John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was the first candidate of the Republican Party for President of the United States, in the election of 1856. He lost to Democrat James Buchanan. He is best known as the "Man who Mapped the West" after having made five westward expeditions, some of which was to survey the land for railroads. He kept reports and maps of his endeavors, which were influential in the decision of the Mormons to settle in Utah.
Fremont fought in the Mexican War, served as the California territory's governor in 1847 and its Senate representative from 1850 to 1851, was a major general in the Civil War, and was governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881.