Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – 1938), also known as Kamâl Atatürk, was a general ("pasha") who serving Ottoman Army during World War I, and a statesman who founded the Republic of Turkey. He was a successful division commander in the Battle of Gallipoli. The Allies defeated the Ottoman Empire and arranged for its partition. Thereupon, after a few congresses, he led an organized political resistance in the Turkish War of Independence by established a new assembly and government in Ankara. From Sep 9, 1923 to Nov 10, 1938, he was also leader of the Republican People's Party.
Atatürk deposed the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in 1922 and became first President of Turkey in 1923. It is estimated that over 99% of Turks are Muslim (and most of them are conservative), but Atatürk established a secular rule based on a strong military. He abolished sharia law and gave women the right to vote and hold government positions. As a result of his efforts, Turkey is the only Muslim country to independently hold democratic elections.
The National Assembly which first convened on 23 April 1920 in Ankara was the first clue to the Turkish Republic. The successful management of the War of Independence by this assembly accelerated the founding of the new Turkish State. On 1 November 1922, the offices of the Sultan and caliph were severed from one other and the former was abolished. There was no longer any administrative ties with the Ottoman Empire. On 29 October 1923, Turkish Republic was formally proclaimed and Atatürk was unanimously elected as its first President. On 30 October 1923, the first government of the Republic was formed by İsmet İnönü. Turkish Republic started to grow on the foundations of the twin principles "Sovereignty, unconditionally belongs to the nation" and "peace at home, peace in the world". Biography of Atatürk
- A biography of Atatürk
- Incredible Turk (1958) – The first documentary on Atatürk
- John F. Kennedy – Speech about Atatürk
- Balfour, Patrick. Atatürk: The Rebirth of a Nation (1964).
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