Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: Гарри Кимович Каспаров) (half-Jewish; real name Garik Weinstein) (born in 1963) was the youngest person to ever become a World Chess Champion. He held the highest chess rating ever with 2851 in the Elo system, the record for the most consecutive tournament victories, and a number one world rating almost continuously from 1986 to 2005, when he retired. He became the World Champion in 1985.
He had several famous competitions with computers programmed to defeat him. While he won early matches against the machines, he but ultimately succumbed to advances in computer technology, losing the series to Deep Blue in 1997. Kasparov considered the match to be unfair, as he was not allowed to view earlier games played by the computer, but all of his matches were analyzed and specifically programmed for the computer. Kasparov requested a rematch, but was denied and his computer opponent retired. In the final contest between Kasparov and the most advanced computer, they battled to a draw.
Kasparov later lost his championship title to Vladimir Kramnik in 2000. When there was difficulty in securing a rematch for several years despite Kasparov consistently showing himself as the #1 challenger, Kasparov retired and started the United Civil Front, an organization devoted to preserving democracy in Russia.
In 2007, Kasparov announced his intentions to run for the Russian Presidency, and was nominated by his party. However, he later withdrew from the race, citing the fact that his opponents refused to give him space for a rally, in defiance of Russian election law.
On April 14th, 2007, Kasparov was detained at an anti-Putin rally. The rally was banned by the Kremlin, and most of the demonstrators who showed up were arrested in yet another demonstration of how corrupt Putin's authoritarian government is.
In November 2007, he was arrested and beaten by riot police and charged with organizing an unsanctioned protest. In reply, he said, "What we see today is the implementation of Putin's plan" - a reference to Putin's determination for his party to win the 2007 parliamentary elections by a landslide.  Kasparov spent several days in jail - and went on a hunger/water strike during his imprisonment upon the advice of his legal counsel, who warned of possible poisoning.
|“||Millions like me in Russia want a free press, the rule of law, social justice, and free and fair elections. My new job is to fight for those people and to fight for these fundamental rights.||”|