Scholarly journals are magazines published regularly (often quarterly or four times a year), containing research papers by scholars and scientists. Every discipline supports numerous journals, and hundreds have their complete back files online at JSTOR. Each journal has an editor and an editorial board and a pool of referees, who are established scholars. They vet every submitted article for quality control. The process is called "peer review". Major journals typically reject ten articles for every one accepted, and the accepted ones usually must be revised to meet the criticisms of the referees.
Under the Constitution, the Senate (and House) is required to keep a Journal of its official proceedings, such as motions agreed to and votes taken. The Journal does not contain Senate debates. Senate rules stipulate that different Journals be kept for legislative and executive (treaties and nominations) proceedings, as well as for confidential legislative proceedings and proceedings when the Senate sits as a court for impeachment of high Federal officials.