John 8-14 (Translated)

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Chapter 8

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Jesus went unto the mount of Olives. [Jesus went to the Mountain of Olives. The evidence is overwhelming that these verses 1-11 are not original to John. See Essay:Adulteress Story for an extended examination of the issues relating to this passage, including the talk pages of that essay.[1]
2 And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them. Early in the morning He came back to the temple where all the people were coming to Him, and sitting down, He taught them.
3 And the scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when they had set her in the midst, The scribes and Pharisees brought a woman to Him who had been caught committing adultery, and they shoved her into the center.
4 They say unto him, Master, this woman was taken in adultery, in the very act. They said to Him, "Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of adultery.
5 Now Moses in the law commanded us, that such should be stoned: but what sayest thou? In the law Moses commanded us that such a one should be stoned, so what do you say?"
6 This they said, tempting him, that they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as though he heard them not. They were saying this to test Him, so that they could accuse Him. But instead, Jesus bent down, and wrote in the dirt with his finger.
7 So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. But when they persisted in asking Him, He stood up and said to them, "The one among you who is sinless throw the first stone."
8 And again he stooped down, and wrote on the ground. Then He bent back down and continued writing in the dirt.
9 And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst. And after hearing this, they began to leave, beginning with the oldest, until the woman was standing alone in the center.
10 When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee? When Jesus stood back up, and saw no one except the woman, He asked her, "Woman, where are they? Is there no one to condemn you?"
11 She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no more. She answered, "No one, Lord." Then Jesus said to her, "And I do not condemn you either. Go now, and do no sin any more."]
12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. Shortly after this, Jesus spoke to them again, declaring, "I am the light of the world: whoever follows me shall not walk in darkness at all, but shall receive the light of life." The phrase, "shall not walk in darkness" contains the strongest negation possible in Greek.
13 The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true. The Pharisees responded, "Because you act as your own witness, your testimony cannot be trusted."
14 Jesus answered and said unto them, Though I bear record of myself, yet my record is true: for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye cannot tell whence I come, and whither I go. Jesus replied, "Despite being my own witness, my testimony can be trusted because I know where I came from and where I'm going, but you have no idea where either of those are.
15 Ye judge after the flesh; I judge no man. You judge with human reasoning, while I judge no one.
16 And yet if I judge, my judgment is true: for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me. But even if I do judge, my judgment is true, because I am not alone: I and the Father who sent me [are both here].
17 It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true. It is also written in your law that the testimony of two men is trustworthy.
18 I am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me. I act as my own witness and the Father who sent me is also my witness."
19 Then said they unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye neither know me, nor my Father: if ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also. So they responded, "Where is your Father?" Jesus answered, "You don't know me or my Father. If you had known me, then you would have known my Father as well."
20 These words spake Jesus in the treasury, as he taught in the temple: and no man laid hands on him; for his hour was not yet come. Jesus spoke these words in the treasury, while teaching in the temple, and no one arrested him, because it was not time for that yet.
21 Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye cannot come. A little later, Jesus told them, "I am leaving, and you will start hunting me, and so, you will die with your sins unforgiven. Where I am going, you cannot follow. The Greek actually says, "in your sins," which is an idiom for "still facing the full judgment for your sins - that is, with your sins still upon you because they have not been removed or forgiven."
22 Then said the Jews, Will he kill himself? because he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come. Then the Jews wondered, "Will He kill Himself? Is that what He means by, 'Where I am going, you cannot follow'?" Since they had already dismissed the possibility that Jesus was the Messiah, or that He might go to the Gentiles, the only other thing they could think of was that He was going to commit suicide.
23 And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world. He responded, "You are from below, I am from above. You are from this world, I am not from this world.
24 I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins. So I told you that you will die with your sins unforgiven, because if you do not believe that I Am, you will die with your sins unforgiven. The phrase, "εγω ειμι" was the common way of saying, "I am he" or "I am the one" or "it is I" or "here I am" or "I am who I say I am," which is why the Jews initially understood Him to be saying something like, "I am who I say I am." It is also, however, the Greek version of the short form of how Yahweh identified Himself to Moses in Exodus 3:14 ("I Am"), but since no Jew would dare commit the blasphemy of associating himself with that name, it would never even occur to the Jews to take that as the meaning. Ironically, in light of Jesus' statement in verse 58 below, it is clear that this is exactly how Jesus intended it to be understood. I have chosen to translate it as Jesus meant it, not as the Jews understood it (which is how most translations handle this verse).
25 Then said they unto him, Who art thou? And Jesus saith unto them, Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning. So they asked Him, "Who are you?" And Jesus responded, "Who I have been telling you from the very beginning.
26 I have many things to say and to judge of you: but he that sent me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I have heard of him. I have many things to say that would condemn you, but the one who sent me is completely trustworthy, and I will only say those things that I have heard from Him."
27 They understood not that he spake to them of the Father. They did not understand that He was talking about the Father.
28 Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things. Then Jesus continued, "When you have lifted up the Son, a human being, then you will know that I Am, and that nothing I do is from me, but I only speak the things my Father has taught me.
29 And he that sent me is with me: the Father hath not left me alone; for I do always those things that please him. And the one who sent me is with me. He did not leave me alone, because I only do things which please Him."
30 As he spake these words, many believed on him. As He spoke these things, many believed in Him.
31 Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; Then Jesus, speaking to the Jews who believed in Him, said, "If you build your life around my word, then you are truly my disciples,
32 And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free."
33 They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free? They responded, "We are the descendants of Abraham, and we have never, ever been enslaved, so what are you talking about when you say that we will become free?"
34 Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin. Jesus answered, "Truly, truly I say to you, everyone who commits sin is a bond-servant of sin." A "doulos" was usually a servant who owed a debt to someone, and chose (or was forced) to work off that debt by being a servant of their debt holder until the debt was paid. A doulos was rarely enslaved for life, although a very large debt could take many, many years to work off (however, it was possible to have a debt so high that it could never be paid off, and that doulos really did become an involuntary servant for life). A contract was usually drawn up at the beginning entailing exactly how long the period of servitude was to last. At the end of the contract period, the doulos was free to leave, and a writ of freedom was then drawn up. However, in very rare cases, the doulos could repudiate the freedom (this happened in two cases: if the servant had been so well treated that they loved the master with all their heart, or if the servant happened to be serving an extremely wealthy master who treated them well, and they knew that they could never, by their own power, attain the kind of comfort and living standard that they enjoyed as a doulos), and choose to stay. In this case, the doulos was now committed to remain in that person's service for the remainder of their life, and this became a voluntary servitude, not a debt servitude. These kinds of servants were still often called "douloi," but they were also usually so trusted by the master that they were the ones who tended to be promoted to the rank of "head servant," or διάκονος (deacon), who were now in charge of all the other "doulos," and for all intents and purposes, had become "managers" in the employ of their master. A doulos who remained in the house voluntarily would occasionally (although this was rare) be "adopted" into the family, and given a rank equal with the children, or heirs, of the house. Here, Jesus is saying that if you sin, you now owe a debt to sin, and are therefore a "doulos" of sin.
35 And the servant abideth not in the house for ever: but the Son abideth forever. And the bond-servant does not remain in the house forever, but the Son stays forever.
36 If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. So if the Son sets you free, then you are really free.
37 I know that ye are Abraham's seed; but ye seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you. I am aware that you are Abraham's descendants, but you are plotting to murder me because my message is fully and completely rejected by all of you.
38 I speak that which I have seen with my Father: and ye do that which ye have seen with your father. I speak only that which I have seen while at my Father's side, but you do that which you have heard coming from your Father." The witnesses are split on whether Jesus said "which you have heard" or "which you have seen". P75, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, a later corrector or Alexandrinus, and Ephraemi Rescriptus say "heard," while P66, the original reading in Alexandrinus and Bezae Cantabrigiensis say "seen." Since P75 is considered more reliable than P66, and with the correction to Alexandrinus, it agrees with Sinaiticua and Vaticanus, the "heard" reading, which I use here, is considered more likely, although it is only graded a "C" in certainty by the UBS-4 textual committee ("A" being virtually certain, "B" meaning there is some doubt, "C" meaning a considerable degree of doubt, and "D" being a very high degree of doubt).
39 They answered and said unto him, Abraham is our father. Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham. They responded, "Abraham is our Father." To which Jesus replied, "If you were really Abraham's children, you would behave like Abraham.
40 But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, which I have heard of God: this did not Abraham. Instead, you are plotting to murder me, a man who has told you the Truth which I heard from God. Abraham did not behave like this.
41 Ye do the deeds of your father. Then said they to him, We be not born of fornication; we have one Father, even God. You behave like your father." They responded to Him, "We are not illegitimate children; we only have one Father, God."
42 Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came I of myself, but he sent me. Then Jesus said, "If God were your Father then you would have loved me, because I came from God and am with you now. I have not come from myself, but He sent me.
43 Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye cannot hear my word. Do you know why you cannot understand the things I say? Because you refuse to listen to my message.
44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. You are from your father, the devil, and you deeply desire to do what your father wants. He was a murderer from the beginning and he has never stood for the Truth, because the Truth is not in him. Whenever he lies, he is speaking his real language, because he is not just a liar, he is the father of lying.
45 And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not. So naturally, because I speak the Truth, you do not believe in me. If it weren't so serious, this would be hilarious. Jesus has just built an entire argument around how Satan and the Truth are complete and total opposites, and Satan isn't just any old liar, but is the author of all lying, so naturally, since they desire nothing more than to do whatever Satan wants, they MUST reject the Truth. Ouch. Jesus is pulling no punches here. We would expect the construction to place emphasis on "the truth," but it actually places the emphasis on the pronoun "I": "...because I speak the Truth..."
46 Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me? Which of you can prove I am guilty of sin? If what I am saying is true, then why are you refusing to believe in me?
47 He that is of God heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God. The one who is from God hears the very words God speaks. You cannot hear them because you are not from God."
48 Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil? Then the Jews responded, "We really nailed it when we said you are a Samaritan and are demon possessed, didn't we? Rhetorical question implying a "yes" answer. Used a current English idiom ("we really nailed it") to express the strength of their claim to have "spoken well" when they accused Jesus of being a demon possessed Samaritan. The idiom reflects the force accurately, but runs the risk of becoming quickly dated.
49 Jesus answered, I have not a devil; but I honour my Father, and ye do dishonour me. Jesus answered, "I am not demon possessed. On the contrary, I honor my Father, and you dishonor me.
50 And I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth. But while I do not pursue my own glory, there is one who pursues it, and He is the judge.
51 Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death. Truly, truly, I say to you, If anyone holds firmly to my message, he shall never see death for all eternity." Although "never see death for all eternity" is a little awkward, it more accurately reflects the force of the construction in the Greek, which includes the idiom "into the ages" ("forever") in the sentence, than simply saying "never." Another option might be "never, ever see death."
52 Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my saying, he shall never taste of death. Then the Jews said, "Now we know for sure that you are demon possessed. Abraham and the prophets are all dead, yet you say, If anyone holds firmly to my message, he shall never see death for all eternity.
53 Art thou greater than our father Abraham, which is dead? and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou thyself? You are not greater than our father Abraham, are you? He and the prophets all died. Just who do you think you are?" Rhetorical question implying a "no" answer.

This last question really shows the rising anger among the Jews. Note that the exchange between Jesus and the Jews is escalating from a discussion of being set free from sin to counter accusations of being Satanic. Jesus tells them their father is not Abraham or God, but the devil. This is a more forceful way of saying what Paul later posited: that the real circumcision, and real Jews, are those who follow Jesus, not those who happen to have Jewish bloodlines. The Jews counter with "you are a demon possessed Samaritan," which is about the worst insult one could give a Jew, as, in addition to the counter charge of demon possession, it carries the implied accusations the Jews made against Samaritans: "your doctrines are false," and "your bloodlines are impure."

54 Jesus answered, If I honour myself, my honour is nothing: it is my Father that honoureth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God: Jesus responded, "If I glorify myself, my glory is meaningless. It is my Father, whom you claim is your God, that glorifies me.
55 Yet ye have not known him; but I know him: and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know him, and keep his saying. You do not even know Him, but I do know Him, so if I were to say, 'I do not know Him,' then I would be a liar just like you. However, I do know him, and I hold firmly to His message.
56 Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad. Your fore-father, Abraham, leaped with joy that he would be allowed to see my day, and when he saw it, he was very happy."
57 Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? Then the Jews responded, "You are not even fifty years old, and you have seen Abraham?"
58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. Jesus told them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham existed, I Am." It wasn't until this very moment, when Jesus used a construction that made no sense any other way, that it dawned on the Jews that Jesus was literally claiming to BE the "I Am" of the OT. This kind of blasphemy could not be tolerated. Roman law required all those accused of death penalty crimes to be brought before a Roman authority for confirmation of the death penalty verdict, however, Romans usually denied the death penalty request if it was for breaking a "religious" law, such as adultery or blasphemy. On the other hand, they also knew that if a mob just suddenly rose up and beat someone to death, then dispersed, the Romans were unlikely to put much effort into finding out who did it.
59 Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by. Then they picked up stones to throw at Him, but Jesus disappeared, and left the temple. P66, P75, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus and Bezae Cantabrigiensis end as I have it here. Alexandrinus and Ephraemi Rescriptus have the longer ending ("he walked right through the middle of them and went away") as found in the KJV, and it was also added to Sinaiticus by a later corrector. Most scholars are fairly certain the longer ending is a later addition, as the longer ending in most manuscripts matches Luke 4:30 almost letter for letter, and in a language as free form as Greek, particularly given that there are very few places where John's wording even comes close to that of Matthew, Mark or Luke, they find that highly unlikely.

Chapter 9

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man which was blind from his birth. And as He was walking along, He saw a man who had been blind since birth.
2 And his disciples asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind? His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, whose sin caused his blindness? His or his parents?"
3 Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him. Jesus answered, "Neither this man nor his parents sinned. On the contrary, this was so that the works of God could be seen in him. brightly illuminated? That's a little bit much, isn't it?
4 I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work. I must pursue the works of the one who sent me while the daylight is here. The night is coming when no man will be able to do those works.
5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world. While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. "
6 When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay, As He said these things, He spat on the ground, made clay with His spit, and spread the clay on the eyes of the blind man.
7 And said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam, (which is by interpretation, Sent.) He went his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing. He told the man, "Go wash this off in the pool of Siloam (which means, 'Having been Set Apart')." So he went there, washed himself, and his eyesight returned.
8 The neighbours therefore, and they which before had seen him that he was blind, said, Is not this he that sat and begged? Then his neighbors who knew he had been blind wondered, "This is the man who sat and begged, isn't it?" Rhetorical question implying "yes."
9 Some said, This is he: others said, He is like him: but he said, I am he. Some said, "It is he," but others said, "It's not him, just someone who looks like him." But the man said "I am he."
10 Therefore said they unto him, How were thine eyes opened? Then they asked him, "So how is it that you can see again?"
11 He answered and said, A man that is called Jesus made clay, and anointed mine eyes, and said unto me, Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash: and I went and washed, and I received sight. He answered, "A man named Jesus made clay, and rubbed it on my eyes, and told me, 'Go to the pool of Siloam and wash this off,' and I went there, washed it off, and regained sight."
12 Then said they unto him, Where is he? He said, I know not. "Where is he?" they asked. "I don't know," he answered.
13 They brought to the Pharisees him that aforetime was blind. So they brought the formerly blind man to the Pharisees,
14 And it was the sabbath day when Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes. because Jesus made the clay and restored his sight on the Sabbath.
15 Then again the Pharisees also asked him how he had received his sight. He said unto them, He put clay upon mine eyes, and I washed, and do see. The Pharisees asked him again how he had his sight restored. He told them, "He put clay on my eyes, and I washed it off, and now I see."
16 Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God, because he keepeth not the sabbath day. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division among them. This sparked a division among the Pharisees, because some of them said, "This man is not from God, because he does not strictly observe the Sabbath," while others said, "How can a sinful man do such miracles?"
17 They say unto the blind man again, What sayest thou of him, that he hath opened thine eyes? He said, He is a prophet. So they asked the formerly blind man again, "What do you say of the one who returned your sight?" The man replied, "He is a prophet." Note that the man comes to the only logical conclusion right from the start: Jesus is a prophet.
18 But the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and received his sight, until they called the parents of him that had received his sight. But the Jews refused to believe that he had been blind and his sight was restored until his parents could be called.
19 And they asked them, saying, Is this your son, who ye say was born blind? how then doth he now see? Then they questioned his parents, asking, "Is this your son, whom you claim was born blind? Then how can he see?"
20 His parents answered them and said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind: Then his parents responded, "We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind.
21 But by what means he now seeth, we know not; or who hath opened his eyes, we know not: he is of age; ask him: he shall speak for himself. However, we have no idea how he can now see, nor who restored his sight. Ask him. He's an adult. He can speak for himself."
22 These words spake his parents, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man did confess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews. For the Jews had already decided that if anyone claimed Jesus was the Christ, he would be thrown out of the synagogue.
23 Therefore said his parents, He is of age; ask him. So His parents said, "He's an adult. Ask him." In case anyone is wondering, the Greek really is inverted in verses 21 and 23. In verse 21, his parents were emphasizing that that the Jews should question their son, and their reason comes second. John's analysis of their response in verses 22 and 23 flips their wording to place a little more emphasis on the excuse they were using ("he's an adult") to escape the questioning. So verse 21 is their actual response, while 22 and 23 is John's analysis of their motives and the means by which they pulled it off.
24 Then again called they the man that was blind, and said unto him, Give God the praise: we know that this man is a sinner. So once again, they called the man who had been blind, and told him, "Give the glory to God. We have known that this man was a sinner for quite some time." The tense here is perfect, indicating present time, completed aspect, which usually indicates something that happened in the past, but has direct, present time application. The idea is that they have known about Jesus being a sinner for a long time, so it is a foregone conclusion now. I have used "for quite some time" to translate the meaning of the tense.
25 He answered and said, Whether he be a sinner or no, I know not: one thing I know, that, whereas I was blind, now I see. He responded, "I do not know if he is or is not a sinner. This one thing I know: I was blind, now I see." He is now clearly aware that the central dispute is about Jesus' identity. Initially he side steps that question and comes comes back to the central truth that cannot be ignored: Jesus healed a blind man.
26 Then said they to him again, What did he to thee? how opened he thine eyes? So once again, they asked him, "What did he do to you? How did he restore your sight?"
27 He answered them, I have told you already, and ye did not hear: wherefore would ye hear it again? will ye also be his disciples? He responded, "I told you already, and you refuse to listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You don't want to become his disciples, do you?" He's finally had enough, and his response here shows that his irritation has now overcome any mild caution or fear these men of power may have initially caused in him. This response is clearly sarcastic, as the last question is a Rhetorical question implying a "no" answer, meaning he was saying, "I know you don't want to be his disciples, so these continued questions must be because you are too dense to understand my words." He is fed up with their witch hunt. He no longer cares if they throw him out of the synagogue. Unlike the Pharisees, he cannot ignore the truth of what has happened, and unlike his parents, he is willing to accept the implications of that truth, no matter what the ramifications.
28 Then they reviled him, and said, Thou art his disciple; but we are Moses' disciples. Then they hurled insults at him, and said, "You are His disciple. We are the disciples of Moses. His sarcasm causes them to turn on him.
29 We know that God spake unto Moses: as for this fellow, we know not from whence he is. We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this guy, we don't know who sent Him."
30 The man answered and said unto them, Why herein is a marvellous thing, that ye know not from whence he is, and yet he hath opened mine eyes. The man responded, "Wow! Here is something truly amazing! He has restored my sight, and yet, somehow, you don't know who sent Him. His sarcasm has become truly biting, and he has crossed over into mocking them by using their own teachings against them.
31 Now we know that God heareth not sinners: but if any man be a worshipper of God, and doeth his will, him he heareth. It is well known that God does not listen to sinners, but if anyone is a true follower of God, and does what God wants, God does listen to him. The Greek actually says "God-fearer," which is used of those who serve God with no reservations, with all their heart. In today's language, that would be a true, sincere follower of God.
32 Since the world began was it not heard that any man opened the eyes of one that was born blind. And since the beginning of time no one has even heard of a man restoring the sight of one who was born blind,
33 If this man were not of God, he could do nothing. thus, if this man were not from God, He could not have done anything even remotely like this." This is a devastating conclusion, because he has used their own reasoning against them. "The very fact that Jesus performed such an unheard of miracle, something so unheard of that only God could do it, PROVES that God heard Him and He is not a sinner. So He MUST be from God. And the fact that YOU wanted me to give God the glory proves YOU know it." Not only has he spoken the truth and defied them, but he has done so in a way that exposed their hypocrisy, deceit and hard hearts. This is a bold stand for the truth in the face of powerful enemies that is almost unmatched in scripture. Few of Jesus' disciples even demonstrated this kind of boldness.
34 They answered and said unto him, Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out. They responded to him, "You have been a sinner since birth, and you have the audacity to lecture us?" And the threw him out of the Synagogue. This means he was no longer welcome in the synagogue. His "membership" was revoked. This is what his parents had feared might happen to them, yet it did not deter him from standing up to the Jews and shoving the truth down their throats. Even knowing the consequences, he still refused to compromise.
35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and when he had found him, he said unto him, Dost thou believe on the Son of God? Jesus heard that they threw him out, and finding him, He said, "Do you believe in the Son, a human being?" P66, P75, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus and Bezae Cantabrigiensis say "Son of man." Alexandrinus and much of the later Byzantine family say "Son of God."
36 He answered and said, Who is he, Lord, that I might believe on him? He answered, "Can you tell me who he is, Lord, so that I can believe in him?"
37 And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh with thee. Jesus responded, "Not only have you already seen Him, He is the very person who is speaking to you right now."
38 And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him. Then he declared, "Lord, I do believe." Then he worshiped Him.
39 And Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world, that they which see not might see; and that they which see might be made blind. Then Jesus said, "I came into this world to make a judgment, so that those who are blind would have their sight restored, and those who can see would become blind." In the Greek, "judgment" (a legal verdict and decision at the end of a court case) is emphasized, along with the pronoun "I." Jesus is the only true and righteous judge.
40 And some of the Pharisees which were with him heard these words, and said unto him, Are we blind also? The Pharisees who were there and heard these things said to Him, "We are not blind, are we?" Rhetorical question implying a "no" answer.
41 Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no sin: but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth. Jesus responded, "If you were blind, then you would not be responsible for your sin, but since you say, 'we can see," you are accountable for your sin." Note that Jesus recognizes that their rhetorical question denying they are blind is not really a question at all, but has the same meaning as the statement "we can see."

Chapter 10

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. "Truly, truly, I say to you, the one who does not enter into the sheep yard by the gate, but climbs in another way is a thief and criminal.
2 But he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. But the one who enters through the gate is the shepherd of the sheep.
3 To him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out. The gate keeper opens the gate for him, he calls his own sheep by name, the sheep listen to his voice, and he leads them out.
4 And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice. When he brings his sheep out, he walks in the front, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice.
5 And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him: for they know not the voice of strangers. They will never follow a stranger, but will run away from him, because they do not know the voice of strangers." The first clause is a double negative, which is the most emphatic way of saying "not" in Greek.
6 This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them. Jesus told them this parable, but they did not understand what He was talking about.
7 Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep. So Jesus went on to explain, "Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the gate to the sheep.
8 All that ever came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them. Everyone who came before me were thieves and criminals, but the sheep did not listen to them.
9 I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture. I am the gate. If anyone enters through me, he shall be saved, and he shall enter through the gate, then continue on and find pasture.
10 The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly. The thief does not come for any other reason except to steal, kill and destroy. I come so that they can have life, and have it exceedingly, abundantly beyond measure.
11 I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives his life for the sake of sheep. The word for life in this verse is "psuche," while the word for life in verse ten is "zdoe." When contrasted together like this, psuche (often translated "soul") indicates a purely physical kind of life - that kind that indicates nothing more than our bodies are alive. Dzoe indicates a deeper life, a real life, a life that surpasses and supercedes that of mere physical life. A life that is really lived, is more alive, is beyond life. You might say that everyone is alive (psuche), but not everyone truly lives (dzoe). So Jesus is indicating that the shepherd will give up his "physical life" so that the sheep can have a deeper, fuller, more abundant life that overflows beyond measure or imagination. So they will truly "come alive." This is a life that goes beyond mere living, it starts at the MOMENT of salvation, and it never ends.
12 But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep. The hired worker is not the shepherd and does not own the sheep. When he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and flees, so the wolf attacks the sheep, snatching some up, and scattering the rest.
13 The hireling fleeth, because he is an hireling, and careth not for the sheep. [The hired worker flees] because he is being paid a wage, and doesn't really care about the sheep. The italicized clause is found only in the Byzantine tradition, and was probably added later to clarify this sentence.
14 I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine. I am the good shepherd. I know my own sheep, and they know me,
15 As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep. in the same way that my Father knows me, and I know my Father, and I lay down my life for the sheep. In the Greek, verses 12, 13, 14 and 15 are one continuous thought, so this last clause is intended as a contrast to what was said of the hired worker two verses up. The hired worker abandons the sheep to preserve his own life where Jesus lays His life down for the sheep.
16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd. I have other sheep who are not from this sheep yard. I must also lead them, they shall hear my voice, and there shall be one sheep yard and one shepherd. The Mormons have long claimed that this was a reference to them. Taken in context with the discussions Jesus has been having with the Jews, the most likely reference is simply to the gentiles. Even in Acts, the Gentile Christians were treated as "outsiders" by many Jewish Christians, and many Jewish Christians never got over this. Many either overtly or subtly considered the two groups as being two different "churches," (recall how Peter withdrew from the Gentiles when Jewish Christians showed up, and how angry that made Paul). At one point, the elders in Jerusalem held a big council meeting to see what parts of the law they were going to require the Gentile believers to obey in order to be considered real Christians, again, treating them as a separate body of believers from the Jewish Christians. Historically, Gentile believers tended to make more of a separation with other believers based on doctrinal differences (denominations - Catholic versus Protestant; Calvinist versus Arminian; Charismatic versus traditional; etc.), where Jewish believers tended to lump all denominations together, and make more of a separation based on race (Jewish versus Gentile). Jesus, on the other hand, says all believers are part of the same flock.
17 Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. Here is why the Father loves me; because I give my life so that I can take it back again. This is ONE of the things the Father loves about the Son. While it can indicate the main reason, δια τουτο does not usually indicate the SOLE reason. Again, "life" is psuche.
18 No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father. No one takes it from me, but rather, I myself give it. I have the authority to give it, and I have the authority to take it back afterward. This is the command I have freely taken from my Father's side. Lambano is active in the last sentence, not passive. When used of "commands" or "instructions," it indicates that we WANT to obey the command, that we are freely and actively TRYING to do the command we have been given, NOT that we have "grabbed" it or stolen it. The key thing is that it is not PASSIVE ("I have received"), but active, showing our intentional and enthusiastic involvement in wanting to fulfill the command. Jesus didn't die on the cross SIMPLY because the Father told Him to do it, but He actively and enthusiastically WANTED to do the will of the Father, to die and be resurrected, so that humanity could be reconciled to God.
19 There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings. Due to these words, a huge dispute once again developed among the Jews.
20 And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him? Many of them said, "He has a demon and is insane. Why do you even listen to Him?"
21 Others said, These are not the words of him that hath a devil. Can a devil open the eyes of the blind? But others said, "These are not the words of someone with a demon. Can a demon give sight to the blind?" Note that His defenders relied on what Jesus DID as proof that what He said was from God. So it is supposed to be with all believers: our ACTIONS, the way we behave and treat others, should be the best evidence of the Truth of our words.
22 And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter. During the winter, in Jerusalem, at the time of the festival of the Dedication, The "Festival of the Dedication" is called Chanukah (or Hanukkah) today, which means the following encounter took place roughly in December sometime between the middle to the end of the month, or around the time we celebrate Christmas today.
23 And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch. Jesus was walking in the Temple, in Solomon's porch,
24 Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly. when He was surrounded by the Jews, who said to Him, "How long are you going to keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, then stop beating around the bush and just tell us openly and boldly." The word used here implies that the Jews felt Jesus was constantly being evasive about whether or not He was the Christ, and they were tired of the word games. However, as this and many other conversations reveal, what they were really tired of was not having enough evidence to accuse Jesus of blasphemy. They weren't interested in following Him if He openly claimed to be the Messiah, they just wanted to be able to use His own words against Him in a trial.
25 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my Father's name, they bear witness of me. Jesus answered, "I already told you, and are refusing to believe: the works that I do in my Father's name are testifying about me. Jesus says the answer is easy: Figure out who is the source of the miracles Jesus does, and that will answer all your questions. If God is the source of His miracles, then God is also the source of His words.
26 But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you. But you are refusing to believe because, as I have already said to you, you are not my sheep. The phrase, "as I said to you" is found in P66, Alexandrinus, and Bezae Cantabrigiensis, but not found in P75, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, or Ephraemi Rescriptus. That is pretty evenly split, so the evidence is mixed, and uncertain. I have included it because, even though UBS-4 excludes it, in situation where the witnesses are so mixed, I believe it is better to err on the side of inclusion, rather than exclusion. Besides, Jesus had already said this to them, meaning the statement is true, so including it does not detract from the text.
27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: My sheep hear my voice, I know them, they follow me,
28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. and I give them everlasting life. They shall never, ever be destroyed, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. The phrase "they shall never, ever be destroyed" is the strongest, most emphatic negation possible in Greek: the double negative followed by "forever": They absolutely shall not be destroyed (perish, die) forever.
29 My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. My Father, who is greater than everyone and everything, has given them to me, and no one has the ability to snatch them out of the Father's hand. This is a continuation of the previous guarantee: Once we believe in Jesus, no outside force of any kind, whether human or demonic, can ever, by any means, forcefully snatch us away from God because nothing and on one is stronger than He.
30 I and my Father are one. The Father and I are one." This statement is considered blasphemous by Jews. No human can be one with God, because that would make us equal with God.
31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him. Once again, the Jews picked up stones so that they could stone Him. This was not the first time they had done this, and this shows what their motivations were from the very beginning. Their question about Jesus' identity as the Messiah was for no other reason than so they would have an excuse to kill Him.
32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? Jesus responded, "I have shown you many good works from my Father. For which of these works do you stone me?" Remember, Jesus made the claim earlier that it was His miracles which proved His claims were true. Thus, if they had a problem with what He said, they must also have a problem with what He did: that is, they must believe His miracles were not from God. So His question is: Which of my miracles was not from God?
33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. The Jews answered, "We are not stoning you for a good work, but for blasphemy, because you, although you are only a man, are making yourself God."
34 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods? Jesus responded, "It is written in your law, 'I said you are gods,' isn't it?" Rhetorical question implying a "yes" answer.
35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken; The scriptures cannot be broken into pieces, so if He called them gods, to whom the Word of God came, When Jesus says that "the scriptures cannot be broken into pieces (destroyed)," He is not making an absolute statement that that the scriptures can never be wrong. This is an idiom meaning "to smash it up into pieces and only keep the pieces you like, discarding all the pieces you don't like." In other words, the scriptures are a whole, and should be accepted or rejected as a whole. Either accept that ALL of the scriptures are the Word of God, or reject ALL of the scriptures. Do NOT pick and choose what you do or do not want to believe simply because you don't LIKE what some of it says.
36 Say ye of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God? then how can you say of the one whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, 'you are blaspheming,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God?'
37 If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not. If I do not do the works of my Father, then don't believe in me.
38 But if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works: that ye may know, and believe, that the Father is in me, and I in him. But if I do them, even though you do not believe in me, believe in the works, so that you can know, and understand that the Father is in me, and I am in the Father."
39 Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their hand, Undeterred, they again tried to grab Him, but He slipped through their grasp,
40 And went away again beyond Jordan into the place where John at first baptized; and there he abode. and once again He went across the Jordan to the place where John was first baptizing, and He stayed there.
41 And many resorted unto him, and said, John did no miracle: but all things that John spake of this man were true. Many people came to Him, and they said, "Even though John did not do any miracles, everything John said about this man is true."
42 And many believed on him there. And many in that place believed in Him.

Chapter 11

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha. A certain man, Lazarus of Bethany, from the village of Mary and her sister Martha, was sick.
2 (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.) This was the same Mary who anointed the Lord with myrrh and wiped His feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick. The ointment described here is the same basic kind as the Magi (a general term used of a WIDE variety of different professions, including astrologers, royal counselors, magicians, scientists, physicians, priests, teachers and seers in the orient) brought to Jesus when He was born (the word σμύρνα, used in Matthew, is the feminine form of μύρον, used here. Myrrh is primarily derived from the sap of a variety of different trees, so the different words could indicate they were slightly different mixtures, or from different kinds of trees). What is described here was done by two different women in two different locations at two different times. The time that Mary does it is described at the beginning of next chapter, after Lazarus has already been raised from the dead (so John is drawing our attention to something that has not yet occurred in the story). At a different time this was done by a prostitute, and that event is recorded in Luke 7:37-38. The word translated "anoint" literally means "to oil" something, and was ceremonial word used of pouring oil on someone who was being "anointed" for a specific purpose.
3 Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. So his sisters sent a message to Jesus, saying, "Lord, Look! He whom you love is sick." The word for "love" here is phileo, indicating a strong emotional affection. Contrary to what many commentators claim, phileo does NOT mean friendship (and is never used of mere "friendship" in the NT), but rather, is used of very strong FEELINGS of love, as contrasted with agapao, which emphasizes loving ACTIONS (although agapao and agape can include strong feelings as well). Lazarus and his sisters were not mere "friends" of Jesus, but were CLOSE friends whom Jesus loved very deeply.
4 When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby. When Jesus heard their message, He said, "This is not a sickness that will lead to death. Far from it, it is for the glory of God, so that through it the Son of God can be gloried."
5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. Jesus loved Martha, her sister, and Lazarus,
6 When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was. yet, when He heard that Lazarus was sick, He stayed where He was for two more days.
7 Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again. After that, He finally said to His disciples, "We should go back to Judea again."
8 His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again? His disciples responded, "Rabbi, the Jews just tried to stone you, and you want to go back there again?" Remember chapter ten ended with the Jews, once again, trying to kill Jesus. That event was not very long ago, so the disciples were understandably concerned.
9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world. Jesus answered, "There are twelve hours in the day, right? If anyone walks around during the day, he doesn't trip over anything, because the physical light allows him to see where he is going. Rhetorical question implying "yes." The Greek literally says, "because he sees the light of this world."
10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him. But if someone walks around at night, he trip over things, because there is no light for him." The Greek here literally says, "because the light is not in him." The phrasing in the last clause of this verse and the previous one are intentional, so that the double reference is easier to see: Jesus is drawing a parallel between physical and spiritual light. When you walk in the light of God, you will not be tripped up by life's problems because the light of God will lead you, but when you don't have the light of God inside, you will make bad choices, and life's problems will trip you up. Interesting point to ponder: how does this point relate to the Jews trying to kill Jesus?
11 These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. He said these thing after He had told them, "Our friend, Lazarus, has fallen asleep, however, I am going so that I can awaken him."
12 Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well. So His disciples responded, "Lord, if he is sleeping, then he shall recover." They were still trying to figure out why Jesus felt the need to go back to Judea, where the Jews were plotting to murder Him.
13 Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. Because although they thought He was talking about sleeping restfully, Jesus had been talking about Lazarus' death.
14 Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. So Jesus explained, "What I mean is, Lazarus is dead.
15 And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him. I am glad, for your sakes, that I was not there to prevent it, so that you can believe. Therefore, we must now go to him."
16 Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellow disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him. Then Thomas, whose name means 'The Twin,' said to his fellow disciples, "We should go too, so that we can die with Him." "Thomas" and "Didymus" are the Hebrew and Greek versions of the same name. Both names mean "twin." This was the same man who would later doubt that Jesus had risen from the dead, and is often called "doubting Thomas" by believers today.
17 Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already. When Jesus arrived, He discovered that Lazarus had already been in the tomb for four days. The law required Jews to bury someone who died on the same day, so being in the tomb for four days means he had been dead for four days.
18 Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off: Because Bethany was near Jerusalem, being a little less than two miles away, The Greek actually says "fifteen stadia." One stadia was the length around a standard Roman stadium, or about 600 feet, so 15 stadia is about 9000 feet, or almost exactly 1.7 miles.
19 And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. many Jews came to see Martha and Mary, to comfort them at the loss of their brother.
20 Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house. Therefore, when Martha heard about Jesus coming, she went and met him, while Mary stayed at home.
21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. Then Martha said to Jesus, "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died. The phrasing used when Martha spoke to Jesus shows more formality that one would normally expect among very good friends (she spoke "toward" Him, rather than "to" Him). This, along with her words shows the great respect that Martha had for Jesus, as well as the amazing faith she had the Jesus could do the impossible.
22 But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee. But I know, even now, that whatever you ask of God, God shall give to you. Note that Martha is expressing faith that somehow, Jesus can STILL fix this situation.
23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again. Jesus answered her, "Your brother shall be resurrected."
24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day. Martha replied, "I know that he shall be resurrected in the resurrection at the last day." Martha was not expressing doubt that Jesus could literally raise her brother from the dead, she was doing a "message check," clarifying what she thought He might be talking about. Being a close friend, she had very likely heard Jesus talk about the resurrection, about never dying, and eternal life many times. In all those cases, she knew He was talking about eternal life, so it is natural for her to assume that this was what He was talking about here.
25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: Jesus responded, "I am the resurrection and the Life. The one believing in me, although he dies, he shall live.
26 And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this? And everyone who lives and believes in me shall never, ever die. Do you believe this?"
27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world. She replied, "Yes, Lord. I have long believed that you are the Christ, the Son of God, the very one coming into the world." Martha uses the Perfect tense, indicating something completed in the past that has present implications this very moment. In this case, she is confirming a long held belief, thus the "I have long believed" translation. This short exchange probably had the effect of confirming for Martha that Jesus is speaking about future resurrection and eternal life, not a literal resurrection here and now.
28 And when she had so said, she went her way, and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, The Master is come, and calleth for thee. After saying this, she went back to her sister, Mary, and whispered to her, "The Rabbi is here, and is calling for you."
29 As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came unto him. As soon as she heard that, she jumped up and went to meet Him.
30 Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but was in that place where Martha met him. At this point, Jesus was not yet in the village, but was still where Martha met Him.
31 The Jews then which were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up hastily and went out, followed her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there. When the Jews who were in the house comforting her saw Mary suddenly get up and leave, they followed her, saying, "She is going to the grave to weep there."
32 Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. As soon as Mary reached the place where Jesus was and saw Him, she fell to the ground at His feet, and sobbed, "Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died." This is an example of where the Greek tenses cannot be expressed accurately in English. Mary uses the imperfect and the aorist in her exclamation, which would literally be, "Lord, if you were being here (continuous aspect), my brother did not die (puncticular aspect)," which sounds terrible in English. Thus the translation formula calls for us to translate it as though it is using completed aspect in both parts. This is called a "Contrary to fact conditional," and is difficult to translate the exact nuance found in the Greek. Fortunately, the subtleties of the Greek don't really change the force of this particular construction to any appreciable degree, so the normal translation formula works.
33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled, When Jesus saw her and the Jews who came with her weeping, His spirit was grieved, and He was deeply saddened. When Jesus saw the depth of Mary's grieving, it broke His heart. Despite the fact that He knew He was going to raise Lazarus from the dead, and thus He knew that her grief would soon be turned to gladness, seeing her in pain still hurt.
34 And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see. So He asked, "Where have you placed him?" They responded, "Lord, come with us and we will show you."
35 Jesus wept. Then Jesus burst into tears.
36 Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him! So the Jews said, "Look how much He loved him! It should be noted that almost every time John takes the time to point out what the Jews thought or said, it was because they were WRONG in their assumptions, which tends to indicate that Jesus did NOT weep because Lazarus was dead (He had known that for several days), but rather, was a natural outpouring when faced with the intense pain that Mary was suffering at the loss of her brother.
37 And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died? Then some of them said, "This man who gave sight to the blind could have done something so that he didn't die, couldn't He?" Rhetorical question implying "yes."
38 Jesus therefore again groaning in himself cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it. Then Jesus, still grieving inside, came to the tomb. It was a cave with a stone across the opening.
39 Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days. Jesus said, "Remove the stone." Then Martha, the sister of the deceased, said to Him, "Lord, by this time he will stink as it has been four days." The Greek literally says, "it is the fourth day," but "it has been four days" sounds more natural in English and the meaning is basically the same. Note that Martha has now joined Mary and Jesus at the tomb, and despite being the one who expressed the most faith in Jesus' power earlier (verse 22), she is ever the practical one.
40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God? Jesus responded, "I told you that if you believe, you would see the glory of God, didn't I?" Rhetorical question implying a "yes" answer.
41 Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me. Then they moved the stone, and Jesus raised His eyes upward, and said, "Father, I thank you that you heard me. The Byzantine tradition adds the words "ου ην ο τεθνηκως κειμενος" ("which was where the dead one lay") after "they moved the stone." This clarifying statement is not found in any of the earlier versions of John.
42 And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me. And I knew that you always hear me, however, I mention it for the sake of the surrounding crowd, so that they might believe that you have sent me." The "I knew" at the beginning of this sentence is pluperfect, which is past time, completed aspect, and is literally "I had known," but that doesn't sound right in English. The idea is that Jesus has known from the very beginning that His Father hears Him - He has never doubted it. Notice that Jesus acknowledges here that sometimes He prays for the benefit of those standing around, meaning sometimes the prayers of those with strong faith can serve a dual purpose: to speak to God and to teach those listening.
43 And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. And after He said that, He shouted very loudly, "Lazarus, come out!" The Greek literally says, "He shouted with a big sound." Although φωνή is often used of a voice, it is used to emphasize the SOUND of the voice, not the words being spoken. So the emphasis here is on how LOUDLY Jesus shouted.
44 And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go. And the dead man come out, his feet and hands still bound with strips of burial cloth, and his face still wrapped with a burial napkin. Jesus told them, "Untie him and let him go."
45 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him. Then many of the Jews who visited Mary, and saw the things which He did, believe in Him.
46 But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done. But some of them went to the Pharisees, and told them the things that Jesus had done. Think about this for a minute! How hard-hearted do you have to be to continue to plot against a man who just raised the dead? There is certainly no Biblical justification for thinking that Satan could do this, so what reasoning would Jews have for rejecting Jesus after this? Somewhere, deep inside, they have to know beyond any reasonable doubt that they are fighting God, but they just don't care. Wow.
47 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles. Then the chief priests and the Pharisees called a leadership meeting, and said, "What are we going to do when this man performs so many of miracles? There are two words worth noting in this sentence. The word translated "called, gathered" is the verb form of the noun usually translated "synagogue," indicating this was an official, formal meeting. Second, the word translated "council, leadership meeting" is the word usually translated "Sanhedrin," which is the ruling religious council of the Jewish faith. So these were THE top leaders of Israel, serving as senior priests, prosecutors, judges, and ruling civil government. And short of death sentences, the Romans let them do just about anything they wanted to do, just so long as it did not interfere with what the Romans were doing. So at this point, opposition to Jesus has just become OFFICIAL Jewish religious and civil policy.
48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation. If we let Him keep doing this stuff, everyone will eventually believe in Him, and the Romans will come and take away both our position and our nation." The concern expressed here indicates they would loose their POLITICAL positions as well as their nation, so they were concerned first and foremost about how Jesus was going to cause them to loose their POWER. Interesting, considering the prophecy given to Mary that Jesus would cause the rise or fall of many in Israel. That is exactly what they were worried was going to happen.
49 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, Then one of them, Caiaphas, who was the high priest that year, said to them, "You don't know anything!
50 Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not. You don't realize that it is better for you that one man dies for the people so that the whole nation does not perish? A little textual side note: P45, P66, Vaticanus and Bezae Rescriptus say "better for YOU," while Alexandrinus and most of the Byzantine family say "better for US." Sinaiticus doesn't have a pronoun (it just says "it is better"). P75 is damaged in that spot. The only real difference is whether Caiaphas was including himself in the group, or speaking to the rest of them as separate from himself. Note that P45 (a papyrus I have not mentioned up to now), thought now to be a middle to late second century document (meaning it would predate all but P66 and P75), and is most notable as the oldest collection of Paul's letters, does contain a few pages of the gospels, although most of the gospel pages are missing.
51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation; However, he did not say this on his own, but being the high priest that year, he unknowingly prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation,
52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad. and not only for the nation, but so that the widely scattered children of God could be gathered together into one.
53 Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death. So from that day on they resolved to find a way to murder Him.
54 Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples. Therefore, Jesus no longer walked out publicly among the Jews, but left there and went to a city called Ephraim, in a region near the desert, and lived there with His disciples.
55 And the Jews' passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves. Now the Jewish Passover was near, so many from the surrounding region went into Jerusalem before the Passover, to purify themselves.
56 Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that he will not come to the feast? Then they watched for Jesus and asked each other as they stood in the temple grounds, "What do you think? There is no way He will come to the festival, is there?" The second question is NOT actually a rhetorical question, but is a strong double negative. In a question, this expresses extreme uncertainty, kind of like, "there is no way he is dumb enough to actually show up, is there?" The questioner thinks there is no way Jesus will show (because if HE were Jesus, he would not show), but he's not completely sure what Jesus will actually do, and he's asking for verification of his position from those around him.
57 Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment, that, if any man knew where he were, he should shew it, that they might take him. Because both the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if anyone knew where He was, he should report it, so they could arrest Him.

Chapter 12

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then Jesus six days before the passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead. Then, six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead.
2 There they made him a supper; and Martha served: but Lazarus was one of them that sat at the table with him. They made supper for Him there, and Martha was serving the dinner, while Lazarus was one of those reclining with Him.
3 Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment. So Mary took twelve ounces of very expensive perfume, made of pure Nard, and anointed Jesus' feet, and wiped His feet with her hair. The house was filled with the scent of the perfume. The unit mentioned here is a "litra," which is roughly equivalent in modern measurements to about 12 ounces, or three quarters of a pound.
4 Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, which should betray him, Then Judas Iscariot, one of His disciples who was planning to betray Him, said,
5 Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor? "Why wasn't this perfume sold for a year's wages and given to the poor?" Monetary conversions are notoriously difficult and constantly changing, so if I were to place an exact monetary value on 300 denarii (the exact amount listed), that value would be wrong and outdated next month. Thus, I used a "cultural equivalent." In the first century, the average soldier was paid 1 gold aureus per month. One aureus was worth 25 silver denarii, meaning the average solder was paid 300 denarii per year in wages. Thus, 300 denarii was roughly one year's wages for the average soldier, which is probably the lower end of the average working man's wages. So "a year's wages" seems a fairly stable, reliable equivalent.
6 This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare what was put therein. He did not say this because he cared about the poor, but because he was a thief, as he carried the group's money box, and he would take for himself what was put in it.
7 Then said Jesus, Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this. Then Jesus said, "Leave her alone. She has kept this specifically for the day of my burial.
8 For the poor always ye have with you; but me ye have not always. For you will always have the poor with you, but you will not always have me."
9 Much people of the Jews therefore knew that he was there: and they came not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead. When a large crowd of Jews found out He was there, they came, although not just because of Jesus, but also to see Lazarus, whom He had raised from the dead.
10 But the chief priests consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death; So the chief priests planned to murder Lazarus, too,
11 Because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus. because he was the reason so many of the Jews were leaving and believing in Jesus.
12 On the next day much people that were come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, On the following day, a large crowd who came to the festival heard, "Jesus is coming to Jerusalem," Greek has no "quotation marks", so determining when something is or is not supposed to be in quotations is something of an art. Here, I decided on the quotations because of the use of ὅτι and the sudden switch in tense. Past tense is used of the people in the festival, but present tense is used of Jesus coming to Jerusalem, so it sounds like an exact quote that is being passed around in the crowd. Additionally, ὅτι ("that") often starts an exact quotation (Greek often literally says - Jesus said that, "you should..."), and many scholars simply substitute it for quotation marks most of the time, and so I did in this instance.
13 Took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord. so they took the branches from palm trees, and went out to meet Him, shouting,

"Hosanna!

Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord,

The Kind of Israel!

I went back and forth on whether or not to use the transliterated "Hosanna," or the translation, "Oh save," or "Save us." I'm still not sure which is better. In general, "hosanna" is a plea for salvation, and as such, it is considered a form of worship or praise, since it is a recognition that is supposed to go only to God (the OT says that there is no savior except for God - Isaiah 43:11), and as a form of praise or worship, it may or may not literally mean "save us," but could also be intended as a general "Praise God." Additionally, very few people, particularly outside the church, have any idea what "hosanna" means. On the other hand, even modern songs and poems often use archaic, foreign or unfamiliar words to relate their message (anyone remember the song "Kyrie Eleison" by Mr. Mister, which means "Lord have mercy" in Greek?). Thus, the quandary.

Additionally, because this is a poetic song, and is written in a verse form in the Greek, I have tried to retain the verse form a little by translating it much more word for word than I usually would.

14 And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, And finding a young donkey, Jesus sat on it; just as it is written,
15 Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt. "Do not fear, daughter of Zion; Look! Your king comes, seated upon a donkey's foal." The word I translated "foal" is πῶλος, which means "foal, filly, colt - a young donkey or horse." Even though "foal" is somewhat archaic, I'm not sure that modern audiences recognize that a colt is a young horse or donkey. One possibility is to simply state "young donkey" in verses 14 and 15, except that the Greek actually uses different words. In 14, the word literally means "little donkey," while verse 15 specifically says, "a donkey's foal/colt."
16 These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him. His disciples did not understand any of this at first, but once Jesus was glorified, they remembered that these things were written about Him, and that they did these things to Him.
17 The people therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him from the dead, bare record. So the crowd that was with Him when He called Lazarus out of the tomb, and raised him from the dead, continued to tell others about what they had seen. I have translated one Greek word, μαρτυρέω, as "continued to tell others about what they had seen," since this word implies an eye-witness testimony of what we have seen first hand.
18 For this cause the people also met him, for that they heard that he had done this miracle. This is why the crowd continued to go out and meet Him, because they heard that He had performed that miracle.
19 The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, the world is gone after him. So the Pharisees said to each other, "You see how nothing you do works? Look! The whole world has left to follow Him."
20 And there were certain Greeks among them that came up to worship at the feast: Now there were some Greeks among them who came up to worship at the festival.
21 The same came therefore to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. And they came to Phillip, who was from Bethsaida, in Galilee, and were asking him, "Lord, we wish to see Jesus."
22 Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: and again Andrew and Philip tell Jesus. Phillip came and told Andrew, and together, Andrew and Phillip told Jesus.
23 And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. Then Jesus responded to them with this, "The hour has come, when the Son, a human being, shall be glorified.
24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit. Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls to the ground, and dies, it remains a lone grain. However, if it dies, it produces a lot of seed.
25 He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal. Whoever loves his life destroys it, and the one hating his life in this world guards it all the way to eternal life. The phrase translated "guards it all the way to eternal life" calls to mind a caravan traveling a long and dangerous road, which is being protected by guards all the way to its destination. The idea is that only when you hate your physical life do you protect it from the temptations of this world that want to destroy it. When you do this, when you place more value on the eternal things of God than on the momentary physical pleasures of sin, then you will be able to guard and protect your heart from evil during the long trip of life all the way to its ultimate goal: eternal life.
26 If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honour. If anyone serves me, he must follow me, so wherever I am, there will my servant also be. If anyone serves me, my Father will honor him.
27 Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour. Now my soul has become agitated, so what shall I ask? Shall I ask, 'Father, save me from this hour'? But it is for this very reason that I came to be here during this hour.
28 Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again. Father, glorify your name!" Then a voice came from heaven, "I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again." The word translated "voice" is φωνή, which strictly speaking is just "a sound," but when used of speaking, "voice" is usually the best translation. Keep in mind that φωνή does not emphasize what is being said (the actual words), but the SOUND of the voice that is saying it, and as such, is used in the NT, almost without exception, to emphasize the VOLUME or TONE of the voice (and is usually accompanied by some indicator of volume - loud voice, raising the voice, shouting - particularly of a voice that thunders from the clouds, etc.). Note that many of those who heard it here did not actually hear words, but only heard a loud sound that they assumed to be thunder.
29 The people therefore, that stood by, and heard it, said that it thundered: others said, An angel spake to him. But the crowd who were standing nearby, and heard it, said, "It has thundered." Others said, "An angel has spoken to Him."
30 Jesus answered and said, This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes. Jesus responded, "This voice did not come for my sake, but for yours.
31 Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. Now the judgement of this world is here. Now shall the ruler of this world be driven out.
32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me. And if I am lifted up from the earth, then I shall draw everyone to me."
33 This he said, signifying what death he should die. He said this to indicate the kind of death he was about to die.
34 The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man? The crowd responded, "We heard from the law that Christ remains forever, so how can you say, 'The Son, a human being, must be lifted up?' Who is this Son of God, a human being?"
35 Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. Then Jesus told them, "For a little while longer the light is with you. Walk while you have light, so that the darkness will not overtake you. Because the one walking in the darkness does not know where he is going.
36 While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light. These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them. While you have light, believe in the light, so that you may become the sons of light." Jesus said these things, then departed and hid himself from them. The Greek word υἱός literally means "son," although it often is used as a reference to all of one's children. Greek, however, does have a word for "children," so it is not wise to just automatically substitute "children" for "sons" in all cases. Contrary to modern feminist claims, the use of υιοι (sons) instead of τεκνα (children) is not usually about male verses female children, but implies a degree of responsibility on the part of the child (as sons had the responsibility of following in the father's footsteps in a career, as well as caring for their sisters, younger siblings, and mother in the Father's absence). τεκνα implies no responsibility, as they are completely in the care of another. So here, by using "sons" instead of "children," Jesus is emphasizing the responsibility of His children to follow in His footsteps, to follow the light, and take up the responsibility of spreading the light once He is gone. So we are not just to be like children, abdicating our care and responsibilities to another, but we are all, male and female alike, to be like "sons," and take personal responsibility for taking care of the family of God, continuing our Father's work, and in general, be genuine representatives of Christ on this earth.
37 But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him: And although He had done many miracles in their presence, they did not continue to believe in Him,
38 That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? so that the word of Isaiah the prophet was fulfilled when he said, "Lord, who believed our report? And to whom was the arm of the Lord revealed?" Isaiah 53:1
39 Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again, For this reason they could not believe, because Isaiah also said,
40 He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they would not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them. "He has blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart, so that they shall not see with their eyes, nor perceive with their heart, and be converted, and I would heal them." From Isaiah 6:10 - "Make the heart of this people calloused; make their ears dull and close their eyes. Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts, and turn and be healed." This verse is actually a Greek paraphrase of Isaiah 6:10, showing that God does NOT demand that translations be literally "word for word,' so long as the translation still relates the same basic message as the original.
41 These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him. Isaiah said these things when he saw His glory, and talked about Him.
42 Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue: However, some of the leaders did believe in Him, but because of the Pharisees, they did not dare confess Him openly, for fear that they would be expelled from the synagogue. The strong contrast starting this verse (literally "nevertheless however") shows that the faith was sincere, but there was an element missing from it. Although they KNEW deep down in their hearts that Jesus was the Christ, they were not willing to face the consequences of openly and boldly living their faith in Jesus. How many times are we too embarrassed or too timid to boldly proclaim Jesus no matter what ridicule, persecution or attacks we may face as a result?
43 For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God. Because, even they loved the approval of men rather than the approval of God. Despite their faith in Jesus, what others thought of them was more important than following God with boldness and honesty, no matter what the consequences. The word translated "loved" here is the verb form of agape, which is love demonstrated through action and sacrifice, showing that their ACTIONS demonstrated what the really loved. It is an indictment of their actions, NOT their feelings. It is always the same: our ACTIONS, not our words or feelings, demonstrates what is really in our heart. Another way of saying it is this: no one's life is changed by how we FEEL about them, their life is changed by what we DO for them.

Real, life changing, eternal life giving faith is just like real love: it is demonstrated by what we DO, by how we BEHAVE, by how we LIVE our life on a daily basis, not by what we say or feel.

44 Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. Jesus shouted, "The one believing in me, does not believe in me but in He who sent me,
45 And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me. and the one who sees me, sees Him who sent me.
46 I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness. I am light come to the world, so that everyone who believes in me will not remain in darkness. ἐγὼ and φῶς ("I" and "light") are at the beginning of the clause, while the verb is at the end, placing the emphasis on the "I am light" part of the sentence. The emphasis of position over-rides the absence of the article, and makes it more of a generic "I am light" rather than the indefinite "I am a light." The verb "am" is implied by the construction.
47 And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. I do not judge the one who hears the words I am speaking right now, but does not heed them: for I came so that I could save the world, not so that I could judge it. "Words" in this verse is ῥῆμα, not λόγος. Where a λόγος in this context would be the totality of everything that Jesus says, the choice of "rhema" here narrows it down to words that are being spoken right now, particularly ones that apply to this current situation. The implication here is that Jesus is speaking SPECIFICALLY to the crowd standing directly in front of Him (or specifically to whoever is reading this RIGHT NOW), and talking specifically about what He is saying RIGHT NOW. Notice this contrast in the next verse. My translation reflects this implied meaning. The first clause is actually a conditional in Greek, and is structured more like it is presented in the KJV, but the emphasis of the sentence is more as it is presented here.
48 He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day. The one who rejects me, and does not accept the words I am speaking right now, has a judge: Every word I have spoken, these shall be his judge on the last day. The use of ῥῆμα in the first clause, and λόγος in the second clause places extra emphasis on "the words I am saying right now" versus "all the words I have ever spoken." The translation here reflects that implied distinction found very clearly in the Greek.
49 For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. Because I do not speak from myself, but the Father who sent me gave me a directive in which He told me what I should say. The contrast here is not the content of Jesus' words (as in, "I'm not talking about myself, but about the Father"), but the source of the words. Jesus' words do not come from HIM, but rather, His words are the ones that the Father told Him to say.
50 And I know that his commandment is life everlasting: whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak. I know that this directive of His is life everlasting; therefore, you can be sure that whatever I say, that is what the Father has said to me. The point here is that the Father told Jesus to ONLY speak the words from the Father, a command which Jesus will obey, and this command means that all of Jesus' words are from the Father, and thus, all of them contain everlasting life. Decided to use "directive" instead of "command," as a command sometimes carries the idea that the person "needs" to be commanded, or they would do their own thing. This was not the case with Jesus.

Chapter 13 - the Last Supper

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. Before the Passover festival Jesus already knew that the hour had come when He would depart from this world and go to the Father. Having loved His own who were in this world, Jesus loved them until the very end. The implication here is that Jesus had loved His own with everything He had done in His ministry, and now, facing death, He chose to continue loving them by allowing Himself to be crucified for their sins.
2 And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him; During the passover meal, the devil had already inserted betrayal into the heart of Judas Iscariot, son of Simon.
3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God; Jesus knew that the Father had put everything into His hands, and that He came from God, and was going to God,
4 He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself. so He rose from the meal, took off his clothes, and wrapped a towel around himself.
5 After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. Then, He poured water into a large bowl, and began to wash His disciples' feet, and dry them with the towel He was wearing. Isn't it interesting that Jesus had changed His clothing, so he dried their feet with a towel He was WEARING, rather than just grabbing a towel and using it? In effect, He dried them with His clothing.
6 Then cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? When He came to Simon Peter, he said to Him, "Lord, you would wash my feet?"
7 Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter. Jesus answered, "You do not understand what I am doing right now, but you will understand it later."
8 Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. Peter told Him, "You will never, ever wash my feet." Jesus answered, "If I do not wash you, you cannot be a part of me." Peter responds with the strongest negation possible: double negative followed by 'forever.' To Peter, this was a demeaning act done only by servants.
9 Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. So then Simon Peter responded, "In that case, Lord, do not wash just my feet, but my hands and head as well."
10 Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all. Jesus said, "He who has bathes, despite only washing his feet, is completely clean. You are all clean . . . well, not every one of you." The "you" in the last clause is plural, showing that the "all/every one" references "all the people," NOT one person's entire body. If the "you" had been singular, it would reference Peter's entire body. In other words, Judas was not clean, but the rest of them were. The last clause is a limitation on the previous statement, and so is kind of a "second thought." Thus the ellipses in the translation.
11 For he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean. He said, "Not every one of you are clean," because He knew who would betray Him.
12 So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you? After He washed their feet, got dressed, and sat down again, He said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you?
13 Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am. You call me Teacher and Lord, and so you should, for I am. διδάσκαλος is a "master" in the Old English sense of a "school master," or possibly in the sense of a person who has mastered his trade (master electrician, master plumber) and is ACTIVELY teaching apprentices the trade (the 'teaching' part is key). In modern English it is best translated "teacher, instructor, professor or guide."
14 If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet. If I, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, you should also wash one another's feet. The construction here is not "your Lord and teacher" but rather, THE Lord and THE Teacher, taking those as titles indicating He is the ultimate of both for all people, whether they know it or not.
15 For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you. I gave you an example, so that you could do to each other exactly as I did to you.
16 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him. Truly, truly, I say to you, the servant is not greater than his lord and He that is sent is not greater than He that sent Him.
17 If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them. If you know these things and do them, you will be blessed. While μακάριος can mean "happy," this is talking about a deeper kind of impact than a mere surface emotion of happiness. This is more about a deeper blessing that brings lifelong contentment, joy and peace. Thus, "blessed" is a little better than "happy."
18 I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me. I am not talking about all of you: I know whom I have chosen, but so that scripture may be fulfilled, one of you eating bread with me has lifted his heel against me.
19 Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am he. Now I tell you this before it happens, so that when it does happen, you may believe that I Am. Again, just as in chapter 8, Jesus is using εγω ειμι as a specific title of deity, not as some kind of general identification ('I am the guy'), but as a specific identity (the redeemer God who gave the law to Moses).
20 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me. Truly, truly I say to you, he who receives those who I send, receives Me; and whoever receives me, receives Him who sent Me." This is a difficult one to translate properly. In this context, λαμβάνω means something deeper than merely "accepting" someone, but the idea of "receiving" them is not something that is familiar to the modern reader. The idea here is more about accepting and receiving them into your heart and home, so that you now become their follower, and learn all that they have to give. This isn't something that we have a modern parallel for, so the translation is difficult to relate accurately.
21 When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me. Upon saying this, Jesus was deeply troubled, and said, "Truly, truly, I tell you, one of you will betray me."
22 Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom he spake. Then the disciples looked at one another, wondering who He was talking about.
23 Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. Leaning back against Jesus' chest was one of His disciples, the one Jesus loved.
24 Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake. Simon Peter motioned to this disciple, to get him to ask Jesus who it was that He was talking about.
25 He then lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it? So the one leaning on Jesus' chest said to Him, "Lord, who is it?"
26 Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. Jesus answered, "It is the one to whom I give a bit a bread dipped in sauce." And when he had dipped the bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.
27 And after the sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly. And after he ate the bread, Satan entered into him. Jesus said to him, "What you are doing, do quickly."
28 Now no man at the table knew for what intent he spake this unto him. No one sitting at the table knew why He said this to him.
29 For some of them thought, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give something to the poor. Some of them thought, since Judas had the money bag, that Jesus had meant, "Go buy the things we will need for the rest of the festival," or, "Go give something to the poor." It actually says "into the festival," which most likely means "for the rest of the festival," as the Passover festival ran a full week after the eating of the passover meal.
30 He then having received the sop went immediately out: and it was night. As soon as Judas received the bread, he went out into the night.
31 Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him. When he had left, Jesus said, "Now the Son, a human being, is glorified, and God is glorified in him. The construction here uses the aorist to indicate this current and specific moment in time, where it normally indicates a moment in the past. Strictly speaking, this construction does not indicate the future, but is treating the events that are about to unfold the rest of this day as happening right now, in the present, not in the future. Compare that with the next verse which specifically contrasts the aorist with the future tense.

Remember, the Jews mark a day from evening to evening, meaning that the day was just starting as Jesus and His disciples ate the Passover meal just after dusk. It also means that the events of the rest of the night, as well as those of the morning and afternoon to come, are actually all part of the same day. When Jesus ate this meal, went out to pray, is arrested, crucified, dies and is buried, it will all be part of the same day, the day of the Passover meal. The day that started with Jesus eating a Passover meal with His disciples will not end until the sun sets shortly after He is placed in a tomb.

32 If God be glorified in him, God shall also glorify him in himself, and shall straightway glorify him. And if God is glorified in Him, God shall both glorify the Son, a human being, in Himself, and shall glorify Him instantly. A lot of pronouns here, so I brought down "Son of God, a human being" from the previous verse to add a little clarity. This phrase splits the "glorifying" part into two sections for emphasis. Jesus is saying God will do TWO things: 1) He will glorify the Son IN HIMSELF and 2) He will do it instantly.
33 Children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you. Little children, I will be with you for just a little while longer. Then you shall seek me but, as I told the Jews, where I am going you cannot come. That is why I'm telling you this now.
34 A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another. I give you a new directive: 'Love one another. Just like I have loved you, you should also love one another.'
35 By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another. This is how everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you show love to one another."
36 Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards. Then Simon Peter said, "Lord, where are you going?" Jesus answered, "Where I am going, you cannot follow right now, but you will follow me later."
37 Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot I follow thee now? I will lay down my life for thy sake. Peter responded, "Lord, why can't I follow you now? I would lay down my life for you."
38 Jesus answered him, Wilt thou lay down thy life for my sake? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me thrice. Jesus answered, "Would you lay down your life for me? Truly, truly I tell you, the rooster shall not crow until you have denied me three times.

Chapter 14

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me. Do not let your heart be troubled. Believe in God, and believe in Me. The Greek present indicative (statements) and present imperative (commands) have the same endings (except that the imperative, obviously, does not have a first person). Because of that, it is sometimes difficult to tell if something is a statement or a command. The KJV translation chooses to translate the first clause as an indicative (a statement = "ye believe in God") and the second as an imperative (a command = "believe also in me"). The context of the construction, however, makes it much more likely that BOTH are imperatives, and so I have translated it.
2 In my Father's house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. In my Father's house there are many rooms; I would have told you if it were not true. I go to prepare a place for you. μονή is kind of a generic "dwelling place" which usually references houses, but can be almost anything that one lives in. Since these are INSIDE a house, the most likely meaning is "rooms."
3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also. And if I went and prepared a place for you, I will come back and receive you to myself, so that where I am, there you can also be.
4 And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know. Because you know the route to where I am going."
5 Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way? Thomas replied, "Lord, we don't know where you are going, so how can we know the route?"
6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me. Jesus said, "I am the Route, the Truth, and the Life. No man comes to the Father except through Me.
7 If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also: and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him. If you have known me, you shall know my Father also. From now on you know Him, and you shall see Him. The tense changes in this sentence can be dizzying. The first clause is perfect (past completed), which indicates something that happened in the past, and is an established thing now in the present. The second clause is future, indicating a guaranteed promise. The third clause is present, showing what is going on right now, and the fourth clause goes back to future, indicating another promise for some day later. By translating the first clause "if you had known me," the KJV almost makes this a contrafactual conditional (a conditional statement in which the first clause is ASSUMED to be false, therefore the second one did not happen). The reason for this is that the Byzantine tradition, as well as Alexandrinus, Vaticanus and Bezae Cantabrigiensis have a pluperfect in that spot. Sinaiticus and Ephraemi Rescriptus have the perfect tense in that spot. UBS-4 believes the perfect is more likely, but only grades the certainty a "C". I have chosen to go with the UBS-4 rendering.
8 Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Philip said, "Lord, show us the Father and it will be enough for us."
9 Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father? Jesus responded, "Am I with you for such a long time and you do not know me, Philip? The one having seen Me has seen the Father. So how can you say, 'show us the Father?'
10 Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. You believe that I am in the Father, and the Father is in me, right? The words that I am speaking to you are not from me. It is the Father who lives in Me who does the works. Rhetorical question implying "yes." "The words" is rhema, not logos, placing an emphasis on the very words Jesus is speaking right now.
11 Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works' sake. Believe in Me that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me. Or if not for that reason, then believe in me because of the works themselves.
12 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father. Truly, truly, I say to you, the one believing in Me shall also do the works that I do; in fact, he shall do even greater works than these, because I go to the Father.
13 And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. And I will do whatever you ask in my name, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
14 If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it. If you ask me for anything in my name, I will do it.
15 If ye love me, keep my commandments. If you love Me, you will carefully follow my directives.
16 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; I will ask the Father, and He shall give you another Helper, so that He will be with you forever.
17 Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. He is the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it can neither see nor know Him. However, you know Him, because He is staying with you and shall be in you.
18 I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you. I will not abandon you like orphans, but I will come to you.
19 Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more; but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also. In just a little while, the world will no longer see Me, but you see Me. Because I live, you too shall live.
20 At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you. On that day you will know that I am in my Father, you are in Me, and I am in you.
21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. The one who loves Me is the one who has my commands and carefully observes them. The one who loves Me shall be loved by both my Father and Me, and I will reveal myself to him."
22 Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Then Judas (not Iscariot) asked Him, "Lord, how are you going to reveal yourself to us, but not to the world?"
23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. Jesus answered, "I anyone loves Me, he will carefully observe my teaching, my Father shall love him, We will come to him, and We will make our home with him. The word translated "home" here is the same word from 14:2 above that is translated "room." It is a general word for any kind of dwelling place. "Teaching" here is logos, in the singular, indicating the totality of everything Jesus teaches.
24 He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father's which sent me. The one who does not observe my teachings does not love Me. The teaching which you hear is not mine, but come from the Father who sent Me. "Teachings" is plural logos, placing emphasis on every single thing that Jesus says. The second sentence "teaching" is logos singular, indicating the totality of everything Jesus says. The point here is that everything Jesus says comes from the Father, so we don't get to pick and choose what we do or do not want to obey. We are required to listen to and do everything Jesus taught.
25 These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you. I have told you these things while living here with you.
26 But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. But the Helper, who is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father shall send in my name, He shall teach you everything, and shall remind you of everything I said to you.
27 Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid. The peace I am giving to you and leaving with you is my peace. I am not giving to you like the world gives. Do not let your heart be distressed or afraid.
28 Ye have heard how I said unto you, I go away, and come again unto you. If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father: for my Father is greater than I. You have heard me say, 'I go away and I will come back to you again.' If you were loving me, you would have rejoiced because I said, 'I go to the Father,' because my Father is greater than I.
29 And now I have told you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye might believe. And now I have told you in advance, before it happens, so that when it does happen, you might believe.
30 Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me. From now on I will not say very much to you, because the ruler of this word is coming, and there is nothing of him in Me.
31 But that the world may know that I love the Father; and as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence. But so that the world may know that I love the Father, I will do exactly as the father has directed. Get up, it's time for us to leave."

See also

References

  1. A wikipedia article on this story contains a listing of textual evidence. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus_and_the_woman_taken_in_adultery (but most scholars now agree that P66 and P75 are second-century documents, not third-century, as this article states).
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