Henry VIII

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Henry VIII (b. June 28, 1491, d. January 28, 1547) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from April 22, 1509 until his death. A larger-than-life figure and one of England's most famous monarchs, he was the second monarch of the Tudor Dynasty, succeeding his father Henry VII, and was one of the most powerful and formative rulers in British history. Henry was a powerfully built, athletic, attractive, domineering but charismatic man, educated and accomplished. He was the last English king to rule with absolute power. His need for a male heir to perpetuate the Tudor Dynasty led to his having six marriages.

It was under Henry's children and successors, Edward VI and Elizabeth I, that the English Reformation was fashioned as a compromise between the Lutherans and Calvinists on the one hand and the Catholics on the other. Nevertheless, Henry's famous break with the Papacy facilitated later events affecting the English Church.

His public image is lustful, egotistical, deceitful, opinionated, and insecure when dealing with his wives; and his vast, wasteful luxuries and useless wars depleted the treasury.

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Contents

Early life

Henry was born on the 28th June 1491, the third child and second son of Henry VII (Tudor) and Elizabeth of York. Henry, as a younger son, was not heir to the throne. His father intended him for the church, and so he received an excellent education. The death of his elder brother Arthur (1502) made him heir to the throne. His father was heir to the Lancastrian claim to the throne, and his mother was the daughter of the Yorkist King Edward IV. Henry thus symbolized in his person the union of the houses of Lancaster and York whose rivalry had caused the Wars of the Roses. Unlike his father, therefore, he could believe himself to be the unquestioned and unquestionable king of God's choice.

Marriages

King Henry VIII and his wives - Portraits

Henry's wives:

His legal children: (all of whom became monarchs in their own right)

First marriage: Katherine of Aragon

His brother Arthur in 1501 married Katherine (1485–1536), the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. After Arthur's death in 1502, when Henry was ten years old, for reasons of state it was decided to marry Henry to his brother’s widow, who was several years his senior. This raised the question of whether it was moral and legal for Henry to married his late brother’s wife?

For her part, Catherine stated and always affirmed that her marriage to Arthur had never been consummated and she was therefore able to marry Henry. Because her parents wanted the marriage, they did not want there to be any doubt and so they petitioned the Pope to grant a dispensation allowing Catherine and Henry to marry - a dispensation that was granted. These matters would be of great significance later.

Henry’s accession to the throne

Anne Boleyn

By 1527 Henry had become deeply infatuated with Anne Boleyn (1507–1536). Anne was not content to be a mistress, which set about a chain of events that shook the nation. Henry sought papal consent to have his marriage to Katherine annulled since she had previously been married to his brother. The papacy, which was under a great deal of pressure from the Spanish not to grant the request, refused. This brought about the downfall of Cardinal Wosley in Henry's sight since he had virtually guaranteed acceptance of the annullment.

Henry then made the decision to break from the Roman Catholic Church, which he claimed had no right to interfere in the political succession of England, and which he stated was occurring since he had no male heir by Katherine. Catholic clergy then had to sign an oath to the king rather than to the Pope. Many could not sign -- and died. With Henry now head of the Church of England, his divorce/annullment was granted and he married Anne in 1533. She bacame a very unpopular queen with the people who had loved Katherine.

Anne had a daughter in 1533 (the future Queen Elizabeth I) and it was a son that Henry desired to have. She became pregnant again, but her son was stillborn. In terms of shaping policy, Anne, who was strongly committed to Protestantism, was the most influential of his wives. Historians have vigorously debated explanations for the trial and execution of Anne in 1536. One school emphasizes contentious court factions in which Queen Anne was an innocent pawn. G. W. Bernard (1991) argues that she and the five men executed with her were probably guilty of incest and adultery as charged. Both points of view were also expressed by contemporary diplomats reporting from London, who may have been misled by rumors and deliberate government misinformation. Use of traditions of courtly love to explain Anne's relationship with the other accused (opening herself to slander) is speculative. Direct evidence for actual guilt is not convincing. Warnicke (1993) offers a controversial explanation: Anne gave birth to a deformed fetus in January, 1536, provoking in Henry, who learned of the miscarriage and its circumstances after some delay, both rage and fear, as well as a certainty of his consort's adultery and witchcraft, an explanation necessary not only to his psyche but to the preservation of the reputation of his kingdom and the schismatic church that he headed.[1]

Later marriages

In 1536 the death of Katherine of Aragon freed Henry for an unquestionably lawful marriage. That same year he chose Jane Seymour (1509-1537), who died the next year of natural causes after providing him with a son, the future King Edward VI. In 1540, Cromwell's Protestant policy involved marriage to Anne of Cleves (1515–57), whom Henry disliked from the first. The marriage remained unconsummated and ended in annulment. In August 1540 Henry made a love match with Catherine Howard (1521–1542), but being far younger than him, she may not have shared a mutual attraction. She was beheaded, having been accused of adultery. Finally in 1543, he settled for a more placid consort in Catherine Parr (1512–48).

By 1540 the vigor had gone out of the reign and out of Henry. The debacle of the Cleves marriage cost Cromwell his head and Henry his leading minister. Overconfidence drew the king once more into a continental and Scottish war (1542-1546), a war that gained no glory but whose expense ruined the English economy. In 1541 Henry became king of Ireland (previously he was "Ruler of Ireland.")

Religion

Henry started as a staunch Catholic and wrote Assertio Septem Sacramentorum, a treatise in which he defended the Church against Martin Luther and asserted the primacy of the Pope. The Pope gave Henry the title Fidei Defensor Defender of the Faith, a style still used by the English monarch today.

However, Henry broke with the Pope on two issues, the divorce, and control over the Church inside England, as he declared himself head of the Church in England. Disagreement with Henry on religious issues was a political affront, and he could not tolerate it. Some wealthy or intellectual Catholics fled to France; others stayed quiet. Moderate reform took place in the 1530s because Queen Anne and top aides Thomas Cranmer and Cromwell had the king's ear and carried out attacks on the old religion. Queen Anne patronized and promoted clergy and bishops of a reforming turn of mind; Cromwell (1485?–1540), the Earl of Essex, was a convinced reformer and in effect the ruthless and unpopular prime minister from 1532 until he fell from favour and was beheaded in 1540. Cranmer (1489–1556) was archbishop of Canterbury after 1533. [2] Henry persecuted of those who still held to Papal Supremacy, and encouraged Protestant ideas to flourish. Protestantism was officially established during the reign of Henry’s son, Edward VI.

Power and authority

Henry was the main founder of the Royal Navy; he expanded it from 5 to 53 ships.

Financially, the reign was a near-disaster. After inheriting a prosperous economy, augmented by seizures of church lands heavy spending and high taxes damaged the economy.

From 1514 to 1529 Thomas Wolsey (1473–1530), a Catholic cardinal, served as lord chancellor and practically controlled domestic and foreign policy for the young king. He negotiated the truce with France that was signaled by the dramatic display of amity on the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). He switched England back and forth as an ally of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Wolsey centralized the national government and extended the jurisdiction of the conciliar courts, particularly the Star Chamber. His use of forced loans to pay for foreign wars angered the rich, who were annoyed as well by his enormous wealth and ostentatious living. Wolsey disappointed the king when he failed to secure a quick divorce from Queen Katherine. The treasury was empty after years of extravagance; the peers and people were dissatisfied and Henry needed an entirely new approach; Wolsey had to be replaced. After 16 years at the top he lost power in 1529 and in 1530 was arrested on false charges of treason and died in custody. Henry then took full control of his government, although at court numerous complex factions continued to try to ruin and destroy each other.

Elton (1962) argues there was a major Tudor revolution in government. While crediting Henry with intelligence and shrewdness, Elton finds that much of the positive action, especially the break with Rome, was the work of Thomas Cromwell and not the king. Elton sees Henry as competent, but too lazy to take direct control of affairs for any extended period; that is, the king was an opportunist who relied on others for most of his ideas and to do most of the work. Henry's marital adventures are part of Elron's chain of evidence; a man who marries six wives, Elton notes, is not someone who fully controls his own fate. Elton shows that Thomas Cromwell had conceived of a commonwealth of England that included popular participation through Parliament and that this was generally expressed in the preambles to legislation. Parliamentary consent did not mean that the king had yielded any of his authority; Henry VIII was a paternalistic ruler who did not hesitate to use his power. Popular "consent" was a means to augment rather than limit royal power.[3]

Reformation

Henry never formally repudiated the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, but he declared himself supreme head of the church in England. This, combined with subsequent actions, eventually resulted in a separated church, the Church of England. The pope behaved more as an Italian prince involved in secular affairs, which often obscured his religious role. The Church treated England as a minor stepchild, allowing it one cardinal out of fifty, and no possibility of becoming pope. For reasons of state it was increasingly intolerable that major decisions in England were settled by Italians. The divorce issue exemplified the problem but was not itself the cause of the problem. As long as Cardinal Wolsey dominated the government the widespread sentiment for reform could go nowhere.[4]

Henry's reformation of the English church involved more complex motives and methods than his desire for a new wife and an heir. Henry asserted that his first marriage had never been valid, but the divorce issue was only one factor in Henry's desire to reform the church. In 1536-37, he instituted a number of statutes-the act of appeal, the act of succession, the act of supremacy and others-that dealt with the relationship between the king and the pope and the structure of the Church of England. During these years, Henry also suppressed monasteries and pilgrimage shrines in his attempt to reform the church. The kins was always the dominant force in the making of religious policy; his policy, which he pursued skilfully and consistently, is best characterized as a search for the middle way.[5]

Questions over what was the true faith were resolved with the adoption of the orthodox "Act of Six Articles" (1539) and a careful holding of the balance between extreme factions after 1540. Even so the era saw movement away from religious orthodoxy, the more so as the pillars of the old beliefs, especially Thomas More and John Fisher, had been unable to accept the change and had been executed in 1535 for siding with the pope against the king.

Critical for the Henrician reformation was the new political theology of obedience to the prince that was enthusiastically adopted by the Church of England in the 1530s. It reflected was Martin Luther's new interpretation of the fourth commandment and was mediated to an English audience by William Tyndale. The founding of royal authority on the Ten Commandments, and thus on the word of God, was a particularly attractive feature of this doctrine, which became a defining feature of Henrician religion. Rival tendencies within the Church of England sought to exploit it in the pursuit of their particular agendas. Reformers strove to preserve its connections with the broader framework of Lutheran theology, with the emphasis on faith alone and the word of God, while conservatives emphasized good works, ceremonies, and charity. The Reformers linked royal supremacy and the word of God in order to persuade Henry to publish the "Great Bible," an English translation that was a formidable prop for his new-found dignity.[6]

Dissolving the monasteries

England was covered with many medieval monastaries that owned large tracts of land worked by tenants. As a religious institution they were almost defunct and had become handicaps to the economy. Henry dissolved them (1536-1540) and transfered of a fifth of the England's landed wealth to new hands. The program was designed primarily to create a landed gentry beholden to the crown, which would use the lands much more efficiently.

Henry made radical changes in traditional religious practices. He ordered the clergy to preach against superstitious images, relics, miracles, and pilgrimages, and to remove most candles. The catechism of 1545, called the King's Primer, left out the saints. Latin rituals gave way to English. Shrines to saints were destroyed—including the popular one of St Thomas at Canterbury; relics were ridiculed as worthless old bones.

The reforms alienated pious folk who believed in the old rituals depended on the monasteries for religious devotions and helped provoke the great northern rising of 1536-1537, known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. It was the only real threat to Henry's security on the throne in all his reign. Some 30,000 rebels in nine groups were led by the charismatic Robert Aske, together with most of the northern nobility. Aske went to London to negotiate terms; once there he was arrested, charged with treason and executed. About 200 rebels were executed and the disturbances ended.[7] Elsewhere the changes were accepted and welcomed, as those who clung to Catholic rites kept quiet or moved in secrecy; they would reemerge in the reign (1553-58) of Henry's daughter Mary.

Public image and memory

Henry worked hard to present an image of unchallengeable authority and irresistible power. He executed at will, beheading more English notables than any monarch before or since. The roll of heads included two wives, one cardinal, twenty peers, four leading public servants, and six of the king's close attendants and friends, not to mention various heads of monasteries. In addition Cardinal Wolsey died in prison.

A big, strong man (over six foot tall and broad in proportion)[8], he excelled at jousting and hunting. More than pastimes, they were political devices that served multiple goals, from enhancing his athletic royal image to impressing foreign emissaries and rulers, to conveying Henry's ability to suppress any rebellion. Thus he arranged a jousting tournament at Greenwich in 1517, where he wore gilded armour, gilded horse trappings, and outfits of velvet, satin and cloth of gold dripping with pearls and jewels. It suitably impressed foreign ambassadors, one of whom wrote home that, "The wealth and civilisation of the world are here, and those who call the English barbarians appear to me to render themselves such." Henry finally retired from the lists in 1536 after a heavy fall from his horse left him unconscious for two hours, but he continued to sponsor two lavish tournaments a year.[9] He then started adding weight and lost that trim athletic look that had made him so handsome; Henry's courtiers began dressing in heavily padded clothes to emulate--and flatter--their increasingly stout monarch.

Henry loved palaces; he began with a dozen and died with fifty-five, in which he hung 2,000 tapestries.[10] He took pride in showing off his collection of weapons, which included exotic archery equipment, 2,250 pieces of land ordnance and 6,500 handguns.[11]

Henry was an intellectual; the first well-educated English king, he was thoroughly at home in his well-stocked library; he personally annotated many books and wrote and published his own book.

To promote the public support for the reformation of the church, Henry had numerous pamphlets and lectures prepared. For example, Richard Sampson's Oratio (1534) was a legalistic argument for absolute obedience to the temporal power as vested in divine law and Christian love ("obey my commandments"). Sampson cited historical precedents (now known to be spurious) to support his claim that the English church had always been independent from Rome.[12]

At the popular level theater and minstrel troupes funded by the crown traveled around the land to promote the new religious practices and ridicule the old. In the polemical plays they presented, the pope and Catholic priests and monks were mocked as foreign devils, while the glorious king was hailed as a brave and heroic defender of the true faith.[13]

Around 1613 William Shakespeare wrote a favorable play about the king, "The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth."

Recent popular culture

Henry8-laughton.jpg
Henry VIII is the most famous of all English kings, and has been portrayed n many ways. Charles Laughton's Oscar-winning Henry in "The Private Life of Henry VIII" (directed by Alexander Korda 1933) portrayed the macho, totally self-regarding, totally self-absorbed Henry; it created the popular notion that the Tudors had weak table manners. Laughton shows a lustful monarch, a cock among a bevy of sweet chicks, each with eyes on the royal bed; a man who sees women as objects.[14] The same theme appears in the 1994 comedy "Carry On Henry."[15] Television's "The Six Wives of Henry VIII" (1970) was more accurate Keith Michell's performance was deeper than Laughton's, but as the title shows, the focus was once again on Henry the married man.

A recent UK-Ireland cable TV program co-production, The Tudors, shows an accurate portrayal of Henry VIII's (played by Irish actor Jonathan Rhys-Myers) reign.

Further reading

  • Gardner, James. "Henry VIII" in Cambridge Modern History vol 2 (1903), a brief political history online edition
  • Ives, E. W. "Henry VIII (1491–1547)", in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), online at OUP, a good starting point
  • Graves, Michael. Henry VIII (2003) 217pp, topical coverage
  • Lindsey, Karen. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII (1995) online edition
  • Pollard, A.F. Henry VIII (1905) 470 pp; the first modern biography, accurate and still valuable online edition
  • Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1968) 592pp, a favourable scholarly biography; his Henry was "a formidable, captivating man who wore regality with a splendid conviction. But easily and unpredictably his great charm could turn into anger and shouting.... He was high-strung and unstable; hypochondriac and possessed of a strong streak of cruelty."
  • Smith, Lacey Baldwin. Henry VIII: The Mask of Royalty (1971), a leading scholar writes the psycho-history of an egotistical border-line neurotic given to great fits of temper and deep and dangerous suspicions, with a mechanical and conventional, but deeply-held piety, and no better than a mediocre intellect to hold these contradictory forces in harness. online edition
  • Weir, Alison. Henry VIII, King and Court (2001). 640pp a flattering portrait excerpt and text search

See also

Bibliography

Biographical

  • Erickson, Carolly. Mistress Anne: The Exceptional Life of Anne Boleyn. (1984) 464 pp. popular biography
  • Cressy, David. "Spectacle and Power: Apollo and Solomon at the Court of Henry VIII." History Today 1982 32(oct): 16-22. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco Traces the transition of Henry from Renaissance monarch (the youthful Apollo) to Reformation patriarch (the aging Solomon) using the graphics and visual images displayed in his court, festivals, and kingdom.
  • Gardner, James. "Henry VIII" in Cambridge Modern History vol 2 (1903), a brief political history online edition
  • Graves, Michael. Henry VIII (2003) 217pp, topical coverage
  • Ives, E. W. "Henry VIII (1491–1547)", in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), online at OUP, a good starting point
  • Pollard, A.F. Henry VIII (1905) 470 pp; the first modern biography, accurate and still valuable valueonline edition
  • Rex, Richard. Henry VIII and the English Reformation. (1993). 205 pp.
  • Ridley, Jasper. Henry VIII. (1985). 473 pp. popular biography
  • Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII (1968) 592pp, a favourable scholarly biography; his Henry was "a formidable, captivating man who wore regality with a splendid conviction. But easily and unpredictably his great charm could turn into anger and shouting.... He was high-strung and unstable; hypochondriac and possessed of a strong streak of cruelty."
  • Smith, Lacey Baldwin. Henry VIII: The Mask of Royalty (1971), a leading scholar writes the psycho-history of an egotistical border-line neurotic given to great fits of temper and deep and dangerous suspicions, with a mechanical and conventional, but deeply-held piety, and no better than a mediocre intellect to hold these contradictory forces in harness. online edition
  • Starkey, David. Six Wives: the Queens of Henry VIII (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Starkey, David. The Reign of Henry VIII: Personalities and Politics (1986). 174pp
  • Starkey, David, and Susan Doran. Henry VIII: Man and Monarch (2009) 288pp
  • Weir, Alison. Henry VIII, King and Court (2001). 640pp a flattering portrait excerpt and text search
  • Weir, Alison. The Children of Henry VIII. (1996). 400 pp.

Scholarly studies

  • Bernard, G. W. The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church. (2005). 712 pp. excerpts and text search
  • Bernard, G. W. "The Making of Religious Policy, 1533-1546: Henry VIII and the Search for the Middle Way." Historical Journal 1998 41(2): 321-349. Issn: 0018-246x Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Bernard, G. W. War, Taxation, and Rebellion in Early Tudor England: Henry VIII, Wolsey, and the Amicable Grant of 1525. (1986). 164 pp
  • Elton, G. R. The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1953; revised 1962), major interpretation online edition
    • Coleman, Christoper, and David Starkey, eds. Revolution Reassessed: Revision in the History of Tudor Government and Administration (1986), evaluates Elton thesis
  • Elton, G. R. Reform and Reformation: England, 1509-1558 (1977), hostile to Henry
  • Fielder, Martha Anne. "Iconographic Themes in Portraits of Henry VIII." PhD dissertation Texas Christian U. 1985. 232 pp. DAI 1985 46(6): 1424-A. DA8517256 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
  • Fox, Alistair, and John Guy, eds. Reassessing the Henrician Age: Humanism, Politics and Reform 1500-1550 (1986), 242pp; advanced essays by scholars
  • Head, David M. "Henry VIII's Scottish Policy: a Reassessment." Scottish Historical Review 1982 61(1): 1-24. Issn: 0036-9241 Argues that if Henry intended to take over Scotland then his 1542 victory at Solway Moss was the opportune moment, for the French were unable to intervene, the Scottish nobility was in disarray, and the infant Mary was in line for Scotland's throne. Instead, Henry adopted a policy similar to that in Ireland, since he could not afford outright conquest or the luxury of diplomacy.
  • Loades, David. Henry VIII: Court, Church and Conflict (2007) 248pp; by a leading scholar excerpt and text search
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid, ed. The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy, and Piety. (1995). 313 pp. essays by scholars
  • Mackie, J. D. The Earlier Tudors, 1485-1558 (1952), a political survey of the era online edition
  • Lindsey, Karen. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived: A Feminist Reinterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII (1995) online edition
  • Slavin, Arthur J., ed. Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1968), readings by historians. online edition
  • Smith, H. Maynard. Henry VIII and the Reformation (1948) online edition
  • Walker, Greg. Writing under Tyranny: English Literature and the Henrician Reformation. (2005). 556 pp.

Historiography and memory

  • Head, David M. "'If a Lion Knew His Own Strength': the Image of Henry VIII and His Historians." International Social Science Review 1997 72(3-4): 94-109. Issn: 0278-2308 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Hoak, Dale. "Politics, Religion and the English Reformation, 1533-1547: Some Problems and Issues." History Compass 2005 3 (Britain and Ireland): 7 pp Issn: 1478-0542 Fulltext: Blackwell Synergy
  • Ives, Eric. "Will the Real Henry VIII Please Stand Up?" History Today 2006 56(2): 28-36. Issn: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco

Primary sources

  • Williams, C. M. A. H. English Historical Documents, 1485-1558 (1996) online sources

External links

notes

  1. G. W. Bernard, "The Fall of Anne Boleyn." English Historical Review 1991 106(420): 584-610. in Jstor; Retha M. Warnicke, "The Fall of Anne Boleyn Revisited." English Historical Review 1993 108(428): 653-665. Issn: 0013-8266 in Jstor
  2. After Henry's death Cranmer wrote much of the first Book of Common Prayer (1549, revised 1552), the centerpiece of the Anglican Church.
  3. G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII (1962) online edition; Elton, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509-1558 (1977) is sharply hostile toward the king--an "ego-centric monstrosity," whose reign "owed its successes and virtues to better and greater men about him; most of its horrors and failures sprang more directly from himself." p. 43
  4. A. F. Pollard, Henry VIII (1905) provides the classic statement of the Henrician position, esp. pp 230-38, noting that Spain and France stayed loyal because they controlled the papacy.
  5. G. W. Bernard, The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church (2005)
  6. Richard Rex, "The Crisis of Obedience: God's Word and Henry's Reformation." Historical Journal 1996 39(4): 863-894. Issn: 0018-246x in Jstor
  7. M. L. Bush, "The Tudor Polity and the Pilgrimage of Grace." Historical Research 2007 80(207): 47-72. Issn: 0950-3471 Fulltext: Ebsco; Geoffrey Moorhouse, The Pilgrimage of Grace: The Rebellion That Shook Henry VIII's Throne (2003) excerpt and text search
  8. People were smaller in those days. A comparable man today would be a star athlete at 6'5" and 250 pounds.
  9. Steven Gunn, "Tournaments and early Tudor chivalry," History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, #6 in Academic Search Premier; James Williams, "Hunting and the Royal Image of Henry VIII" Sport in History 2005 25(1): 41-59. Issn: 1746-0263
  10. Simon Thurley, "Palaces for a nouveau riche king." History Today, (June 1991), Vol. 41, #6 in Academic Search Premier
  11. Jonathan Davies, "'We Do Fynde in Our Countre Great Lack of Bowes and Arrows': Tudor Military Archery and the Inventory of King Henry VIII," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 2005 83(333): 11-29. Issn: 0037-9700
  12. Andrew A. Chibi, "Richard Sampson, His Oratio, and Henry VIII's Royal Supremacy." Journal of Church and State 1997 39(3): 543-560. Issn: 0021-969x Fulltext: Ebsco
  13. See Thomas Betteridge, "The Henrician Reformation and Mid-Tudor Culture." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 2005 35(1): 91-109. Issn: 1082-9636 Fulltext: Ebsco. Original documents are collected by the Centre for Research in Early English Drama at Victoria University, Toronto
  14. See Greg Walker, The Private Life of Henry VIII: A British Film Guide (2003) excerpt and text search; also DVD
  15. see DVD


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