A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), حقّہ (Nastaleeq) huqqā) or waterpipe is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) instrument for smoking tobacco in which the smoke is cooled and filtered by passing through water. Originally from India, hookah has gained popularity, especially in the Middle East and is gaining popularity in North America, Europe, Australia and Brazil.
- The cyclopaedia of India and of eastern and southern Asia, Volume 2. Bernard Quaritch. Retrieved on 2007–08–01. “HOOKAH. Hindi. The Indian pipe and apparatus for smoking.”
- Hookah. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
- or shisha WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) an advisory note "Waterpipe tobacco smoking:health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators", 2005
- (June 1855) The History and Mystery of Tobacco. Harper's.
- The Wealth of India. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. Retrieved on 2007–08–01. “The smoking of hookah and hubble-bubble started in India during the reign of the great Moghul emperor, Akbar.”
- Beyond the Smoke, There is Solidarity Among Cultures. Victoria Harben for Common Ground News Service. Retrieved on 2008-12-05.
- Metro Detroit's Hookah Scene. Terry Parris Jr for Metromode Media. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
- Hookah History. Colors of India. Retrieved on 2008-12-05.
-  (2005) "XXVII - The Ruins of Futtehpore", India and Its Native Princes: Travels in Central India and in the Presidencies of Bombay and Bengal, Reprint - Asian Educational Services 2005 (in English - UK), London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 8-1206-1887-4.