pharisees also came to Him, to test Him, and said to Him, "May a man divorce his wife for every cause?"

And in answer He asked them, "Haven't you read, that He Who created them at the beginning 'made them male and female,' And said, 'For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and unite himself to his wife, and the two of them will be one flesh'? So they aren't two anymore, but one flesh. So what God has joined together, don't let man tear apart."

Then they said to Him, "Then why did Moses give an order to give a bill of divorcement, and to divorce her?"

He told them, "Moses let you divorce your wives on account of your hardheartedness. But it was not that way from the beginning. And I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, unless he does it by reason of improper behavior before the wedding, and marries someone else, commits adultery."

His students said to Him, "If that's the case of the man with his wife, then maybe one shouldn't get married."

But He told them, "Not all men can accept this ideal, but only those to whom it is given. For there are some eunuchs, who were born that way from their mother's womb, and other eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men. And there are those eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the Kingdom of heaven. He who can accept this ideal, let him accept it."

Then some little children were brought to Him there, so that He could lay His hands on them, and pray. The students scolded them. But Jesus said, "Allow the little children to come to Me, and don't tell them not to. The Kingdom of Heaven is made of just such persons."

And He laid His hands on them, and left that place.

Twenty

Chapter 20 Bible texts

As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, “Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?”

Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except one—God. You know the commandments:

‘Do not murder,’
‘Do not commit adultery,’
‘Do not steal,’
‘Do not give false testimony,’
‘Do not defraud,’
‘Honor your father and mother.’ ”

He said to him, “Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth.”

Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, “One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross.”

But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, “How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into God’s Kingdom!”

The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, “Children, how hard it is for those who trust in riches to enter into God’s Kingdom! It is easier for a camel to go through a needle’s eye than for a rich man to enter into God’s Kingdom.”

They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, “Then who can be saved?”

Jesus, looking at them, said, “With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God.”

Peter began to tell him, “Behold, we have left all, and have followed you.”

Jesus said, “Most certainly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the sake of the Good News, but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time: houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. But many who are first will be last; and the last first.”

Then Jesus continued on the way.

It was the Feast of the Dedication at Jerusalem. It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the Temple, in Solomon’s porch. The Jews therefore came around him and said to him, “How long will you hold us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly.”

Jesus answered them, “I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in my Father’s name, these testify about me. But you do not believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. I give eternal life to them. They will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father who has given them to me is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them out of my Father’s hand. I and the Father are one.”

Therefore Jews took up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, “I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of those works do you stone me?”

The Jews answered him, “We do not stone you for a good work, but for blasphemy: because you, being a man, make yourself God.”

Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your law, ‘I said, you are gods’? If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture cannot be broken), do you say of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You blaspheme,’ because I said, ‘I AM the Son of God’? If I do not do the works of my Father, do not believe me. But if I do them, though you do not believe me, believe the works, that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father.”

They sought again to seize him, and he went out of their hand. He went away again beyond the Jordan into the place where John was baptizing at first, and he stayed there. Many came to him. They said, “John indeed did no sign, but everything that John said about this man is true.”

Many believed in him there.

Behold, one came to him and said, “Good Teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?”

He said to him, “Why do you call me good?* No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.”

He said to him, “Which ones?

Jesus said,

“ ‘You shall not murder.’
‘You shall not commit adultery.’
‘You shall not steal.’
‘You shall not offer false testimony.’
‘Honor your father and your mother.’

"And,

‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ ”

The young man, not satisfied with this answer, said to him, “All these things I have observed from my youth. What do I still lack?

Jesus said to him, “If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.”

But when the young man heard the saying, he went away sad, for he was one who had great possessions. Jesus said to his disciples, “Most certainly I say to you, a rich man will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven with difficulty. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through a needle’s eye, than for a rich man to enter into God’s Kingdom.”

When the disciples heard it, they were exceedingly astonished, saying, “Who then can be saved?”

Looking at them, Jesus said, “With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.”

Then Peter answered, “Behold, we have left everything, and followed you. What then will we have?”

Jesus said to them, “Most certainly I tell you that you who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on the throne of his glory, you also will sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Everyone who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name’s sake, will receive one hundred times, and will inherit eternal life. But many will be last who are first; and first who are last.

“For the Kingdom of Heaven is like a man who was the master of a household, who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard. When he had agreed with the laborers for a denarius a day, he sent them into his vineyard. He went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace. He said to them, ‘You also go into the vineyard, and whatever is right I will give you.’ So they went their way. Again he went out about the sixth and the ninth hour, and did likewise. About the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle. He said to them, ‘Why do you stand here all day idle?’ They said to him, ‘Because no one has hired us.’ He said to them, ‘You also go into the vineyard, and you will receive whatever is right.’ When evening had come, the lord of the vineyard said to his manager, ‘Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning from the last to the first.’

“When those who were hired at about the eleventh hour came, they each received a denarius. When the first came, they supposed that they would receive more; and they likewise each received a denarius. When they received it, they murmured against the master of the household, saying, ‘These last have spent one hour, and you have made them equal to us, who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat!’ But he answered one of them, ‘Friend, I am doing you no wrong. Did you not agree with me for a denarius? Take that which is yours, and go your way. It is my desire to give to this last just as much as to you. Is it not lawful for me to do what I want to with what I own? Or is your eye evil, because I am good?’ So the last will be first, and the first last. For many are called, but few are chosen.”

It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem and sent messengers before his face. They went and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. They did not receive him, because he was traveling with his face set toward Jerusalem. When his disciples, James and John, saw this, they said, “Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from the sky, and destroy them, just as Elijah did?”

But he turned and rebuked them, “You do not know of what kind of spirit you are. For the Son of Man did not come to destroy men’s lives, but to save them.”

They went to another village.

Mark 10:17-31
John 10:22-42
Matthew 19:16–20:16
Luke 9:51-56

Compare
World English Bible text
Greek original text
Latin Vulgate text
NRSV text
Scofield Reference Bible (1917 Edition)
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multiple versions of any verse
multiple commentaries any passage
interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

—in Gregorian Calendar click the cursor in the day, month, or year fields, to highlight selection,
then use [Backspace ←] and [←] [→] right and left arrow keys in the day and year fields,
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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, “Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit".

The boldface emphases in this chapter highlight the differences in the two narratives of Mark and Matthew in order to demonstrate a conservative interpretation of them as two different episodes.
Greek text κληρονομήσω "inherit" (receive).
Greek text ἔχω "have" (possess).
After the second blessing of the children (Matthew 19:13-15) Jesus departs from there, and the grammar of transition to an immediate encounter with the young man who runs to him is evident; and after the young man departs with sorrow, Jesus gives his disciples an extensive teaching on the danger of attachment to riches (Matthew 19:23–20:16).

"Then Jesus continued on the way."

An amplification of the text after Matthew 20:16 in accordance with conservative principles of redaction. This point in the narrative appears from textual indications to be the appropriate place to insert the account of the Feast of the Dedication in winter (John 10:22-42) which follows and finds Jesus in Jerusalem and then his return to Galilee before spring and his final journey to Jerusalem for the Passover.
The materials collated and redacted in this and the previous chapter of Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) are those texts which have perennially presented the Gospel redactor with most difficulty and frustration over the question of how to combine them in a genuine chronological sequence that is true to the text. The Gospel of John presents textual critics and students of the Bible with unresolved difficulties over the appropriate placement of most of its narrative materials in harmony within the Synoptics, Matthew, Mark, Luke, because it contains few points of correspondence with them. An abundance of commentaries on the differences between them and the Gospel of John has been produced over the past several centuries. A few have given outstandingly well-informed and insightful opinions supported by extensive practical researches in the historical background of first century Palestine, together with historical, documentary, linguistical and textual analyses, which offer reasonable suggestions of how these apparent differences might be resolved. The most elegant and successful resolutions of the difficulties of correlating the Gospel narratives are derived from approaching the manuscripts of these texts as if they are reliable and factual historical documentation drawn on eyewitness testimony. Conservative textual critics are convinced by all indications from the body of available evidence and the constant witness of the Christian Faith over two millennia that the Four Gospels are in fact reliable, factual and historical.
The position of John 10:22-42 relative to the Synoptics is determined by a few factors and conservative assumptions.
  • The Gospels are all assumed to be chronological narratives, telling the story in historical time sequence.
  • The Feast of the Dedication in winter took place after the Passover and the episodes of the multiplication of the loaves and fishes (Matthew 14–15, Mark 6–8, Luke 9, John 6) and after the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7–9).
  • It took place before Jesus made his final journey to Jerusalem in the spring (Matthew 20:17-34, Mark 10:32-52, Luke 9:51–19:28).
  • Comparative reading of the Synoptic Gospels reveals in each of them gaps in narrative which allows insertion of material from one Gospel to another, for example, the obvious gap in Luke 9:17-18 which allows the insertion of Matthew 14:22 through 16:13, Mark 6:45 through 8:27, and John 6.
  • Places in the Greek text of the Synoptics where there is textually no grammatical element indicating a transition of moving from one episode immediately into another are interpreted as possible breaks which allows the redactor to insert into the narrative material presented by one Gospel which is not represented in another.
Regarding the placement of John 10:22-42, after the narrative of Mark 10:31 and before the narrative of Matthew 19:16, there is a distinct change or break between the texts of Matthew 20:16 and 17, and only then is Jesus on the way to Jerusalem (20:17).
In Mark's Gospel, Jesus begins to set out on his journey to Jerusalem and a young man "runs up" to him and "kneels to him" and asks what he should do to "inherit" eternal life, and after hearing him, Jesus loves him and offers him counsel, but the tone of this account is more tender than the second account in Matthew. The young man goes away sorrowful, and Jesus gives his teaching about riches; and when Peter begins to ask the question, "What shall we have?" Jesus interrupts him before he completes it.
In the account in Matthew there is no grammatical transition from the blessing of the children. The man is a young man, but he simply "comes up" to Jesus, he does not "kneel", and he asks what "one thing" he should do to "have" (ἔχω I have) eternal life (now, so that I do not have to wait and then inherit it when I die); and when Jesus simply tells him to keep the commandments, he asks "which ones?", and when he is told, he is not satisfied with the Lord's answer, and he asks what he still lacks, and he too goes away sad. This is a different man, with a different attitude. In Matthew's account, after the young man leaves, Jesus expands upon his teaching about attachment to riches; and he allows Peter to ask all of his question. The two narratives are not the same.
Greek text Mark 10:17b:
διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ,
τί ποιήσω ἵνα ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;
Greek text Matthew 19:16b:
διδάσκαλε ἀγαθέ,
τί ἀγαθὸν ποιήσω ἵνα ἔχω ζωὴν αἰώνιον;
The Gospel of Luke also resumes at this point, saying that he set his face to go to Jerusalem. After this point in the synoptic narratives no appropriate place can be found for the winter Feast of the Dedication.
The points set out in the marginal notes of the previous chapter above, together with the points of differing detail in the narratives here, appear to justify the sequence presented in this chapter of Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version). Many will agree with this editorial arrangement of the Gospel of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and many will disagree. The reader who is inclined to draft a different text is encouraged to develop another Harmony of the Gospel for personal use or for publication. No harmony of the Gospel ever published can displace the inspired canonical Gospels.
No claim is made that this particular Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) is authoritative, definitive or inspired. It is an illustrative demonstration only, made available here as a help to better understanding, "that you may know with greater certainty the truth about those things of which you have been informed". It may be regarded as a commentary. It should be evaluated according to its merits.

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

As he was leaving, a man came running up to him, and kneeled before him, asking, "Good Teacher, what must I do that I may have eternal life?"

And Jesus said to him, "Why do you call Me good? There is no one good but God the Father. You know the commandments, 'Do not commit adultery, do not kill, do not steal, do not give false testimony, do not defraud, honor your parents."

The man answered Him, saying, "Teacher, I have kept all the commandments, since I was a child."

Jesus loved him, so He said to him, "You lack one thing: go home, sell all your possessions, giving all you have to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven; and come, take up the cross, and follow me."

His face dropped at those words, and he departed in sorrow, because he was a rich man.

Jesus looked around and said to His students, "How unlikely it is that those who have a lot of money will enter the kingdom of God!"

The students were astonished to hear this. But Jesus said again, "Children, how hard it is for them [who trust in money] to enter the kingdom of God! It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for an idle miser to enter into the kingdom of God."

They were incredulous, saying to each other, "Who, then, can be saved?"

Jesus looked at them and said, "With man, it is impossible to be saved, but not with God - with God, all things are possible."

Peter said to him, "We have left all we had, and followed you."

Jesus answered, "Truly I tell you, every man who has left his house, or siblings, or parents, or family, or lands for My sake and the sake of the gospel shall in this life receive a hundred times as much persecution as he gave up in goods. But in the world to come, he shall receive eternal life. Many who are in the first rank will be sent to the last rank, and many in the last shall be brought forward to the first."

During the winter, in Jerusalem, at the time of the festival of the Dedication, Jesus was walking in the Temple, in Solomon's porch, when He was surrounded by the Jews, who said to Him, "How long are you going to keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, then stop beating around the bush and just tell us openly and boldly."

Jesus answered, "I already told you, and are refusing to believe: the works that I do in my Father's name are testifying about me. But you are refusing to believe because, as I have already said to you, you are not my sheep. My sheep hear my voice, I know them, they follow me, and I give them everlasting life. They shall never, ever be destroyed, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who is greater than everyone and everything, has given them to me, and no one has the ability to snatch them out of the Father's hand. The Father and I are one."

Once again, the Jews picked up stones so that they could stone Him. Jesus responded, "I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of these works do you stone me?"

The Jews answered, "We are not stoning you for a good work, but for blasphemy, because you, although you are only a man, are making yourself God."

Jesus responded, "It is written in your law, 'I said you are gods,' isn't it? The scriptures cannot be broken into pieces, so if He called them gods, to whom the Word of God came, then how can you say of the one whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, 'you are blaspheming,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God?' If I do not do the works of my Father, then don't believe in me. But if I do them, even though you do not believe in me, believe in the works, so that you can know, and understand that the Father is in me, and I am in the Father."

Undeterred, they again tried to grab Him, but He slipped through their grasp, and once again He went across the Jordan to the place where John was first baptizing, and He stayed there. Many people came to Him, and they said, "Even though John did not do any miracles, everything John said about this man is true."

And many in that place believed in Him.

Then someone came and said to Him, "Good Teacher, what good thing should I do, so that I may have eternal life?"

And He said to him, "Why do you call me 'good'? There is only one good Person. And if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments."

He said to Him, "Which ones?"

Jesus said, "'Do not commit murder; do not commit adultery; do not steal; do not commit perjury; honor your father and mother,' and 'Love your neighbor as you love yourself.'"

The young man said to Him, "I have kept all these things from my youth until now. What more must I do?"

Jesus told him, "If you want to be perfect, go and sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven, and come and follow Me."

But when the young man heard that last, he went away feeling sorry, because he had many possessions. Then Jesus told His students, "I tell you truly, that a rich man will enter the Kingdom of heaven only with difficulty. And I say again to you, that it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for an idle miser to enter into the kingdom of God."

When His students heard that, they were very much amazed, and said, "Then who can be saved?"

But Jesus looked them in the eye and told them, "With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible."

Then Peter in answer said to Him, "We have given up everything and followed You. So what will we have?"

And Jesus told them, "I tell you truly: You who have followed Me, in the Regeneration event, when the Son, a human being, will sit on the throne of His glory, you will also sit on twelve thrones, to judge the twelve tribes of Israel. And everyone who has given up his house, or his brothers, or his sisters, or his father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for the sake of My Name, will get back a hundred times as much, and will inherit everlasting life. But many that are first will be last, and the last will be first.

"For the Kingdom of heaven is like a landowner, who went out at dawn to hire workmen for his vineyard. And when he had formed an agreement with the workmen to pay them a silver coin a day, he sent them into his vineyard. And he went out three hours later, and saw others standing without work in the public square, and said to them, 'Go also into the vineyard, and I will pay you whatever wage is just,' and they went that way. And he went out again at midday and three hours later, and did the same thing. And an hour before dusk he went out and found others standing around, and said to them, 'Why have you been standing here all day without work?' They said to him, 'Because no man has hired us.' He said to them, 'Go also into the vineyard, and whatever is just, that you will receive.' So when the evening came, the lord of the vineyard said to his steward, 'Call the workmen, and pay them their wages, beginning from the last to the first.' And when they who had been hired at about the eleventh hour came, they each received a shilling. But when the first-hired men came, they thought that they would receive a higher wage, and they also received a shilling. And when they received it, they started complaining against the master of the house, saying, 'These last have been working only for one hour, and you have made them equal to us, who have carried the load and the heat of the full day.' But he answered one of them, and said, 'Friend, I'm not doing you any wrong. Didn't you agree to work for me for a shilling? Take what is yours, and go on. I wish to give to this last man, even as I have given to you. Isn't it lawful for me to do as I wish with what is mine? Is your eye evil, because I am good?' So the last will be first, and the first last."

As the time for Jesus to be received in Heaven grew near, He faithfully journeyed towards Jerusalem. And He sent messengers ahead of Him, and they entered a village of Samaritans, to prepare it for Him. However, the people of the village would not let Him stay, because He was going to Jerusalem. And James and John saw this, and asked, “Teacher, will you call fire down from Heaven to burn the village, like Elijah did?”

But Jesus reprimanded them, saying, “You do not know what kind of spirit you are, for the Son of man has not come to take men’s lives, but to save them.” And they went on to another village.

Twenty-one

Chapter 21 Bible texts

As they went on the way, a certain man said to him, “I want to follow you wherever you go, Lord.”

Jesus said to him, “The foxes have holes, and the birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.”

He said to another, “Follow me!”

But he said, “Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father.”

But Jesus said to him, “Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce God’s Kingdom.”

Another also said, “I want to follow you, Lord, but first allow me to say good-bye to those who are at my house.”

But Jesus said to him, “No one, having put his hand to the plow, and looking back, is fit for God’s Kingdom.”

Now after these things, the Lord also appointed seventy others, and sent them two by two ahead of him into every city and place where he was about to come. Then he said to them, “The harvest is indeed plentiful, but the laborers are few. Pray therefore to the Lord of the harvest, that he may send out laborers into his harvest. Go your ways. Behold, I send you out as lambs among wolves. Carry no purse, nor wallet, nor sandals. Greet no one on the way. Into whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace be to this house.’ If a son of peace is there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Do not go from house to house. Into whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat the things that are set before you. Heal the sick who are there, and tell them, ‘God’s Kingdom has come near to you.’ But into whatever city you enter, and they do not receive you, go out into its streets and say, ‘Even the dust from your city that clings to us, we wipe off against you. Nevertheless know this, that God’s Kingdom has come near to you.’ I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city.

“Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you. You, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades. Whoever listens to you listens to me, and whoever rejects you rejects me. Whoever rejects me rejects him who sent me.”

They went forth. War arose in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought, but they were defeated and there was no longer any place for them in heaven; and the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world—he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.

The seventy returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name!”

He said to them, “I saw that Satan had fallen like lightning from heaven. Behold, I give you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy. Nothing will in any way hurt you. Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.”

In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, “I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight.”

Turning to the disciples, he said, “All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows who the Son is, except the Father, and who the Father is, except the Son, and he to whomever the Son desires to reveal him.”

Turning to the disciples, he said privately, “Blessed are the eyes which see the things that you see, for I tell you that many prophets and kings desired to see the things which you see, and did not see them, and to hear the things which you hear, and did not hear them.”

Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, “Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?”

He said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you read it?”

He answered,

“You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself.”

He said to him, “You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live.”

But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, “Who is my neighbor?”

Jesus answered, “A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a certain Samaritan, as he traveled, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion, came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, gave them to the host, and said to him, ‘Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.’ Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers?”

He said, “He who showed mercy on him.”

Then Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”

As they went on their way, he entered into a certain village, and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. She had a sister called Mary, who also sat at Jesus’s feet, and heard his word. But Martha was distracted with much serving, and she came up to him, and said, “Lord, do you not care that my sister left me to serve alone? Ask her therefore to help me.”

Jesus answered her, “Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things, but one thing is needed. Mary has chosen the good part, which will not be taken away from her.”

When he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, Teach us to pray, just as John also Taught his disciples.”

He said to them, “When you pray, say, ‘Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. May your Kingdom come. May your will be done on earth, as it is in heaven. Give us day by day our daily bread. Forgive us our sins, for we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one.’ ”

He said to them, “Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,’ and he from within will answer and say, ‘Do not bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I cannot get up and give it to you’? I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs.

“I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives. He who seeks finds. To him who knocks it will be opened.

“Which of you fathers, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, he will not give him a snake instead of a fish, will he? Or if he asks for an egg, he will not give him a scorpion, will he? If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him?”

He was casting out a demon, and it was mute. When the demon had gone out, the mute man spoke; and the multitudes marveled. But some of them said, “He casts out demons by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons.”

Others, testing him, sought from him a sign from heaven. But he, knowing their thoughts, said to them, “Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. A house divided against itself falls. If Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. But if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your children cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges. But if I by God’s finger cast out demons, then God’s Kingdom has come to you.

“When the strong man, fully armed, guards his own dwelling, his goods are safe. But when someone stronger attacks him and overcomes him, he takes from him his whole armor in which he trusted, and divides his plunder.

“He that is not with me is against me. He who does not gather with me scatters. The unclean spirit, when he has gone out of the man, passes through dry places, seeking rest, and finding none, he says, ‘I will turn back to my house from which I came out.’ When he returns, he finds it swept and put in order. Then he goes, and takes seven other spirits more evil than himself, and they enter in and dwell there. The last state of that man becomes worse than the first.”

It came to pass, as he said these things, a certain woman out of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts which nursed you!”

But he said, “Yes, even more, blessed are those who hear the word of God, and keep it.”

(And indeed, the Gospel proclaims that all generations shall call his mother Mary blessed, "she who believed", for she "kept all these things and pondered them in her heart.")

When the multitudes were gathering together to him, he began to say, “This is an evil generation. It seeks after a sign. No sign will be given to it but the sign of Jonah, the prophet. For even as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so the Son of Man will also be to this generation. The Queen of the South will rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and will condemn them: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, one greater than Solomon is here. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and behold, one greater than Jonah is here.

“No one, when he has lit a lamp, puts it in a cellar or under a basket, but on a stand, that those who come in may see the light. The lamp of the body is the eye. Therefore when your eye is good, your whole body is also full of light; but when it is evil, your body also is full of darkness. Therefore see whether the light that is in you is not darkness. If therefore your whole body is full of light, having no part dark, it will be wholly full of light, as when the lamp with its bright shining gives you light.”

Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. The Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. You foolish ones, did not he who made the outside make the inside also? But give for alms as gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and God’s love. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them do not know it.”

One of the lawyers answered him, “Teacher, in saying this you insult us also.”

He said, “Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves will not even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. So you testify and consent to the works of your fathers. For they killed them, and you build their tombs. Therefore also the wisdom of God said,

‘I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute, that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.’

"Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. Woe to you lawyers! For you took away the key of knowledge. You did not enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered.”

As he said these things to them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to be terribly angry, and to draw many things out of him; lying in wait for him, and seeking to catch him in something he might say, that they might accuse him.

Meanwhile, when a multitude of many thousands had gathered together, so much so that they trampled on each other, he began to tell his disciples first of all, “Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. But there is nothing covered up that will not be revealed, nor hidden that will not be known. Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness will be heard in the light. What you have spoken in the ear in the inner rooms will be proclaimed on the housetops.

“I tell you, my friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. But I will warn you whom you should fear. Fear him who after he has killed, has power to cast into Gehenna. Yes, I tell you, fear him. Are five sparrows not sold for two assaria coins? Not one of them is forgotten by God. But the very hairs of your head are all counted. Therefore do not be afraid. You are of more value than many sparrows.

“I tell you, everyone who confesses me before men, the Son of Man will also confess before the angels of God; but he who denies me in the presence of men will be denied in the presence of God’s angels. Everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but those who blaspheme against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, do not be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; for the Holy Spirit will Teach you in that same hour what you must say.”

One of the multitude said to him, “Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me.”

But he said to him, “Man, who made me a judge or an arbitrator over you?”

He said to them, “Beware! Keep yourselves from covetousness, for a man’s life does not consist of the abundance of the things which he possesses.”

He spoke a parable to them, saying, “The ground of a certain rich man produced abundantly. He reasoned within himself, saying, ‘What will I do, because I do not have room to store my crops?’ He said, ‘This is what I will do. I will pull down my barns, build bigger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. I will tell my soul, “Soul, you have many goods laid up for many years. Take your ease, eat, drink, and be merry.” ’ But God said to him, ‘You foolish one, tonight your soul is required of you. The things which you have prepared—whose will they be?’ So is he who lays up treasure for himself, and is not rich toward God.”

He said to his disciples, “Therefore I tell you, do not be anxious for your life, what you will eat, nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Life is more than food, and the body is more than clothing. Consider the ravens: they do not sow, they do not reap, they have no warehouse or barn, and God feeds them. How much more valuable are you than birds! Which of you by being anxious can add a cubit to his height? If then you are not able to do even the least things, why are you anxious about the rest? Consider the lilies, how they grow. They do not toil, neither do they spin; yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. But if this is how God clothes the grass in the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is cast into the oven, how much more will he clothe you, O you of little faith? Do not seek what you will eat or what you will drink; neither be anxious. For the nations of the world seek after all of these things, but your Father knows that you need these things. But seek God’s Kingdom, and all these things will be added to you. Do not be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the Kingdom. Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which do not grow old, a treasure in the heavens that does not fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

“Let your loins be girded and your lamps burning. Be like men watching for their lord, when he returns from the wedding feast; that when he comes and knocks, they may immediately open to him. Blessed are those servants, whom the lord will find watching when he comes. Most certainly I tell you that he will dress himself, make them recline, and will come and serve them. They will be blessed if he comes in the second or third watch, and finds them so. But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what hour the thief was coming, he would have watched, and not allowed his house to be broken into. Therefore be ready also, for the Son of Man is coming in an hour that you do not expect him.”

Peter said to him, “Lord, are you telling this parable to us, or to everybody?”

The Lord said, “Who then is the faithful and wise steward, whom his lord will set over his household, to give them their portion of food at the right times? Blessed is that servant whom his lord will find doing so when he comes. Truly I tell you, that he will set him over all that he has. But if that servant says in his heart, ‘My lord delays his coming,’ and begins to beat the menservants and the maidservants, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken, then the lord of that servant will come in a day when he is not expecting him, and in an hour that he does not know, and will cut him in two, and place his portion with the unfaithful. That servant, who knew his lord’s will, and did not prepare, nor do what he wanted, will be beaten with many stripes, but he who did not know, and did things worthy of stripes, will be beaten with few stripes. To whomever much is given, of him will much be required; and to whom much was entrusted, of him more will be asked.

“I came to throw fire on the earth. I wish it were already kindled. But I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how distressed I am before it is accomplished! Do you think that I have come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, no, but rather division. For from now on, there will be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three. They will be divided, father against son, and son against father; mother against daughter, and daughter against her mother; mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.”

He said to the multitudes also, “When you see a cloud rising from the west, immediately you say, ‘A shower is coming,’ and so it happens. When a south wind blows, you say, ‘There will be a scorching heat,’ and it happens. You hypocrites! You know how to interpret the appearance of the earth and the sky, but how is it that you do not interpret this time? Why do you not judge for yourselves what is right? For when you are going with your adversary before the magistrate, try diligently on the way to be released from him, lest perhaps he drag you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and the officer throw you into prison. I tell you, you will by no means get out of there, before you have paid the very last penny.”

Now there were some present at the same time who told him about the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. Jesus answered them, “Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered such things? I tell you, no, but unless you repent, you will all perish in the same way. Or those eighteen, on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them; do you think that they were worse offenders than all the men who dwell in Jerusalem? I tell you, no, but, unless you repent, you will all perish in the same way.”

He spoke this parable. “A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it, and found none. He said to the vine dresser, ‘Behold, these three years I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree, and found none. Cut it down. Why does it waste the soil?’ He answered, ‘Lord, leave it alone this year also, while I dig around it and fertilize it. If it bears fruit, fine; but if not, after that, you can cut it down.’ ”

He was Teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years. She was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, “Woman, you are freed from your infirmity.”

He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight and glorified God. The ruler of the synagogue, being indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, “There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!”

Therefore the Lord answered him, “You hypocrites! Does each one of you not free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day?”

As he said these things, all his adversaries were disappointed and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him.

He said, “What is God’s Kingdom like? To what shall I compare it? It is like a grain of mustard seed which a man took and put in his own garden. It grew and became a large tree, and the birds of the sky live in its branches.”

Again he said, “To what shall I compare God’s Kingdom? It is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three measures of flour, not stopping before it was all leavened.”

He went on his way through cities and villages, Teaching, and traveling on to Jerusalem. One said to him, “Lord, are they few who are saved?”

He said to them, “Strive to enter in by the narrow door, for many, I tell you, will seek to enter in and will not be able. When once the master of the house has risen up, and has shut the door, and you begin to stand outside and to knock at the door, saying, ‘Lord, Lord, open to us!’ then he will answer and tell you, ‘I do not know you or where you come from.’ Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you Taught in our streets.’ He will say, ‘I tell you, I do not know where you come from. Depart from me, all you workers of iniquity.’ There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets in God’s Kingdom, and yourselves being thrown outside. They will come from the east, west, north, and south, and will sit down in God’s Kingdom. Behold, there are some who are last who will be first, and there are some who are first who will be last.”

On that same day, some Pharisees came, saying to him, “Get out of here, and go away, for Herod wants to kill you.”

He said to them, “Go and tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I complete my mission.' Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, for it cannot be that a prophet would perish outside of Jerusalem.

“Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, like a hen gathers her own brood under her wings, and you refused! Behold, your house is left to you desolate. I tell you, you will not see me before you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!’ ”

When he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a Sabbath to eat bread, they were watching him. Behold, a certain man who had dropsy was in front of him. Jesus, answering, spoke to the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?”

But they were silent.

He took him, and healed him, and let him go. He answered them, “Which of you, if your son or an ox fell into a well, would not immediately pull him out on a Sabbath day?”

They could not answer him regarding these things.

He spoke a parable to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the best seats, and said to them, “When you are invited by anyone to a wedding feast, do not sit in the best seat, since perhaps someone more honorable than you might be invited by him, and he who invited both of you would come and tell you, ‘Make room for this person.’ Then you would begin, with shame, to take the lowest place. But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when he who invited you comes, he may tell you, ‘Friend, move up higher.’ Then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at the table with you. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.”

He also said to the one who had invited him, “When you make a dinner or a supper, do not call your friends, nor your brothers, nor your kinsmen, nor rich neighbors, or perhaps they might also return the favor, and pay you back. But when you make a feast, ask the poor, the maimed, the lame, or the blind; and you will be blessed, because they do not have the resources to repay you. For you will be repaid in the resurrection of the righteous.”

When one of those who sat at the table with him heard these things, he said to him, “Blessed is he who will feast in God’s Kingdom!”

But he said to him, “A certain man made a great supper, and he invited many people. He sent out his servant at supper time to tell those who were invited, ‘Come, for everything is ready now.’ They all as one began to make excuses.

“The first said to him, ‘I have bought a field, and I must go and see it. Please have me excused.’ Another said, ‘I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I must go try them out. Please have me excused.’ Another said, ‘I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.’ That servant came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house, being angry, said to his servant, ‘Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor, maimed, blind, and lame.’ The servant said, ‘Lord, it is done as you commanded, and there is still room.’ The lord said to the servant, ‘Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. For I tell you that none of those men who were invited will taste of my supper.’ ”

He departed from there and continued on his journey to Jerusalem. Great crowds of the people followed him.

Luke 9:57–10:16
Revelation 12:7-9
Luke 10:17–14:24

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interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English
Bible maps (click initial letter of place name)
Bible Encyclopedias: Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (studylight.org)
Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online (catholic.org)
Hebrew Calendar Converter See exact equivalents of Gregorian Calendar dates.

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Table of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament, in English translation, Joel Kalvesmaki 2013 (kalvesmaki.com)

List of 300 Septuagint Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, by Steve Rudd 2017 (bible.ca)


Church History (Eusebius): The Ecclesiastical History Of Eusebius Pamphilus: Bishop Of Caesarea, In Palestine (newadvent.org)

The Works of Flavius Josephus William Whiston, Translator, 1737 (sacred-texts.com)

Suetonius: Twelve Caesars: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by C. Suetonius Tranquilus; To which are added His Lives of the Grammarians, Rhetoricians, and Poets. The Translation of Alexander Thomson, M.D., Revised and corrected by T. Forester, Esq., A.M. (Gutenberg.org)

Tacitus: The Annals, Written 109 A.C.E. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb

Sextus Aurelius Victor: Epitome De Caesaribus (roman-emperors.org)

Eutropius: Breviarium - Eutropius's Abridgement of Roman History (tertullian.org)

Cassius Dio: Roman History Epitome (penelope.uchicago.edu)

Early Christian Writings A.D. 30 through 380 (earlychristianwritings.com)
See Biblical Canon and Apocrypha.


"As they went on the way, a certain man said to him..."

Luke 9:57-62 This episode appears to many to be the same as in Matthew 8:18-22. Differences in detail demonstrate that it is not the same.
  • In Matthew Jesus gives orders to go over to the other side, and they depart in a boat.
In Luke, they are on the road walking as Jesus proceeds on his journey to Jerusalem.
  • In Matthew, as Jesus is about to depart in the boat, a scribe approaches him with the declaration that he will follow him.
In Luke, as they are going along the road and are approaching him, a man declares to Jesus that he will follow him.
  • In Matthew, as they are about to embark to go to the other side of the lake, one of Jesus' many disciples initiates a request for permission to first go and bury his father. He is already a disciple.
In Luke, as they are going along the road, Jesus tells a man to follow him, and the man resists his call with a request for permission to go first and bury his father. He is not yet a disciple.
The same fundamental teaching is given in each case, but this episode in Luke 9:57-62 during the final journey to Jerusalem is not the same identical episode as in Matthew 8:18-22 in the earlier days of Jesus' public ministry before the multiplication of the loaves and fishes and his transfiguration "on the holy mountain" (2 Peter 1:17-18).

"The seventy returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name!” He said to them, “I saw that Satan had fallen like lightning from heaven."

Luke 10:17-18.
Compare Revelation 12:7-10
Some commentators relate these two passages as pertaining to the same event. The spiritual authority that the Lord Jesus Christ has given his representatives on earth, in his war against evil, has been joined by Michael the archangel and his angels in heaven and dislodged Satan and his angels from their position of power during the mission of the disciples and apostles in their overthrow and casting out and subjugation of the demons.
See Revelation, Book of (historical exegesis)
Other commentators relate the passage in Revelation as having to do with the first test of the angels and the rebellion of Satan and his followers at the beginning of creation.
See commentaries on Revelation 12:7.
commentaries on Revelation 12:9.

"he entered into a certain village, and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house."

Luke 10:38.
Probably not the village of Bethany close to Jerusalem.
Some indications in the Gospel of Luke suggest that this particular village is in Samaria or southern Galilee ruled by Herod. Consider the chronological sequence of the following passages after chapter 10 (boldface emphases added).
  • "He went on his way through cities and villages, teaching, and traveling on to Jerusalem." Luke 13:22.
  • "At that very hour some Pharisees came and said to him, 'Get away from here, for Herod wants to kill you." Luke 13:31. Compare Luke 23:6-7. Herod's jurisdiction was Galilee including Samaria, "here", not further south in Judea.
  • "On the way to Jerusalem he was passing along between Samaria and Galilee." Luke 17:11.
  • "And taking the twelve, he said to them, 'Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written of the Son of man by the prophets will be accomplished."
  • "As he drew near to Jericho...He entered Jericho and was passing through." Luke 18:35 and 19:1. The village of Bethany is closer to Jerusalem than Jericho.
It is known that some wealthier Jews owned more than one house, sometimes in different villages or cities. The house of Martha here in Luke 10:38 may have been another than the house in the village of Bethany (John 11:1). According to Vincent, Martha significantly "received" Jesus (ὑπεδέξατο, from ὕπο, under, and δέχομαι, to receive). It was she who received him under her roof. Martha is marked as the head of the household. It was her house. In Bethany, by contrast, Lazarus appears as head of the household. See John 11:1; 12:1-2.
If the house of Martha in this "certain village" in Luke 10:38 is the same village identified in the Gospel of John as "Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha", then Jesus would afterward have departed with his disciples and traveled again north away from Jerusalem and back through the cities and villages of Samaria and into Galilee, before returning again south and traveling back with them toward Jerusalem in accordance with the account of his final journey in the Gospel of Luke. This is the conclusion of several commentators regarding what they interpret as an apparent discrepancy between Luke 10:38 and Luke 17:11.
It is not impossible that Jesus, like Paul after him (Acts 15:36), in this last and final preparatory phase of his ministry, "on his journey to [be received up in] Jerusalem", returned to visit every city where he and the seventy others had proclaimed the Gospel (Luke 10:1). This was his final planned itinerary.
In either case, there is no firm basis in the text for asserting here any confusion or contradiction as some suppose.
Most interpreters in the 18th through 21st century assume the meaning of a journey to a destination which does not deviate from a direct route, and not a roundabout final farewell tour—because he had "set his face toward Jerusalem". This appears to be the cause of their speculation that Luke was confused by conflicting accounts of the events related to him. However, according to a conservative Christian assessment of the veracity of the scriptures, the apostles and evangelists writing in retrospect after his passion and resurrection are more fully aware of Jesus' final resolve, that this roundabout tour before Passover is in fact his final journey toward Jerusalem, and they explicitly say so.

"Let your loins be girded..."

With reference to Middle Eastern garments and habit, to “gird up the loins” was the accepted symbol of readiness for active service (Luke 12:37; Luke 17:8; 1 Kings 18:46; 2 Kings 1:8; John 13:4; 1 Peter 1:13).
The ordinary equivalent American expression is, "fasten your belts"—or more loosely, "strap on your gear". See multiple commentaries on Luke 12:35

“'Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts which nursed you!' But he said, 'Yes, even more, blessed are those who hear the word of God, and keep it.'

Luke 11:27-28.
Compare Luke 14:15-24, "Blessed is he who will feast in God's kingdom."
WEB Luke 11:28 reads, "On the contrary, blessed are those who hear the word of God, and keep it."
The reading of Luke 11:28 here in this Harmony of the Gospel (Conservative Version) is based on Greek Μενοῦν Menoun "Yes, rather...Yes, even more", which is an expressed agreement with the other speaker's words, but with a correction of the speaker's understanding, as a teaching moment.
interlinear text of Luke 11:28
multiple versions of Luke 11:28
multiple commentaries on Luke 11:28
The WEB reading, as with many others, absolutely denies that Mary is blessed. The WEB reading, "On the contrary...", as taken at face value, denies that his mother hears the word of God and keeps it in any way.
See Conservapedia article, "Mary (mother of Jesus)".
Many New Testament texts firmly establish the fact that far above and beyond any natural, physical relationship Mary herself is truly "blessed" and the true "mother" of Jesus because she heard the word of God and kept it (Matthew 12:50). See KJV Luke 1:26-30; 1:46-48; 2:19; 2:51; John 2:5; 2:12; 19:25-27; Acts 1:14.
Many (not all) Protestant commentaries on Luke 11:27 rank the mother of Jesus along with John the Baptist as being lower than "the least in the Kingdom of Heaven" (Matthew 11:11, Luke 7:28), and some even damn both of them as vile, rotten, wicked sinners, enemies of God on the basis of Romans 3:10-18 and 23. (Compare 2 Peter 3:15-17 and Romans 8:28-30.)
Orthodox and Catholic commentaries rank Mary the "God-bearer (Theotokos)" as second only to the Lord Jesus Christ himself, his humble handmaiden, his purest and most perfect servant, whom he created to be his mother and then exalted as the true Queen of Heaven, higher than the angels. Compare
  • Hebrews 10:5, "a body thou hast prepared for me";
  • 1 Kings 2:19b, "he sat on his throne, and had a seat brought for the king's mother, and she sat on his right";
  • Psalm 45:10-17, "I will cause your name to be celebrated in all generations";
  • Judith 15:9-10, "You are the exaltation of Jerusalem, you are the great glory of Israel, you are the great pride of our nation!";
  • Romans 16:6, "Greet Mary, who has worked hard among you.";
  • 1 Corinthians 15:51, "We shall not all sleep, but we shall be changed";
  • 1 Corinthians 6:3, "Do you not know that we shall judge angels?";
  • Revelation 12, "a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars".
  • Theotokos (orthodoxwiki.org) This article cites Old and New Testament texts as biblical support of Orthodox tradition.
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: The Blessed Virgin Mary (newadvent.org) This article cites Old and New Testament texts as biblical support of Catholic tradition.

"(And the Gospel proclaims that all generations shall call Mary blessed.)"

See Luke 1:48. This parenthetical statement has been added as evidence that Mary the mother of Jesus is blessed on the basis of what Jesus here says: "Blessed are those who hear the word of God and do it" (keep it); and on the basis of the prophesy she uttered when she visited her cousin Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist.
Mary heard the word of God, and she kept it. Luke 2:19 and 51. See also Luke 1:26-30.
Compare John 2:5; 19:25-27; Acts 1:14; Revelation 12.
Catholics call the mother of Jesus the "Blessed Virgin Mary" in fulfillment of Luke 1:48, "all generations shall call me blessed."
Protestants regard her as a sinner saved by grace according to Titus 3:4-7 and Luke 1:46-47.

"Therefore also the wisdom of God said, ‘I will send to them prophets and apostles...'"

Luke 11:49-51
The Old Testament is cited and paraphrased by Jesus from the following texts:
  • Jeremiah 7:23-26 "I have persistently sent to them my servants the prophets"
  • Isaiah 1:15; 26:21; Lamentations 4:11-14 "Your hands are full of blood...the earth will disclose the blood shed upon her...shed in the midst of her the blood of the righteous"
  • Genesis 4:10 "Righteous Abel"
  • 2 Chronicles 24:20-22 "Zechariah"
    (Matthew 23:35 RSV son of Barachiah, KJV Barachias, means Knee [blessing] of Jah [Yahweh, the LORD], and thus, as a descriptive appellation lovingly bestowed by the Lord Jesus, is not a textual error or mistake on the Lord's part or a contradiction of his father's proper name "son of Jehoiada the priest"—Zechariah son of Jehoiada is a son of the blessing of God. See Strong's numbers 914 and 2196.)

Compare the Conservative Bible text (conservapedia.com):

And as they were traveling, a man said to Jesus, “Teacher, I will follow you wherever you go.”

And Jesus said to him, “Foxes have holes, birds have nests, but the Son of man has nowhere to sleep.”

And He said to another, “Follow me.” But the man said, “Teacher, allow me to bury my father first.”

And Jesus said to him, “Let the dead bury the dead, but you should go and proclaim the kingdom of God.”

And another said, “Teacher, I will follow you, but let me go and say goodbye to my family."

And Jesus said to him, “No man, who first starts to plough, and then looks back is worthy of the Kingdom of God.”

After this, the Lord sent another seventy out, in pairs, to go before Him into every city or village which He would travel through. So he said to them, “The harvest is large, but there are not enough workers, so pray to the Lord of the harvest, asking Him to send workers to collect His harvest. Go on your journey, I am sending you out like lambs among wolves. Do not carry money, a bag, or shoes, and do not visit with anyone along the way. And whenever you go into a house, say, ‘Peace upon this house.’ And if a son of peace lives there, your blessing will settle on him, and if not, it will settle on you again. Stay in the house that took you in, eating and drinking anything they give you, for a worker deserves to be paid. Do not go and stay in other houses. And when you enter a city, and they allow you to stay, eat what they give to you, and heal the sick, and say to them, 'The Kingdom of God has come close to you.' But if you enter a city, and they do not welcome you, go into the streets of that city, saying, 'Even the dust of your city, which covers us, we will clean off against you, but know this, the Kingdom of God has come close to you.' I tell you, on that day even Sodom would be better off than that city! Too bad for you, Chorazin! Too bad for you, Bethsaida! If the great miracles shown to you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented a long time ago. They would have sat in hairshirts and ashes. Come the Judgment Day, even Tyre and Sidon will be better off than you. And you, Capernaum, will you be lifted up to heaven? No, you will be thrown into Hell! He who hears you hears Me, and he who disregards you disregards Me, and he who disregards Me disregards Him that sent Me.”

And war broke out in heaven. Michael and his Messengers fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his Messengers fought back. The giant dragon, that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the entire world, was thrown out intothe earth, and his Messengers were thrown out with him.

The seventy returned with joy, saying, “Teacher, even the demons obey us in Your name!”

And He said, “I saw Satan like lightning falling from Heaven. I give you the power to crush snakes and scorpions, and greater power than the enemy. Nothing will hurt you in any way. However, do not rejoice that the spirits obey you; rather rejoice because your names are written in heaven."

With that Jesus rejoiced, "I thank You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, for withholding Truth from the intellectuals while revealing it to common man, as this pleased You. My Father has given me complete authority, and no man other than the Father knows who the Son is; likewise, the Son, and only those he chooses, knows the Father."

And He said privately to His students, “Blessed are the eyes which see the things you see, because many prophets and kings have wanted to see the things you see, and have not seen, and wanted to hear the things you hear, and have not heard."

Once, a lawyer stood up and tested Jesus by asking, “Teacher, what should I do to receive eternal life?”

Jesus replied, “What does the Law say? How do you interpret it?”

And he answered, “Love the Lord with all your heart, soul, strength and mind. And love your neighbor as yourself.”

Jesus replied, “Well answered, do this and you will live.”

But the lawyer, seeking the last word, asked rhetorically, “And who is my neighbor?”

Jesus replied, “A man was going from Jerusalem to Jericho, when he was attacked by robbers. They beat him, took his clothes and left him half dead. By chance, a priest was going along the road, but when he saw the man, he passed him by, crossing to the other side of the path. And also a Levite came by, and saw him, but passed by on the other side of the path. But a Samaritan, traveling that way, saw him, and took pity on him, and went over to him, bandaged his wounds, poured oil and wine on them, and put him onto his own animal, took him to an inn and took care of him. And in the morning, as he left, he gave the manager two coins, saying, 'Look after him, and if you spend more that this, I’ll repay you when I get back.' Now which of these three do you think was a neighbor to the man attacked by robbers?”

And the lawyer said, “The man who helped him.”

And Jesus said, “Go and do the same.”

Now it so happened that, as they continued on their way, Jesus arrived at a village where a woman named Martha invited Him into her house. Martha had a sister, Mary, who sat with her at Jesus' feet, and listened to his words. But Martha was distracted, for she had to serve them all. She came to Jesus and asked, "Lord, don't you care that my sister has left me to do all the work by myself? Tell her to help me!"

Jesus answered, "Martha, Martha, you are troubled about many things, but you need to keep in mind that Mary has chosen the good path, which won't be taken away from her."

Once, Jesus was praying in a certain place, and when he finished, one of his students said, “Master, teach us to pray, like John the Baptist taught his students."

He said to them, "When you pray, say: 'Our Father, who is in Heaven, your name is holy. May your kingdom come, may your will be done, on Earth as it is in Heaven. Give us every day our daily bread. And forgive us our sins, as we forgive those who sin against us. Do not lead us into temptation, but instead, save us from evil."

And he said to them, "Which of you would go to a friend at midnight and say, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, for a friend of mine, who is on a journey has come to me, and I have nothing to feed him?' And your friend inside will answer, 'Stop bothering me. I have locked the door and put my children to bed. I can't get up and give you anything now.' Let's face it, he will not get up and help because he is a friend, but because of the persistence he will get out of bed and turn over whatever is needed. I urge you, ask, and you shall receive, seek, and you shall find; knock, and it shall be opened for you. Everyone who asks shall receive; all who seek shall find; and those who knock shall be welcomed. Those of you that are fathers, if your son asks you for bread, do you give a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, would you give him a snake instead? And if he asks for an egg, would you offer him a scorpion? You are imperfect and know how to give good gifts to your children: how much more will your Father in heaven give spiritual inspiration to those who ask him?"

And he was exorcising a demon, which was dumbstruck. When the demon was exorcised, it spoke; and the people were surprised. But some complained, "He exorcises demons through Beelzebub, the chief of the demons."

While others tempted Him by demanding a heavenly miracle. But Jesus, aware of their skepticism, warned them, "Every kingdom that is divided within ultimately fails; a house divided against itself collapses. If Satan were self-conflicted, how could he have any power? Yet you complain that I cast out devils through Beelzebub. If I somehow used Beelzebub to expel devils, by whom do your people exorcise them? Thus they shall be your judges. If I use the finger of God to case out devils, then undeniably the glory of God is upon you. When an armed, strong man guards his palace, his goods are secure: but when a stronger opponent arrives and overcomes him, the new man takes from him all his trusted armor, and grabs the treasures. He who is not with me is against me, and he who does restore order causes disorder. When a devil leaves a man, he wanders through deserts seeking rest; finding none, he says, 'I shall return to my house from which I came.' But upon return, he found it in order and garnished. But then he grabs seven other demons even more wicked than himself, and they all enter and dwell there, such that the man's final state is worse than his first."

From out of the blue, as Jesus preached, a particular woman in his group raised her voice and said, "Blessed is the womb that carried You, and the breasts at which You nursed!"

But Jesus replied, "Amen, but blessed are those who hear the word of God, and keep it!"

As the crowd overflowed, Jesus declared, "You are part of an evil generation that seeks a miracle as proof. No miracle shall be provided, but the sign of the prophet Jonah. Just as Jonah was a sign for the Ninevites, so shall the Son of man be a sign to you. The faithful people shall rise up in the judgment of the men of this generation, and condemn them; for they came from distant lands to hear the wisdom of Solomon and, alas, we have something greater than Solomon here. The men of Nineveh will stand aside this generation at judgment, and shall condemn it because they repented at Jonah's preaching and, alas, something greater than Jonah is here. No man, when he has lit a candle, hides it out of view or under a basket, but puts it on a candlestick so that others can see the light. The mind is the window to the body. Thus when you are open-minded, your body is full of light; but when you are closed-minded, your body is filled with darkness. Hence make sure that your mind is not spiritually ignorant. Thus if your entire body is filled with light, with no darkness, then your whole being shall have brightness, as when a strong candle lights up a region."

After Jesus spoke, a certain Pharisee invited Him to a meal. He went to his home and sat down to eat. When the Pharisee saw this, he wondered why Jesus did not thoroughly wash his hands before eating. So the Lord explained, "Now you Pharisees clean the outside of the cup and platter, but inside you are filled with plunder and wickedness. How illogical! Didn't the Creator of the outside also make what is within? Stop being selfish about what is within, and then all things will be sinless for you. But your reckoning is coming, Pharisees! For you donate mint, rue and all kinds of herbs, but have a double standard and avoid the love of God; these you should correct in addition to the others. Your reckoning is coming, Pharisees! For you crave the highest seats in the synagogues, and flattery in public. Ignominy awaits you hypocrites, scribes and Pharisees! You are like unmarked graves that men unwittingly walk over."

One of the lawyers objected, "Teacher, you are condemning us also."

He replied, "You lawyers will be accountable too! For you impose burdensome regulations on others, but will not lift a finger to help those who struggle with them. Pity you! You build tombs for the prophets whom your fathers killed. With that you endorse the deeds of your fathers, as they killed the prophets and you build their tombs. Thus is the wisdom of God, 'I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall kill and some they shall persecute: this generation may be held accountable for the blood of all the prophets shed since the beginning of time, from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who was murdered between the altar and the tabernacle.' Truly I tell you, this generation shall be punished for it. Judgment against you, lawyers! For you have stolen the key to knowledge. Not entering yourselves, you have blocked access by others."

As Jesus told them off, the scribes and Pharisees furiously interrogated Him about everything, plotting and seeking to quote Him for a politically incorrect remark to use against Him.

Meanwhile, amid a massive crowd that stepped on each other, Jesus taught His disciples first. "Beware the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. For nothing is concealed that shall not be revealed; nothing hidden that shall not be known. So whatever you said in the dark shall be heard in the light; and whatever you whispered in each others' ears behind closed doors shall be shouted from the rooftops. Hear me out: do not fear those who kill the body, because afterward they cannot harm any further. I give advance warning to you about whom to fear: be afraid of He who has power to send you to Hell; yes, I tell you, fear Him. Are not five sparrows sold for two pennies, and yet none of them is forgotten before God? But even the count of hairs on your head is known to God. Do not fear then: you are of more value than many sparrows. Also I say to you, 'Whoever shall testify for me before men, he is also testifying before watchful angels of God: but he that denies me before other men shall be denied before the angels of God. And whoever speaks against the Son of man, they shall be forgiven for it: but to those who commit blasphemy against God's will, that shall not be forgiven.' And when they bring you to the synagogues, and to magistrates, and powerful leaders, do not concern yourself with what questions you will answer, or what you will say: for God's spirit will give you guidance at that time regarding what to say."

And one of those in attendance said to Him, "Master, speak to my brother, and persuade him to divide our inheritance with me."

And He said unto him, "Sir, who made me a judge or a mediator over you?"

And He said to them, "Pay attention to me, and beware of greed: for a man's life is measured by the number of things he comes to possess."

And He told them a parable, saying, "The farmland of a certain rich man yielded abundantly: And he thought to himself, 'What shall I do, because I have no space left to store my harvest?' And he said, 'This is what I'll do: I will tear down my barns, and rebuild them even larger; and that's where I will store all my harvest and my goods.' And I will say to myself, 'You have stored many years worth of provisions; take a rest, eat, drink, and be merry.' But God said to him, 'You fool, tonight your soul shall meet its maker: who, then, shall all that you have acquired belong to?' Such is a man that focuses on acquiring wealth for himself, and loses his focus on God."

And He said to his disciples, "Therefore I say to you, do not focus selfishly on your life, on what you eat; on preening yourself, or over the fashions you wear. Life is more than just sustaining yourself, and the body is more than just clothing. Consider the ravens: for they neither plant or harvest; they don't have a storehouse nor barn; and yet God feeds them: how much better off are you than the birds? By worrying, can any of you add a foot to your height? If you cannot even do something so meaningless, why do you worry so much about everything else? Consider how the lilies grow: they do not labor, they do not weave; and yet I tell you, Solomon in all his glory was not as regally dressed as one of these. If God gives consideration to the condition of straw, which grows today in the field, and tomorrow is burned in an oven; how much more will give consideration to your condition, you of little faith? So do not search for what you shall eat, or what you shall drink, neither should you be in doubt. For all of these things are sought by the nations of the world: and your Father knows that you need these things. Instead you should seek the kingdom of God; and all these things shall be provided to you. Fear not, followers of God; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom. Sell what you have, and give it to charity; earn yourselves a wealth that does not grow old, a treasure in heaven that will last forever, which no thieves can reach, or moths ruin. For where your treasure is, your heart will be there as well. Be ready to go when the Lord calls you, and be prepared for His arrival; and be like servants waiting for their employer, as if he was about to return from a wedding; that when he arrives and knocks, they are ready to open the door immediately. Blessed are those servants, who when their employer returns finds them watching for him: Truly I tell you, that this employer will then roll up his sleeves, and make the servants sit down to dinner, and he will be the one serving them. And if he shall return later in the evening, or return far after midnight, and find them alertly waiting, blessed are those servants. And know this, that if the master of the house had known when the thief would come, he would have been watching, and not have allowed his house to be broken into. Be ready like this as well: for the Son of man will come when you are not expecting."

Then Peter asked Him, "Lord, do you intend this parable for us, or for everyone?"

The Lord replied, "Who then is that faithful and wise manager, trusted by his employer to supervise his affairs, and to compensate his workers as they are due? Blessed is that manager, whose employer finds working so diligently. Truly I tell you, he will promote that manager to run all of his affairs. But if that manager thinks to himself, 'My employer will be late in coming'; and begins to punish his subordinates, and to eat and drink from his employer's stock, and to become drunk; the employer of that manager will come on a day when he is not expected, and at a time that is unexpected, and will dismiss him, and will give him all that is due to the unfaithful. And that manager, who knew his employer's will, but did not prepare to fulfill it, or do as he instructed, shall be beaten with many lashes. But the one who did not know, and did things worthy of punishment, shall receive a lesser penalty. For those who are given great responsibility, of them much shall be expected: and of the man that others commit themselves to, of him they will expect all the more. I have come to light a fire on the earth; and what will I do if it has already been lit? But I have a baptism to go through with, and how distressed I am until it is accomplished! Do you suppose that I have come to give peace on earth? I tell you, 'No, but rather divisiveness': For from this point forward there will be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three. The father will be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law."

And He also said to the people, "When you see clouds approaching from the west, you are quick to say, 'Here comes a shower'; and so it happens. And when you see the winds blowing from the south you say, 'It will get warmer'; and that's what happens. You hypocrites, you can predict the weather before it happens, but how is it that you can't see what's happening right before you? Moreover, why can't you bring yourselves to do what is right? When you go to court with an opponent, and you are the defendant, be diligent so that you're cleared of any wrongdoing; lest you be found guilty by the judge, with the judge handing you off to the sheriff, and the sheriff putting you into prison. I tell you, that you will not leave from there until you have paid all that is due."

Some of the people present told Him of certain Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. Jesus answered, "Do you think these Galileans were more sinful than all other Galileans, because this happened to them? I tell you no; but unless you repent, you shall all perish like them. Or what about those eighteen workers, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, killing them, do you think they were worse sinners than all other men in Jerusalem? I tell you no; but unless you repent, you shall all perish like them."

He taught this parable: "A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, but could find no fruit on it. So he said to his manager of the vineyard, 'Look, for three years I've sought fruit from this fig tree, but found none. Chop it down! Why burden the soil with it?' The manager answered, 'Lord, let it be for this one year more, so I can spread manure around it. And if it bears fruit, fine; if not, then we shall chop it down.'"

And He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath. And, look, a woman was there who had been crippled for eighteen years, and was severely deformed, and could in no way stand on her own. And when Jesus saw her, He called her to Him, and said to her, "Woman, you are cured of your illness".

And He laid His hands on her: and immediately she was cured, and glorified God. And the leader of the synagogue reacted with indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said to the people, "There are six days in which men ought to work: in those days people should come and be healed, instead of on the sabbath day".

The Lord then answered him, saying, "You hypocrite, doesn't each one of you on the sabbath release his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him to be watered? And shouldn't this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had afflicted all these eighteen years, be released from this affliction on the sabbath day?"

And when He had said these things, all His adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced over all the glorious things that were done by Him. Then He said, "What is the realm of God like? What does it resemble? It is like the tiny mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his garden; and it grew, and grew into a great tree; and the birds of the air nested in the branches of it."

And again He said, "How else shall I describe the realm of God?" It is like the pinch of yeast, which a woman took and mixed into three portions of dough, spreading and growing until all of the dough was leavened."

And He went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem. Then someone said to Him, "Lord, are there few that are saved?"

And He said to them, "Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I tell you, will seek to enter in, and will be unable. When the man of the house rises, but has locked the door, and you stand outside knocking and saying, 'Lord, Lord, let us in!' He shall reply, 'I do not know where you are from!' Then you will begin to say, 'We have eaten and drank with you, and you have taught in our neighborhood.' But he will say in reply, 'I have to say, "I don't know you; leave me, all you troublemakers." ' There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when you come to find Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves excluded. And they will come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and they will sit down in the kingdom of God. And look, the humble among them shall be regarded first, and the prominent among them shall be regarded last."

On that same day some of the Pharisees came, saying to Him, "Go, and leave this place: for Herod has marked you for death. And He said to them, "Go yourselves, and tell that fox, 'Watch, I will cast out demons, and I will perform cures today and tomorrow, and on the third day I shall be perfected.' Nevertheless I must travel today, and tomorrow, and the day after that: for it is not allowable for a prophet to be killed within Jerusalem. Oh Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you killed the prophets and stoned those we sent to you; how often would I gather your people together, as a hen gathers her flock under her wings, yet you would not allow it! Listen up: your house has been left to you barren. Truly I tell you, "You shall not see me until you shall admit, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!'"

Before long Jesus went to eat bread in the home of one of the leading Pharisees on the Sabbath, as they watched him closely. Unexpectedly, a man appeared with painful swelling of his joints. Whereupon Jesus asked the lawyers and Pharisees, "Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?"

Their silence was deafening. Jesus touched the man and healed him, and then sent him on his way. Jesus scolded them, saying, "Which of you shall have an ass or an ox stuck in a pit, and not immediately pull him out on the Sabbath?"

They could not think of a word to say in reply. Noticing how some guests chose the best seats for themselves, Jesus presented this parable to them: "When a man invites you to a wedding feast, do not take the best seat because another man may deserve it more, and the host will come and say, 'Give this man your seat', and you will be shamed into taking the worst seat. But when you are asked, sit at the worst seat, so that when the host sees you there he may come and tell you, 'My friend, you should take a better seat!' Then you will enjoy the respect of those who dine with you. Because anyone who is pretentious will be humiliated, but the humble will be elevated and praised."

He also told the man who questioned Him, "When you're having a dinner gathering, don't invite your friends, or brothers, your family, or your rich neighbors. They will probably return the invitation at some point, in repayment of your kindness. Instead, invite the poor, the injured, the disabled, and the blind to your dinner. You will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. No, you will be repaid when the just are resurrected."

And when one of the attendees who dined with Him heard these things, he said to Him, "Blessed is he who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God."

Then He told the man, "There was a man who invited many people to a feast. He sent his servant at supper time to tell the guests they were invited: 'Please come, the food is ready.' But they all made excuses. The first said, 'I've just bought a piece of land and must go inspect it. Please excuse me.' A second said, 'I've just bought five yokes of oxen, and have to go test them out. Please excuse me.' A third said, 'I just got married, so I obviously can't come!' So the servant returned and told his master. The master, now angry, told his servant to bring the poor, injured, disabled, and blind from the streets of the city. And the servant said, 'Master, it is done as you instructed, but there is still room left'. And the master said to the servant, 'Go out into the main roads and side places, and invite those who you meet to come, so that my house may be filled.' For I tell you this; none of those men who were originally invited shall taste this supper.


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First Edition completed and finished 16 February 2018 - Friday after Ash Wednesday