Hindkowan

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Hindkowans (Hindko: هِندکوان (Shahmukhi), हिन्दकोवान (Devanagari), ਹਿੰਦਕੋਵਾਨ (Gurmukhi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of provinces of Pakistan and the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. However, an indeterminate number have left the region and now live in other parts of South Asia,[1] such as the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir.[2]

Hindkowans speak Hindko, a Lahnda language that is primary in northern Punjab.[3] In Afghanistan, a group of Hindus still continue to speak Hindko and are referred to as Hindki.[4][5]

Contents

Religion

Hindkowans, like other Indo-Aryan peoples originally practiced Hinduism; for this reason, the term "Hindko" itself is defined as the "language of the Hindus."[6] As such, there are a number of Hindu Hindkowans.[7][8][9][10][11] Some of these Hindu Hindkowans are traders and over time, have settled in areas as far as Kalat, Balochistan.[12][13] Other Hindu Hindkowans migrated to India from their native region of Sarhad after the partition of India in 1947.[1] During the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, which took place from the 12th century A.D. onwards, many of the Hindkowans converted to Islam. Today, most of the Hindkowan population is Sunni Muslim.[14] Later, with the spread of Sikhism and the rise of the Sikh Empire beginning in the eighteenth century A.D., some Hindkowans, both Hindu & Muslim, became Sikhs.[7][8][9][10][11] Like the Hindus, many Sikh Hindkowans migrated to Hindustan after the partition of India in 1947.[1]

Notable Hindkowans

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Peshawarites still remember the Kapoor family. Daily Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  2. Hindko, Northern speakers in India. The Joshua Project. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  3. LAHNDA. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2008-08-17.
  4. Hindki. Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  5. Ethnologue Report for Hindko. Ethnologue. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  6. The Encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 16. The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “Lahnda is also spoken in the north of the state of Bahawalpur and of the province of Sind, in which latter locality it is known as Siraiki. Its western boundary is, roughly speaking, the river Indus, across which the language of the Afghan population is Pashto (Pushtu), while the Hindu settlers still speak Landha. In the Derajat, however, Lahnda, is the principal language of all classes in the plains west of the river. Lahnda is also known as Western Panjabi and as Jatki, or the language of the Jats, who form the bulk of the population whose mother tongue it is. In the Derajat it is called Hindko or the language of the Hindus.”
  7. 7.0 7.1 Papers in language and linguistics, Volume 1. Bahri Publications. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “Essentially, what has occurred is an occupation by Pashto-speaking Pathans of key areas in the urban economy of the province which before 1947 were traditionally exercised by Hindko- speaking Hindus and Sikhs.”
  8. 8.0 8.1 Language forum, Volume 9. Bahri Publications. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “Essentially, what has occurred is an occupation by Pashto-speaking Pathans of key areas in the urban economy of the province which before 1947 were traditionally exercised by Hindko- speaking Hindus and Sikhs.”
  9. 9.0 9.1 The rise and development of Urdu and the importance of regional languages in Pakistan. Christian Study Centre. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “to Hindko is the most significant linguistic minority in the NWFP, ... to an influx of Pashtuns replacing the Hindko-speaking Sikhs and Hindus who ...”
  10. 10.0 10.1 Journal of Asian history, Volumes 35-36. O. Harrassowitz. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “The real opposition to Pashto came, however, from the speakers of Hindko. A large number of Sikhs and Hindus, all speaking Hindko, lived in the cities of N.W.F.P. and had a voice in the legislative assembly, this was often perceived as the non-Muslim opposition to Pashto.”
  11. 11.0 11.1 Language, ideology and power: language learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “The real opposition to Pashto came, however, from the speakers of Hindko. A large number of Sikhs and Hindus, all speaking Hindko, lived in the cities of N.W.F.P. and had a voice in the legislative assembly, this was often perceived as the non-Muslim opposition to Pashto.”
  12. The social organization of the Marri Baluch. Indus Publications. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself.”
  13. Viking fund publications in anthropology, Issue 43. Viking Fund. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. “...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself.”
  14. Hindko, Southern. SIL International. Retrieved on 2008-08-17.
  15. Heroic villain: An informative and entertaining biography of a daredevil Pathan.. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.

See also

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