Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

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Kamal Atatürk or Mustafa Kemal Atatürk ((May 19, 1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first president. He was a successful division commander in the Battle of Gallipoli. When the Allies defeated the Ottoman Empire and arranged for its partition, he led a rebellion in the Turkish War of Independence. From Sep 9, 1923 to Nov 10, 1938, he was also leader of the Republican People's Party.

Kemal deposed the last sultan of the Ottoman Empire in 1922 and became president of Turkey in 1923. It is estimated that over 99% of Turks are Muslim [1], but Kemal established a secular rule based on a strong military. He abolished Islamic courts and gave women the right to vote and hold government positions. As a result of his efforts, Turkey is the only Muslim country to independently hold democratic elections.

Samuel Huntington defines "Kamalism" as a response to attempts at "reconciliation of Islam and modernity', or to modernise Islam without Westernization.

The National Assembly which first convened on 23 April 1920 in Ankara was the first clue to the Turkish Republic. The successful management of the War of Independence by this assembly accelerated the founding of the new Turkish State. On 1 November 1922, the offices of the Sultan and caliph were severed from one other and the former was abolished. There was no longer any administrative ties with the Ottoman Empire. On 29 October 1923, Turkish Republic was formally proclaimed and Atatürk was unanimously elected as its first President. On 30 October 1923, the first government of the Republic was formed by İsmet İnönü. Turkish Republic started to grow on the foundations of the twin principles "Sovereignty, unconditionally belongs to the nation" and "peace at home, peace in the world," Biography of Atatürk

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Bibliography

  • Balfour, Patrick. Ataturk: The Rebirth of a Nation (1964).
  • Çandar, Cengiz, and David Pryce-Jones. "Atatürk's Ambiguous Legacy." Wilson Quarterly 2000 24(4): 88-96. Issn: 0363-3276 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Eissenstat, Howard. "History and Historiography: Politics and Memory in the Turkish Republic." Contemporary European History 2003 12(1): 93-105. Issn: 0960-7773 Fulltext: in Cambridge journals.
  • Karpat, Kemal H. "The Personality of Ataturk," The American Historical Review, Vol. 90, No. 4 (Oct., 1985), pp. 893-899 in JSTOR
  • Kazancigil, Ali and Özbudun, Ergun, eds. Atatürk: Founder of a Modern State. Archon, 1982. 243 pp.
  • Kedourie, Sylvia, ed. Seventy-Five Years of the Turkish Republic. (1999). 237 pp.
  • Kedourie, Sylvia. Turkey Before and After Ataturk: Internal and External Affairs (1989) 282pp; excerpts and text search
  • Kinross, Patrick. Ataturk: The Rebirth of a Nation (1965) 615pp
  • Macfie, A.L. Ataturk (1995) 275pp excerpt and text search
  • Mango, Andrew. Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey (1999) and text search
  • Tachau, Frank. Kemal Ataturk (1987)
  • Trask, Roger R. "The United States and Turkish Nationalism: Investments and Technical Aid during the Ataturk Era," Business History Review, Vol. 38, No. 1, International Government-Business Issue (Spring, 1964), pp. 58-77 in JSTOR
  • Volkan, Vamik D., and Norman Itzko. The Immortal Ataturk--A Psychobiography (1984)
  • Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day (1981) online edition

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