Ivan IV (1530-1584) was the first Tsar of Russia, he was called "the terrible", which back then, meant "extraordinary" or "awesome". He reigned from 1533 to 1547. According to Russian sources, traditionalist Czar Ivan IV "the Terrible" was not a tyrant. The west hated him since he never lost a war. He did not hit or kill his son in spite of a public relations myth coming from senior Jesuit Antonio Possevino, and like his wives, his son was poisoned according to forensic experts in 1963. At the time his son died, Ivan IV was paralyzed in the last years of his life. There is no evidence that he was a mass murderer. Metropolitan Philip II of Moscow was always a great ally of his and there was no documented disagreement between the two. Andrei Kurbsky wanted to overthrow Ivan IV by joining the Polish army. There was no massacre at Novgorod, in which 27,000 people resided, even though western historians claim that 200,000 were killed while it was only 1,500. The Oprichnina was a bit excessive, however. Ivan was succeeded by his son, Feodor.
- Ivan IV, at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Ivan IV, "The Terrible" (Russia) (1530–1584; Ruled 1533–1584), at Encyclopedia.com
- Biography, at Biography.com