Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) was an Argentine fiction writer and essayist and an early example of the post-modern movement in literature. He is most famous for his short stories, which feature labrynthine examinations of such themes as memory and nature of knowledge, frequently through the use of some fantastical plot device. One famous story, "August 25th, 1983" features a conversation between two men that takes place in a dream. During the conversation, the two men determine not only that they are dreaming, but that they are the same person, although one is speaking from twenty years later, on his deathbed. Both men identify themself as Borges.
Borges was interested in framing his fiction in ways that subverted reader expectation. To this end, one story might pretend to be a literary essay ("Pierre Manard, Author of the Quixote") while another might be introduced as an ancient manuscript of a lost civilization that Borges had merely found and edited ("The Lottery in Babylon").