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Lidice is a village of the Czech Republic which was razed by Nazi troops on 10 June 1942 as a reprisal for the killing of Reinhard Heydrich, the Reich Protector of Bohemia & Moravia (Nazi governor of western Czechoslovakia). The 192 adult male villagers were murdered by the Germans and the rest of the population was sent to concentration camps. Of the 105 children deported from Lidice, only 17 ever returned home. The majority were probably murdered in concentration camp gas chambers.

Heydrich had been ambushed by British-trained Czech commandos on 27 May 1942 in Prague while on the way to his office. One of the commandos threw a bomb at his car, which exploded. Heydrich died of his injuries on 4 June. The commandos got away, but were found 2 weeks later by the Germans and killed in the ensuing gun battle.