Literalist Bible chronology

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The subject of this article is the literalist method of dating the chronology found in the books of the Bible listed in the ancient canon of the Christian Old Testament, the Septuagint, as accepted by Orthodox and Catholic Christians before the time of the Protestant Reformation.[1]

A Literalist Bible chronology is a listing or calculation of dates applied to events in the Bible according to the hermeneutical method of Biblical literalism.[2] The literalist method requires an exhaustive knowledge of the numbers of years as explicitly stated in the Scriptures, comparison to known dates of historical events, and calculation. Such chronologies have generated substantial controversy.[3] The various methods of calculating and determining the dates of Biblical events in history according to a literal reading of the text of the Bible all present several challenges and difficulties. Absolute consensus has not yet been reached, and the published calculations of Bible chronology by different literalist researchers and students down through the centuries even to the present day, all claiming to be derived from the numerical data in the Biblical text, have not produced identical or harmonized results.

Contents

Background

A Biblical literalist chronology is a tabulation or reckoning of dates applied to events in the Bible according to the hermeneutical method of Biblical literalism.[2] This method has been applied since the time of Jose ben Halafta (Seder Olam Rabbah A.D. 2nd century).[4] The succeeding centuries saw its use by
• Jerome ("Chronicon Chronicle" A.D. 380),[5]
• Bede ("De temporibus Of Times" A.D. 703, "De temporum ratione The Reckoning of Time A.D. 725),[6]
• Scaliger ("Thesaurus temporum Treasure of Times" 1606),[7]
• Kepler ("Tabulae Rudolphinae Rudolphine Tables" 1627),[8]
• Lightfoot (chronology published 1642–1644),[9]
• Ussher ("Annals of the World" 1650, later "Annals of the Old Testament"),[10]
• and Martin Anstey ("The Romance of Bible Chronology" 1913).[11]

Some 20th–21st century commentators have noted what they consider a disturbing trend in application of the methodology of literalism since 1878.[12][13][14][15] Modern Biblical literalism has been seen by some observers, such as Karen Armstrong,[16] as largely the product of 19th and 20th century Protestant theology. Its roots, however, are considered by others [17] to go further back, at least to 17th and 18th century Bible commentaries by
• Laurence Tomson (Geneva Bible 1560, 1599),[18]
• Matthew Henry 1708–1710,[19]
• John Gill 1746–63 [20]
• John Wesley 1754–65,[21] followed in the 19th century by
• Adam Clarke 1831,[22]
• Albert Barnes 1834,[23]
• R. A. Torrey (Reuben Archer Torrey) 1880,[24]
• David Brown 1882,[25]
• Marvin R. Vincent 1886,[26]
• and B. W. Johnson (Barton W. Johnson) 1891.[27]

The literalist premise is expressed in multiple 17th–21st century literalist Bible commentaries on the meaning of 2 Timothy 3:16 "All scripture is inspired by God".[28]

The 1878 Niagara Bible Conference statement of faith established as the first of its Fourteen Points, "The verbal, plenary inspiration of the Scriptures in the original manuscripts".[29]

The 1893 Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII Providentissimus Deus stated: "Those who maintain that an error is possible in any genuine passage of the sacred writings, either pervert the Catholic notion of inspiration, or make God the author of such error." [30]

The 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy in "A Short Statement" established as its fourth point: "Being wholly and verbally God-given, Scripture is without error or fault in all its teaching." [31]

The method is controversial.[3] Assertions that scientifically verifiable, accurate historical datings can be obtained by using this approach as a guide are firmly disputed by researchers such as Katheleen Kenyon,[32] William G. Dever,[33] and Thomas L. Thompson,[34] but are supported by researchers such as William F. Albright,[35] Bryant G. Wood,[36] and Norman L. Geisler.[37]

A timeline or chart of Biblical dates is set up according the "plain meaning" of the numbers of the years as found in the text.[38] Researchers have pointed out that the chronology or numbering of years in the Biblical text mostly uses numbers which were significant to the Biblical authors: the basic numbers are 12, 40 (a "generation"), and 480 (12 generations of 40 years); other significant numbers include 10, 20, 60, and 100.[39][40]

For an "exact" chronology, an historically established date in the common (Gregorian) calendar which corresponds to the occurrence of a key Biblical event known to history (historicity) is required as a starting point, drawn from historical events reliably known to have occurred on a specific date.[41] This is in contrast to a "relative" chronology which lists events in general chronological order, often without dates.[42][43] Then an exhaustive knowledge of the numbers of years as explicitly stated in the Scriptures and a calculator provide the detailed data. With the Siege of Jerusalem 587 B.C.[44] taken as an historically established base date and counting back, a chronology of the dates
• of the reigns of the Kings of Israel and Judah,
• of the Biblical Judges,
• of the date of the Exodus,
• of the dates of all the Hebrew Patriarchs back to the Flood,
• of the dates of the antediluvian Patriarchs
• and the date of the formation of Adam in the Garden of Eden, can be stated as a literal interpretation.

Biblical literalists can set out charts and timetables dating events in the Bible, but different methods of harmonizing the dates of those events yield differing results,[45][46] even while they generally agree on the relative order of most events. Even some who accept Biblical authority [47] nevertheless argue that many numbers in the Bible are figurative expressions, especially "40" and its multiples [40]—thus, 480 years before the 4th year of the reign of Solomon (12 × 40 years = 480 years, 1 Kings 6:1 ) is not necessarily regarded by them as a literal number having historical value (historicity). Numerical inconsistencies of chronology appear between Kings (First and Second Kings) and Chronicles (First and Second Chronicles), and attempts by both Biblical scholars and literalists to precisely date events before the reign of Solomon have not been successful. Many biblical scholars discount the Bible's chronological data entirely,[48] preferring to give priority to archaeological clues in establishing biblical chronology.[49] But even they do not agree in their conclusions.[50][51] Biblical literalists who reject idiomatic and figurative and symbolic "readings" (interpretations) prefer to take each Biblical number literally, as an expression of faith and their belief in the Bible as the word of truth from God "who can neither deceive nor be deceived".[2][52]

Difficulties or inconsistencies in dating which appear with any literal interpretation of the chronology of the Bible can be resolved, according to the Catechism of the Catholic Church:
"The literal sense is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture and discovered by exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation."[53][54]

Currently there is no absolute consensus on a definitive literal tabulation of dates in Biblical chronology.

Literal interpretation

Biblical literalism is a term used differently by different authors discussing Bible interpretation. It has two possible meanings. It can refer to the dictionary definition of literalism: "adherence to the exact letter or the literal sense".[55] Or it can refer to the historical-grammatical method used most extensively by fundamentalist Christians,[56] and also by conservative Catholic, Orthodox and mainstream Protestant Christians as well. Those who relate Biblical literalism to the historical-grammatical method, use the word "letterism" to cover all methods of interpreting the Bible according to the dictionary definition of literalism and the word "letterist" to refer to those who use that methodology. These terms are used in this article to distinguish the two approaches, literalist and letterist, literalism and letterism, the historical-grammatical interpretation and the literal letterist interpretation.[57]

Fundamentalists and evangelicals sometimes refer to themselves as "literalists" or Biblical literalists, as in saying, for example, "I'm a literalist when it comes to the Bible." Sociologists also use the term in reference to conservative Christian beliefs which include not only literalism but also inerrancy.[58][59]

There are several important factors in Biblical literalism, including the choice of and the integrity of ancient Biblical manuscripts, literal translation word-for-word, the choice between dynamic and formal equivalence,[60] and literal interpretation with a choice of "readings", that is, how a particular passage or text should be read or understood according to its literal sense or meaning, according to the context.[11]

Letterism

Letterism is an hermeneutical method that derives its understanding of a text by a strictly literal analysis of words, emphasizing the "plain, explicit meaning of the biblical text".[2][61] By asserting the inerrant divine authority of every word of the Biblical text as understood by the ordinary reader, a letterist sets aside all apparent, potential discrepancies with external sources, and looks instead only at what the Bible itself says.[2][11][53] A letterist derivation of Biblical chronology relies only on the number of years explicitly stated in the Scriptures along with accurate arithmetical calculations.[54]

The basic premises [62] are:
• that God exists,[63]
• that God cannot lie,[64]
• that God is the author of the Bible,[65]
• that God's word is truth,[66]
• that the word of God abides (remains) forever,[67]
• that Scripture cannot be broken, annulled, set aside, or destroyed (Greek λυω luō.[68])
• that Scripture, as the word of truth from God who cannot lie, cannot be textually inconsistent or self-contradictory.[69]

Letterist Bible chronology looks to Romans 3:4,

"Let God be true though every man be false, as it is written, 'That thou mayest be justified in thy words, and prevail when thou art judged'." (citing Psalms 51:4)

and 1 John 5:10,

"He who does not believe God has made him a liar".

A coherent [70] letterist viewpoint methodologically rejects any findings and conclusions of scholars and archaeologists that do not agree with what certainly appears to the ordinary reader to be the plain, explicit meaning of the Biblical text.[2][50][53] In response to the controversy, in 1964 Dr. J. Philip Hyatt, a scholar in the field of Biblical studies and Professor of Old Testament at Vanderbilt University, and for 20 years Director of Graduate Studies in Religion, wrote:

"The modern Bible reader who consults books about the Bible can profit from paying attention to archaeological discoveries. Yet, he should always remember that an archaeological fact—that is, a specific item discovered by the archaeologist—is sometimes subject to widely varying interpretations. In no other area of biblical study is it so important to seek out the mature, experienced interpreters. Field archaeologists, who do the work of exploration and digging, are sometimes good interpreters of what they and others discover, but sometimes they are not. In some cases experienced 'arm-chair archaeologists,' who study carefully the results of many field archaeologists, are the best interpreters." [50]

Methodological problems

Several problems arise in deriving a letterist chronology from numerical data as set forth in the Biblical text.

Translations and versions

The text of the specific manuscript [71] or translation version of the Bible being consulted as a reliable source can affect the calculation and tabulation of the resulting numbers of the years in a literalist chronology. For example, see the following for textual comparison of the number of years of the reign of Saul:

Septuagint 1 Samuel 13:1 (the Greek text does not state Saul's age and the years of his reign) [72]
Masoretic Hebrew-English Samuel 13:1 א בֶּן-שָׁנָה, שָׁאוּל בְּמָלְכוֹ, ( ---- years old) [73]
Latin Vulgate 1 Samuel 13:1 unius anni (one year),
Luther Bibel 1545 1 Samuel 13:1 ein Jahr (one year),
New International Reader's Version 1 Samuel 13:1 30 years old,
ScriptureText.com multilingual 1 Samuel 13:1 multiple text comparison with commentaries on differences. (1–40 years old ! )

Several literalist translations state that Saul was one (1) year old when he was anointed king: Jubilee Bible 2000, Douay-Rheims Bible, Wycliffe Bible, Young's Literal Translationsee 1 Samuel 13:1 multiple translations. (1–42 years old ! )

Archaeological dates

The numerical and chronological notes in various annotated editions of the Bible (Study Bibles) and in various Bible commentaries are not always seen to agree with each other when they are compared. For example, archaeological datings of the site of Jericho by John Garstang and Kathleen Kenyon do not agree.[74] Historical and archaeological datings of the whole of the ancient biblical period in chronologies by William F. Albright and Edwin R. Thiele do not agree.[75] William G. Dever challenges both of these datings.[76] Conservative literalist Bryant G. Wood argues for the historicity of the Biblical account in support of Garstang's findings,[77] and Woods' researches have in turn been criticised.[78]

Differing key base historical dates, such as the date of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II, affect the calculation and tabulation of the numbers of the years used to obtain the resultant datings of events in a letterist Bible chronology. The key base historical date for the 11th year of Zedekiah and the destruction of the Temple varies according to different historians:
• 607 B.C. (Watch Tower);[79]
• 587 B.C. (William F. Albright);[80]
• 586 B.C. (Edwin R. Thiele);[81]
• or 581 B.C. (Bernard Grun).[82]

Advances in archaeological methods and theories have prompted scholars to modify particular Biblical chronologies, such as James Ussher's chronology.[83] Particular examples are noted below in the Example of literalist chronology table.

(See The Wilderness Period to the Conquest of Canaan 1576—1505 B.C. | 1537–1505 | The conquest of Canaan in the Table below.)

Annotations

The dates assigned to Biblical events in annotated Bibles do not always correspond to a simple mechanical arithmetical reckoning of the numbers of years as plainly stated in the text of the Bible.[84][85] The dates which follow are taken from annotations to the Douay-Rheims Bible (1899 American edition) and the Scofield Reference Bible (1917).
"Ante C" is an abbreviation of Latin "Ante Christi", meaning, "Before Christ", "B.C.".
"A.M." is an abbreviation of Latin "Anno Mundi", meaning, "Year of the World".
Several examples of apparent discrepancies between calculations based on the annotations and those based on the text can be found:

The year Joseph was born (Genesis 30:23-25) is annotated a as Ante C. 1746 (1746 B.C.). The year Joseph was 16 years old (Genesis 37:1-2) is annotated x and y as Ante C. 1728 (1728 B.C.). This is an interval of 18 years. The Douay-Rheims Bible says 16 years old, the King James Version says 17 years old (Genesis 37:2).[86]
The year Gideon delivered Israel (Judges 6:11-14) is annotated k as Ante C. 1245 (1245 B.C.). The land had rest 40 years (Judges 8:28), and then Abimelech began to rule over Israel (Judges 9:1-6 and Judges 9:22). The year Abimelech began to rule (Judges 9:6) is annotated u as Ante C. 1235 (1235 B.C.). This is an interval of 10 years. The Bible says 40.
The year the Ark of the Covenant was captured (1 Samuel 4:1) is annotated b as Ante C. 1116. It was in the land of the Philistines 7 months, was returned to Israel, and placed in the house of Abinadab at Kiriath-jearim for 20 years (1 Samuel 7:1-2).[87] The year the ark was brought up out of the house of Abinadab by David after 20 years (2 Samuel 6:2-4) is annotated t as A.M. 2959, in the same year annotated y as A.M. 2960, Ante C. 1044 (2 Samuel 7:1). This is an interval of 72 years (1116 – 1044 = 72). The Bible says 20.
King David reigned 33 years over all Israel and Judah, beginning with the annotated date Ante C. 1044. The year King David died (1 Kings 2:1-2 and 1 Kings 2:10-12) is annotated p as A.M. 2990, Ante C. 1014 (1014 B.C.). This is an interval of 30 years. The Bible says 33.
The 4th year of the reign of King Solomon, after David died, (1 Kings 6:1) is annotated k as A.M. 2992, Ante C. 1012 (1012 B.C.) —"the 480th year after the children of Israel came out of the land of Egypt". The year of the Exodus (Exodus 12:37-40) is annotated g as A.M. 2513, Ante C. 1491 (1491 B.C.). This is an interval of 479 years (1491 – 1012 = 479). The Bible says 480 (1 Kings 6:1).[88]
The year the Temple was burned by Nebuzaradan (2 Kings 25:8-9) is annotated i as A.M. 3416, Ante C. 588 (588 B.C.). The interval between the annotated date of the 4th year of Solomon Ante C. 1012 and the annotated date of Nebuzaradan Ante C. 588 represents a period of 424 years (1012 – 588 = 424). The Bible gives a total count of 431 years (plus 4 to Solomon's 1st year = 435 years),[89] from 2 Kings 25:2-9 back to 1 Kings 6:1 (1018 – 587 = 431).

Apparent textual inconsistencies

Letterism does not necessarily lead to complete agreement upon a single interpretation for a given passage. A generation, for example, can be 100 years, 80, 70, 60, 40, 35, and fewer than 20 years, although 40 years is the traditional meaning of a Biblical "generation".[90][91][92] Thus, for example, the number of years spanned by the two unspecified "generations" between the death of Joshua and the oppression of the people by Cushan-rishathaim in Judges 2:7-3:8 could be as many as 200 years, or 160, 140, 70, as few as 40 years, or less.[93]

A letterist reading of the explicit text of the Bible presents the reader with difficulties that can only be resolved by a careful reading of various Bible texts, collation of data from these texts, and by careful critique of the occasional slightly misleading translations of the original Hebrew [94] according to the literalist historical-grammatical method. A "critique" of the Scriptures is called "criticism" in Biblical Studies, that is, conducting a detailed analysis to determine their critical meaning, their integrity and reliability, according to the technical meaning of the word as used by Biblical exegetes, and is not a form of criticism of the Bible in order to find fault with it, as some radical scholars have done by abusing the tools of "literary criticism" as applied in Biblical Textual Criticism (also called "Higher" Criticism). Martin Anstey provided an important literalist analysis ("Lower Criticism") of how apparent contradictions in Bible chronology can be resolved by correlating data from various Bible translations and texts.[11] Dr. Edwin Thiele provided additional corroborating historical-cultural background on varying ancient methods of recording chronologies of kings and nations, co-regencies, overlapping reigns, differences in calendars, uses of "rounded numbers"—data vital for an undistorted understanding of the ancient authors' actual literal meaning (the true "literal sense").[75][80][81] At first reading, the Bible chronology has a number of apparent contradictions, such as:

  • According to 2 Kings Jehoiachin was 18 years old when he began to reign (2 Kings 24:8).
    According to 2 Chronicles he was only 8 years old when he began to reign (2 Chronicles 36:9).
  • The text of 2 Kings 15:30 states that Hoshea slew Pekah the 20th year of the reign of Jotham son of Uzziah.
    According to 2 Kings 15:32-33 Jotham son of Uzziah reigned 16 years.
  • In 1 Kings 15:27-28 and 1 Kings 15:33 Baasha of Israel reigned 24 years, beginning the 3rd year of Asa of Judah.
    But according to 2 Chronicles 16:1-5 Baasha was still reigning the 36th year of Asa, giving Baasha a reign of (at least) 33 years.
  • Rehoboam king of Judah and Jeroboam I king of Israel began to reign the same year (1 Kings 12:1-20).
    The text plainly shows the reign of Jeroboam began a short time after Rehoboam began to reign.
    According to the plain reading of 1 Kings, Rehoboam reigned 17 years (1 Kings 14:21).
    According to the plain reading of 1 Kings, Rehoboam died the 18th year of King Jeroboam (1 Kings 14:29-15:1).
  • Moses states plainly (Deuteronomy 2:14) that the Israelites wandered 38 years in the wilderness until the whole generation of those (except Caleb and Joshua) who were 20 years old and upward had perished.
    According to the Book of Numbers the people had been sentenced to wander 40 years after the spies had been sent out from the wilderness of Paran and had brought up an evil report to the people when they returned (Numbers 14:33-38). They then went from the wilderness of Paran to Kadesh (Numbers 12:15-13:3 through Numbers 20:1). The text does not state that the journey from the wilderness of Paran to Kadesh spanned 2 years.
    The Book of Joshua states explicitly that Caleb and the spies were sent out from Kadesh-barnea to spy out the land and then the evil report was brought up to the people (Joshua 14:7).
    But a literal reading of Numbers 12:15–13:3 and 20:1 places them in the wilderness of Paran at the time of the evil report, after which they came to Kadesh.
  • Using the commonly accepted historical date of the destruction of the Temple in 587 B.C. as a starting point and reckoning the literal number of years back in accordance with the literal numbers of the regnal years, ages of individuals, generations, events, stated in the numerous biblical passages pertaining to them (see table below), to the resulting literal reckoning of the 4th year of Solomon's reign ("1018"),[89] and then calculating back 480 years (1 Kings 6:1) the date is 1498 B.C. for the Exodus.
    Reckoning no years (zero 0) between the year Eli began judging Israel (1 Samuel 4:18) and (moving backward through the text) the year Samson died (Judges 16:29-31: Judges 17—1 Samuel 4), and reckoning no years (zero 0) between Cushan-Rishathaim and (back through the text) the death of Joshua in the Book of Judges (Judges 2:8-3:8), and counting all the years explicitly stated in all the numerical texts from the First Book of Kings, chapter 5, back through the Book of Exodus, chapter 12—between Solomon's 4th year and the year the people of Israel came out from the land of Egypt—the minimum literal total count according to those texts is 559 years and the date is 1577 B.C. for the Exodus [95] (see table below).
  • Add an arbitrarily estimated 40 (?) years for the unknown generation after Joshua's death and the date is pushed back to 1617 B.C. (?). Add another arbitrarily estimated 40 (?) years (total 80) for 2 unknown generations (Judges 2:10) and the date for the Exodus is pushed further back to 1657 B.C. (?).
    Add about 2 (?) years more (Judges 19–21) for the outrage at Gibeah (Judges 19:30), for the period of the calling out of the men of Israel for the war with Benjamin and the months that followed (Judges 20:8-11 and Judges 20:46-48), for the smiting of Jabesh-gilead (Judges 21:5-12), for the subsequent taking of wives for the survivors during the yearly feast of the LORD at Shiloh and repair of the cities afterward (Judges 21:16-23)—about 2 (?) years between the death of Samson and the year when Eli began to judge Israel—and the date for the Exodus is pushed further back to about 1659 B.C. (?).
    None of these added years arbitrarily inserted into the period between Joshua and Eli can be drawn from the text of the Bible alone; they are purely speculative and have no historical value.
    Add another 10 years, at minimum, to the same period, as represented in the Book of Ruth (Ruth 1:4), and the date for the Exodus is pushed further back to 1669 B.C., or earlier.
    This purely speculative total additional 82 (?) years moves the formation of Adam in the Garden of Eden back to 4328 B.C. (see table below).[89][95][96]

These apparent contradictions can only be resolved by careful collation and correlation of data from the various extant Bible texts by an historical-grammatical method of exegesis, adhering to the rules of sound interpretation.[11]

Joshua and the period of the conquest

The age of Joshua in the wilderness of Paran when he was sent to spy out the land (Numbers 14:28-30) is necessary for determining the chronological date of the Exodus as reckoned by literal letterism. Taking the 1st year of Solomon as 1022 B.C.[89] and tabulating the numbers of years in the text back to 1505 B.C. as the year Joshua died,[95] and taking the age of Joshua when he died at the age of 110, and estimated as 40 (?) years old when he spied out the land of Canaan, and as 78 (?) years old (40 + 38) when he crossed over the Jordan River with the people, the conquest of Canaan under Joshua during his life would have occupied an estimated period of 32 (?) years (40 + 38 + 32 = 110). Such conclusions are purely speculative and arbitrary. The age of Joshua when he was sent with Caleb and 10 other leaders to spy out the land (Numbers 13:1-16) and when he crossed over the Jordan River (Joshua 1:1-2) cannot be drawn from the Bible alone; the Biblical text only states that Joshua was 110 years old when he died. The Bible does not state the number of years of the conquest of Canaan, which according to the text was completed during the lifetime of Joshua "and the land was subdued before them" (Joshua 18:1-10; Judges 2:6).

If he was 20 when sent out, then 90 years had passed when he died in 1505. Plus 2 years back to the Exodus = 92 years before 1505 = 1597 B.C.. 20 years old + 38 years in the wilderness (Deuteronomy 2:14) would make him 58 years old when Israel crossed over the Jordan. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until 1505 B.C. when he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110).
Exodus 33:11 states clearly that Joshua was a "young man" (KJV, RSV) when Moses at Sinai received the Law written on tables of stone.[97] However, Joshua was one of the "leaders" in Israel (Numbers 13:2-16). Tradition does not support a 52-year conquest with a reading that interprets the age of a leader of a house in Israel as only 20 years old or less than 30. "From the beginning of Israelite history, the elders were the leaders of the various clans and tribes." [98]
If he was 40 when sent out, then 70 years had passed when he died in 1505. Plus 2 years back to the Exodus = 72 years before 1505 = 1577 B.C.. 40 years old + 38 years in the wilderness would make him 78 years old when Israel crossed over the Jordan. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until 1505 B.C. when he died (40 + 38 + 32 = 110).
If he was 60 when sent out, then 50 years had passed when he died in 1505. Plus 2 years back to the Exodus = 52 years before 1505 = 1557 B.C.. 60 years old + 38 years in the wilderness would make him 98 years old when Israel crossed over the Jordan. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until 1505 B.C. when he died (60 + 38 + 12 = 110).
If he was 70 when sent out, then 40 years had passed when he died in 1505. Plus 2 years back to the Exodus = 42 years before 1505 = 1547 B.C.. 70 years old + 38 years in the wilderness would make him 108 years old when Israel crossed over the Jordan. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until 1505 B.C. when he died (70 + 38 + 2 = 110). The Book of Joshua states that "Joshua made war a long time with all those kings" (Joshua 11:18-23). A literal reading of this text does not support a 2-year conquest. Moreover, a literal reading of Deuteronomy 2:14 and Joshua 14:10 indicates a period of seven (7) years: Caleb 85 years old – (40 years old + 38 years) = 7 years.
Given the established fact that the Bible does not give the age of Joshua when he was sent to spy out the land of Canaan, the date of the Exodus according to a literal reading of the letter of the text varies according to the interpretation of "a long time" and any age a literalist reader arbitrarily assigns to Joshua as "most probable" when, as a leader of a house in Israel, he was sent out from the wilderness of Paran to spy out the land. An exact date for the Exodus according to a literal reading of the letter of the text of the Bible alone does not seem possible, only a general indication of a date some time around 1577 to 1567 B.C. for the Exodus, and allowing for a purely arbitrary additional speculative adjustment of ± 10 years gives a broader general indication of a potential date for the Exodus at some time around 1586 to 1556 B.C.[90]

According to Dr. Robert R. Ellis and Dr. E. Ray Clendenen (Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary 2003), those who reckon the 4th year of Solomon as 966/5 B.C.[49] and accept the traditional archaeological date of the Exodus at about 1445 B.C.,[99] based on a literal interpretation of 1 Kings 6:1, place the conquest at about 1400–1350 B.C., over a period of about 50 years—but those who prefer archaeological data over biblical data commonly date the Exodus around 1286 B.C. (understanding 1 Kings 6:1 and similar passages as figurative), and they place the conquest at about 1240–1190 B.C., again a period of about 50 years.[100] A literal interpretation of the death of Joshua at the age of 110 at the end of the conquest about 1350 B.C. as supposed, with the traditional date of the Exodus as 1445 B.C., makes Joshua ("a leader of a house in Israel") 15 years old [97] at the time they spied out the land, 25 years younger than Caleb at age 40 (Joshua 14:6-7), and 53 years old when Israel crossed over the Jordan, making the period of the conquest 57 years. The ages of 15 and 53 for Joshua are also obtained when the date of his death is 1190 B.C. at the end of the conquest with the date of the Exodus as 1280 B.C.. He would have been 50 years old when Caleb was 85 (Joshua 14:6-10).

According to Dr. Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. and E. Ray Clendenen (Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary 2003), assuming a literal interpretation of 1 Kings 6:1, and taking 966 B.C. as Solomon's 4th year,[88] the Exodus occurred in 1446 B.C., "and the conquest lasted about seven years ending around 1400 B.C.." [49] If Joshua died 110 years old at the end of the conquest about 1400 B.C. as supposed, that makes him about 66 years old in 1444 B.C., 2 years after the Exodus, when Caleb was 40 and they were sent to spy out the land. Age 66 plus 38 years (Deuteronomy 2:14) would make Joshua 104 years old ("old and advanced in years") when Israel crossed into Canaan, and the year would be 1406 B.C., at the beginning of the conquest. Joshua would then have died 6 years later 110 years old 1400 B.C. ("old and well advanced in years"). According to Joshua 13:1–14:11, Joshua was "old and advanced in years" seven (7) years after the beginning of the conquest, when Caleb was 85 years old. The phrase "old and advanced in years" is used in the Bible to describe Abraham over 100 years old and Sarah over 90 years old, also Job at 140, King David before he died at 70, and the elders among the people and among the priests of Israel.[98][101] If Joshua was only 65 years old when he blessed the 85-year-old Caleb—20 years younger than Caleb, and a "young man" 20 years old when he was sent to spy out the land when Caleb was 40)—if he was only 65 years old he would not be "old and advanced in years". And he would not have been 110 years old 7 years after the beginning of the conquest when Caleb was 85 years old. For after he had blessed the 85-year-old Caleb, Joshua ("old and advanced in years") then apportioned the land to each of the tribes, and then came the subsequent controversy and threat of war over the "altar of great size" built afterward by the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh (Joshua 22:6-33). And then according to Joshua 23:1 Joshua was still alive "a long time afterward" (25 years afterward ? ). The same term "old and well advanced in years" was used when he died at the age of 110.

If Joshua's age was 40 (?) when he was sent with the 40-year-old Caleb and the other leaders of Israel to spy out the land of Canaan, then he was 78 (?) when he crossed the Jordan river at the beginning of the conquest. Age 78 (?) when he crossed the Jordan + 7 years of conquest (?) + 25 years (?) "a long time afterward" = 110 years of age. This is pure speculation. It has no established historical value, however well it fits the context. Only the age of Joshua when he died is stated in the Bible. The method of mechanical arithmetic tabulation from the text of the Bible alone and reasonable supposition, as illustrated here, are not relied upon by scholars and historians as representing established historical facts. There is no certain consensus on the exact number of years for the period of the conquest of Canaan under Joshua.

The period of the two generations after the death of Joshua

The number of years spanned by "all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua" and "another generation after them" (Judges 2:7-12), the period of time represented by the two generations after the death of Joshua up to the beginning of the oppression under Cushan-rishathaim, is determinative for the chronological dating of the death of Joshua and of the Exodus as reckoned by literal letterism. A generation can be 100 years, 80, 70, 60, 40, 35, and fewer than 20 years, although 40 years is the traditional meaning of a Biblical "generation".[92][93]

Beginning with a key base historical date of 587 B.C., and counting back through the numbers of years plainly stated in the Bible to 1505 B.C. (918 years),[89][95] to the year that Cushan-rishathaim began to oppress Israel, an arbitrarily chosen number inserted at that point, to represent the (unknown) number of years of the two generations in a chronology of the Old Testament (and counting backward), gives the following resultant (speculative) dates for the death of Joshua:

If a generation is reckoned as 20 years or less:
Reckoning two successive generations of 40 years or less ( 0 zero ? 20 years × 2), he died some time around 1505–1545 B.C.
If Joshua was 20 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 90 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110) some time around 1505–1545 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 18 years old, some time around 1597–1637 B.C.
If Joshua was 40 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 70 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until he died 110 years old (40 + 38 + 32 = 110) some time around 1505–1560 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 38 years old, some time around 1577–1617 B.C.
If Joshua was 60 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 50 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until he died 110 years old (60 + 38 + 12 = 110) some time around 1505–1560 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 58 years old, some time around 1557–1597 B.C.
If Joshua was 70 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 40 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until he died 110 years old (70 + 38 + 2 = 110) some time around 1505–1560 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 68 years old, some time around 1547–1587 B.C.
If a generation is reckoned as 35 years:
Reckoning two successive generations of 70 years (35 × 2), he died some time around 1575 B.C. (1575 + 70 years = 1505 B.C.)
If Joshua was 20 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 90 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110) 1575 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 18 years old, in 1667 B.C.
If Joshua was 40 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 70 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until he died 110 years old (40 + 38 + 32 = 110) 1575 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 38 years old, 1647 B.C.
If Joshua was 60 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 50 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until he died 110 years old (60 + 38 + 12 = 110) 1575 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 58 years old, 1627 B.C.
If Joshua was 70 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 40 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until he died 110 years old (70 + 38 + 2 = 110) 1575 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 68 years old, 1617 B.C.
If a generation is reckoned as 40 years:
Reckoning two successive generations of 80 years (40 × 2), he died some time around 1585 B.C. (1585 + 80 years = 1505 B.C.)
If Joshua was 20 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 90 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110) 1585 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 18 years old, in 1677 B.C.
If Joshua was 40 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 70 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until he died 110 years old (40 + 38 + 32 = 110) 1585 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 38 years old, 1657 B.C.
If Joshua was 60 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 50 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until he died 110 years old (60 + 38 + 12 = 110) 1585 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 58 years old, 1637 B.C.
If Joshua was 70 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 40 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until he died 110 years old (70 + 38 + 2 = 110) 1585 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 68 years old, 1627 B.C.
If a generation is reckoned as 60 years:
Reckoning two successive generations of 120 years (60 × 2), he died some time around 1625 B.C. (1625 + 120 years = 1505 B.C.)
If Joshua was 20 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 90 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110) 1625 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 18 years old, in 1717 B.C.
If Joshua was 40 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 70 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until he died 110 years old (40 + 38 + 32 = 110) 1625 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 38 years old, 1697 B.C.
If Joshua was 60 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 50 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until he died 110 years old (60 + 38 + 12 = 110) 1625 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 58 years old, 1677 B.C.
If Joshua was 70 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 40 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until he died 110 years old (70 + 38 + 2 = 110) 1625 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 68 years old, 1667 B.C.
If a generation is reckoned as 70 years:
Reckoning two successive generations of 140 years (70 × 2), he died some time around 1645 B.C. (1645 + 140 years = 1505 B.C.)
If Joshua was 20 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 90 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110) 1645 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 18 years old, in 1737 B.C.
If Joshua was 40 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 70 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until he died 110 years old (40 + 38 + 32 = 110) 1645 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 38 years old, 1717 B.C.
If Joshua was 60 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 50 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until he died 110 years old (60 + 38 + 12 = 110) 1645 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 58 years old, 1697 B.C.
If Joshua was 70 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 40 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until he died 110 years old (70 + 38 + 2 = 110) 1645 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 68 years old, 1687 B.C.
If a generation is reckoned as 80 years:
Reckoning two successive generations of 160 years (80 × 2), he died some time around 1665 B.C. (1665 + 160 years = 1505 B.C.)
If Joshua was 20 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 90 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110) 1665 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 18 years old, in 1757 B.C.
If Joshua was 40 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 70 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until he died 110 years old (40 + 38 + 32 = 110) 1665 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 38 years old, 1737 B.C.
If Joshua was 60 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 50 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until he died 110 years old (60 + 38 + 12 = 110) 1665 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 58 years old, 1717 B.C.
If Joshua was 70 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 40 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until he died 110 years old (70 + 38 + 2 = 110) 1665 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 68 years old, 1707 B.C.
If a generation is reckoned as 100 years:
Reckoning two successive generations of 200 years (100 × 2), he died some time around 1705 B.C. (1705 + 200 years = 1505 B.C.)
If Joshua was 20 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 90 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 52 years until he died 110 years old (20 + 38 + 52 = 110) 1705 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 18 years old, in 1797 B.C.
If Joshua was 40 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 70 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 32 years until he died 110 years old (40 + 38 + 32 = 110) 1705 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 38 years old, 1777 B.C.
If Joshua was 60 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 50 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 12 years until he died 110 years old (60 + 38 + 12 = 110) 1705 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 58 years old, 1757 B.C.
If Joshua was 70 when he was sent with Caleb to spy out the land of Canaan, then 40 years had passed when he died age 110. The conquest would have occupied 2 years until he died 110 years old (70 + 38 + 2 = 110) 1705 B.C.
The Exodus would have occurred when Joshua was 68 years old, 1747 B.C.
Literalist readings of the possible dates for the Exodus

Thus the possible chronological dates of the Exodus from Egypt, according to a literalist reading of the letter of the text which draws on all of the available numbers in the Bible, are these:
1547 B.C., 1557 B.C., 1577 B.C., 1587 B.C., 1597 B.C., 1617 B.C., 1627 B.C., 1637 B.C., 1647 B.C., 1657 B.C., 1667 B.C., 1677 B.C., 1687 B.C., 1697 B.C., 1707 B.C., 1717 B.C., 1717 B.C., 1737 B.C., 1747 B.C., 1757 B.C., 1777 B.C., 1797 B.C.[102]

The literalist method of reading the plain and explicit meaning of the letter of the biblical text evidently places the date of the Exodus at some time between 1797 B.C. and 1547 B.C., within a period of 250 years, from the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom through the Second Intermediate Period to the beginning of the New Kingdom.[99]

The Tempest Stele recently dated to 1550 B.C. provides corroborative support for a literalist reading of the chronology of the Exodus,[103] as does the Ipuwer Papyrus dated by some scholars to between the late 6th dynasty and the Second Intermediate Period (ca. 1850 B.C.–1600 B.C.).[104]

Given a lack of precision due to unknown numbers of years not included by the Biblical authors, a self-consistent, textually-based literalist Bible chronology leading to total and complete consensus on the fixing of a precise historical date for the Exodus in the Bible by the method of literal letterism alone does not at present appear possible.

Example of literalist chronology

The following tabulation of years and dates is according to the literal letter of the text of the Bible alone. Links to multiple translations and versions are provided for verification. For comparison, known historically dated events are associated with the resultant letterist dates. The arithmetic can be checked by starting at the bottom of the table with the date of the destruction of the Temple in 587 and adding the number of years in the Scriptures (in the books of the Prophets and Chronicles and Kings back through Genesis) backward up to the beginning.[89][95][96] In ancient Israel a part year was designated as the previous king's last year and the new king's 1st year, both as the same year.[49]

  • Dates according to the famous Lightfoot/Ussher chronology appear in small type italics "A.M." (Latin: "In the Year of the World"), "Ante C." (Latin: "Before Christ").[85] Dates with events in italics appearing in small type for historical comparison are according to Bernard Grun's The Timetables of History.[82] For the chronological period after 587 B.C. known historical dates are used as referents. Biblical source texts for stated numbers of years are referenced and linked. Reference sources for the numerical data are the RSVCE,[105] The New American Bible [106] The Timetables of History by Bernard Grun,[82] and the Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003).[91]
  • Access to other versions of each Bible text on the linked pages of the biblegateway.com KJV site is available for comparison by clicking on the site-page top left icon [King James Version (KJV) ▼] (a drop-down menu will appear). Select the version title, click it, pause, then scroll down to see the text.
  • Access to the Septuagint Old Testament text as read by the Apostles and the Ancient Church is provided by links to the English-Greek Parallel Septuagint (ellopos.net/elpenor), and appears in the table below as Septuagint. An accessible table of contents is available by clicking on the site-page top left icon [ >>> Quick Access to Old Testament books ▼] (a drop-down menu will appear). After the selected book title has been clicked, pause, the page will display the chapter numbers, select the chapter number, click it, pause (no apparent change in the page), then scroll down to see the text.
  • Access to the Vulgate Old Testament as read by the Ancient Church since the time of St. Jerome is provided by links to the English-Latin Parallel Vulgate (vulgate.org), and appears in the table below as Vulgate (accessible table of contents). The selection menu for the books of the Old Testament appears on the left margin of the site
    | Genesis |
    | Exodus |
    | Leviticus |... etc.
    Scroll down to locate a book title that may be lower on the menu, click on the title of the book (a drop-down menu will appear just below the book title), scroll down to select the chapter number, click it, and the page of text will appear, each Latin verse with the Douay-Rheims English translation below it.

Table

This table is not definitive. It is a column of known numbers in the Bible sequentially added together. It is not a Biblical harmony.[107] It is not the result of any kind of research and is not here presented as research. The details and dates of events in tables derived by the method of mechanical arithmetic tabulation from the text of the Bible alone are not relied upon by scholars and historians as representing established historical facts.[49][108] See Prooftext. Problems are briefly noted. This table is an illustrative demonstration only. It is not a recognized reliable resource for a Bible Quiz or for a Paper.

Creation of the World 4328 (?) 4246 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
4328 (?) 4246
± 82 years (?)
Ante C. 4004
At least 200 dates have been suggested, varying from 3483 to 6934 years B.C., all based on the assured supposition that a literal interpretation of the Bible enables us to settle the point.[109]

A letterist count from 587 B.C. back to 4246 B.C.[89][95][96] plus an additional 82 (?) possible unknown number of years inserted here (literalist estimate) gives a resultant earlier date of 4328 B.C. as the year Adam was formed.
See Apparent textual inconsistencies: for the count of 2 unknown generations of 80 (?) years (Judges 2:10) and for the count of 2 (?) more years (Judges 19–21)—
for the outrage at Gibeah (Judges 19:30), for the period of the calling out of the men of Israel for the war with Benjamin and the months that followed (Judges 20:8-11 and Judges 20:46-48), for the smiting of Jabesh-gilead (Judges 21:5-12), for the subsequent taking of wives for the survivors during the yearly feast of the LORD at Shiloh and repair of the cities afterward (Judges 21:16-23)
—about 2 (?) years between the death of Samson and the year when Eli began to judge Israel.

Genesis 1:1-2:3
Genesis 5:5
Septuagint
Vulgate

Adam to the Flood 4246—2590 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
4246
Ante C. 4004
The year Adam was formed.[96] He lived 930 years (4246–3316). Genesis 2:7
Genesis 5:5
Septuagint
Vulgate
4116
Ante C. 3874
The year Seth was born.
  • Adam was 130 years old.
Genesis 5:3
Septuagint
Vulgate
4011
Ante C. 3769
The year Enos / Enosh was born.
  • Seth was 105, Adam 235 years old.
Genesis 5:6
Septuagint
Vulgate
3921 The year Cainan / Kenan was born.
  • Enosh was 90, Seth 195, Adam 325 years old.
Genesis 5:9
Septuagint
Vulgate
3851 The year Mahalaleel / Mahalalel was born.
  • Kenan was 70, Enosh 160, Seth 265, Adam 395 years old.
Genesis 5:12
Septuagint
Vulgate
3786 The year Jared was born.
  • Mahalalel was 65, Kenan 135, Enosh 225, Seth 330, Adam 460 years old.
Genesis 5:15
Septuagint
Vulgate
3624 The year Enoch was born.
  • Jared was 162, Mahalalel 227, Kenan 297, Enosh 387, Seth 492, Adam 622 years old.
Genesis 5:18
Septuagint
Vulgate
3559 The year Methuselah was born.
  • Enoch was 65, Jared 227, Mahalalel 292, Kenan 362, Enosh 452, Seth 557, Adam 687 years old.
  • Disastrous floods in Mesopotamian region near end of –4000 to –3501 period.[82]
Genesis 5:21
Septuagint
Vulgate
3372 The year Lamech was born.
  • Methuselah was 187, Enoch 252, Jared 414, Mahalalel 479, Kenan 549, Enosh 639, Seth 744, Adam 874 years old.
Genesis 5:25
Septuagint
Vulgate
3316 The year Adam died. He was 930 years old (4246–3316). Genesis 5:5
Septuagint
Vulgate
3259
Ante C. 3017
The year Enoch was taken by God. He was 365 years old (3624–3259). Genesis 5:23-24
Septuagint
Vulgate
3204 The year Seth died. He was 912 years old (4116–3204).
  • Lamech was 168, Methuselah 355, Jared 582, Mahalalel 647, Kenan 717, Enosh 807 years old.
Genesis 5:8
Septuagint
Vulgate
3190
Ante C. 2948
The year Noah was born.
  • Lamech was 182, Methuselah 369, Jared 596, Mahalalel 661, Kenan 731, Enosh 821 years old.
Genesis 5:28-29
Septuagint
Vulgate
3106 The year Enos / Enosh died. He was 905 years old (4011–3106).
  • Noah was 84, Lamech 266, Methuselah 453, Jared 680, Mahalalel 745, Kenan 815 years old.
Genesis 5:11
Septuagint
Vulgate
3011 The year Cainan / Kenan died. He was 910 years old (3921–3011).
  • Noah was 179, Lamech 361, Methuselah 548, Jared 775, Mahalalel 840 years old.
Genesis 5:14
Septuagint
Vulgate
2956 The year Mahalaleel / Mahalalel died. He was 895 years old (3851–2956).
  • Noah was 234, Lamech 416, Methuselah 603, Jared 803 years old.
Genesis 5:17
Septuagint
Vulgate
2824 The year Jared died. He was 962 years old (3786–2824). Genesis 5:20
Septuagint
Vulgate
2690 Noah was 500 years old. Genesis 5:32
Septuagint
Vulgate
2687 The year Shem was born.
He was 100 years old 2 years after the Flood, when Noah was 603.
Genesis 7:11
Genesis 8:13
Genesis 11:10
Septuagint
Vulgate
2595 The year Lamech died. He was 777 years old (3372–2595).
  • Shem was 92, Noah 595, Methuselah 964 years old.
Genesis 5:31
Septuagint
Vulgate
2590
Ante C. 2348
The year Methuselah died. He was 969 years old (3559–2590). Genesis 5:27
Genesis 7:11
Septuagint
Vulgate

The Flood to Abram 2589—2211 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
2589 The Flood waters dried up, and the ark came to rest on the Mountains of Ararat.
  • Shem was 98, Noah 601 years old.
Genesis 8:4
Genesis 8:13
Septuagint
Vulgate
2587
Ante C. 2204
The year Arpachshad was born, 2 years after the Flood.
  • Shem was 100, Noah 603 years old.
  • The Great Pyramid of Giza (Khufu / Kheops), built over a period of 20 years c. 2580–2560 B.C.[111]
Genesis 11:10
Septuagint
Vulgate
2552 The year Sala / Shelah was born.
  • Arpachshad was 35, Shem 135, Noah 638 years old.
Genesis 11:12
Septuagint
Vulgate
2522 The year Eber was born. Genesis 11:14
Septuagint
Vulgate
2488 The year Peleg was born. "...in his days the earth was divided." Genesis 10:25
Genesis 11:9
Septuagint
Vulgate
2458 The year Reu was born.
  • Peleg was 30, Eber 64, Shelah 94, Arpachshad 129, Shem 229, Noah 732 years old.
Genesis 11:18
Septuagint
Vulgate
2426 The year Serug was born.
  • Reu was 32, Peleg 62, Eber 96, Shelah 126, Arpachshad 161, Shem 261, Noah 764 years old.
Genesis 11:20
Septuagint
Vulgate
2396 The year Nahor was born. Genesis 11:22
Septuagint
Vulgate
2367 The year Terah was born.
  • Nahor was 29, Serug 59, Reu 91, Peleg 121, Eber 155, Shelah 185, Arpachshad 220, Shem 320, Noah 823 years old.
  • Sargon, first king of Akkadian dynasty,[113] defeats Lugalzaggisi, and creates a vast Semitic empire in Mesopotamia, and calls himself "King of the Four Quarters" (–2350 to –2100).[82]
Genesis 11:24
Septuagint
Vulgate
2297 The year Abram was born. (23rd century by letterist count [96])
  • Terah was 70, Nahor 99, Serug 129, Reu 161, Peleg 191, Eber 225, Shelah 255, Arpachshad 290, Shem 390, Noah 893 years old.
Genesis 11:26
Genesis 11:32
Acts 7:4
Septuagint
Vulgate
2287 The year Sarai was born, half-sister of Abram. Genesis 17:17
Genesis 20:12-13
Septuagint
Vulgate
2249 The year Peleg died. He was 239 years old (30 + 209) (2488–2249).
  • Sarai was 38, Abram 48, Terah 118, Nahor 147, Serug 177, Reu 209, Eber 273, Shelah 303, Arpachshad 338, Shem 438, Noah 941 years old.
  • Ur,[116] Kush, and Uruk
Genesis 11:18-19
Septuagint
Vulgate
2248 The year Nahor died. He was 148 years old (29 + 119) (2396–2248).
  • Sarai was 39, Abram 49, Terah 119, Serug 178, Reu 210, Eber 274, Shelah 304, Arpachshad 339, Shem 439, Noah 942 years old.
Genesis 11:24-25
Septuagint
Vulgate
2240 The year Noah died. He was 950 years old (3190 B.C.–2240 B.C.).
  • Sarai was 47, Abram 57, Terah 127, Serug 186, Reu 218, Eber 282, Shelah 312, Arpachshad 347, Shem 447.
Genesis 9:29
Septuagint
Vulgate
2222
Ante C. 1921
The year Abram departed from Haran. He was 75 years old (2297–2222). Genesis 12:4
Septuagint
Vulgate
2219 The year Reu died. He was 239 years old (32 + 207) (2458–2219).
  • Abram was 78, Terah 148, Serug 207, Eber 303, Shelah 333, Arpachshad 368, Shem 468 years old.
Genesis 11:20-21
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 2219–2211
Ante C. 1912
"And in the 14th year..." The Battle of the kings in the Valley of Siddim.[117] Genesis 14:1-20
Septuagint
Vulgate
2212–2211
Ante C. 1911
"After Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan..." (2221–2211)
Sarai gave her handmaid Hagar to Abram as a wife.
  • 2211. The year Ishmael was born to Abram and Hagar, Sarai's handmaid.
  • Sarai was 76, Abram 86, Terah 156, Serug 215, Eber 311, Shelah 341, Arpachshad 376, Shem 476 years old.
  • Hyksos "Shepherd Kings" rule in Egypt began (-2200 to –1700 B.C.).[82]
Genesis 16:3-16
Septuagint
Vulgate

Abraham to Joseph 2198—1936 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
2198
Ante C. 1897
The Covenant of circumcision. Genesis 17:1-19:29
Septuagint
Vulgate
2197
Ante C. 1896
The year Isaac was born.
  • Ishmael was 14, Sarah 90, Abraham 100, Terah 170, Serug 229, Eber 325, Shelah 355, Arpachshad 390, Shem 490 years old.
Genesis 21:5
Septuagint
Vulgate
2196 The year Serug died. He was 230 years old (2426-2196).
  • Isaac was 1 year old, Ishmael 15, Sarah 91, Abraham 101, Terah 171, Eber 326, Shelah 356, Arpachshad 391, Shem 491 years old.
Genesis 11:22-23
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 2195–2192
Ante C. 1891
Isaac was weaned about 2–5 years old. Abraham made a great feast.
  • The next morning Hagar and Ishmael were cast out.
  • Ishmael was 17–20 years old, a "child". Genesis 21:14.[120]
Genesis 16:16
Genesis 21:8-14
Septuagint
Vulgate
no date

A.M. 2135,
Ante C. 1869
The binding of Isaac.
  • The testing of Abraham. "...now I know that you fear God, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me."
  • Isaac was between the ages of 12 and 20 years, a "lad" (KJV, RSV), a "boy" (NRSV, REB, NAB, NJB), a youth.[121] He was old enough and strong enough to carry on his shoulders the wood for the burnt offering.
Genesis 22:1-19
Septuagint
Vulgate
2162 The year Terah died in Haran. He was 205 years old (2367–2162).
  • Isaac was 35, Ishmael 49, Sarah 125, Abraham 135, Eber 320, Shelah 390, Arpachshad 425, Shem 525 years old.
Genesis 11:32
Septuagint
Vulgate
2160
Ante C. 1859
The year Sarah died at Hebron. She was 127 years old (2287–2160).
Abraham bought the field and the cave in Machpelah. The first possession of the promised land in Palestine.
  • Isaac was 37, Ishmael 51, Abraham 137, Eber 322, Shelah 392, Arpachshad 427, Shem 527 years old.
Genesis 23:1
Genesis 23:10-20
Septuagint
Vulgate
2149 The year Arpachshad died. He was 438 years old (35 + 403) (2587–2149).
  • Isaac was 48, Ishmael 62, Sarah 138, Abraham 148, Eber 373, Shelah 403, Shem 538 years old.
Genesis 11:12-13
Septuagint
Vulgate
2137
Ante C. 1836
The year Esau and Jacob were born. Genesis 25:24-26
Septuagint
Vulgate
2122
Ante C. 1821
The year Abraham died. He was 175 years old (2297-2122). Genesis 25:7-8
Septuagint
Vulgate
2119 The year Salah / Shelah died. He was 433 years old (30 + 403) (2552–2119).
  • Esau and Jacob were 18, Isaac 78, Ishmael 92, Eber 403, Shem 568 years old.
  • Intef II / Antef II reigned almost 50 years 2112–2063 B.C.
Genesis 11:14-15
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 2100 Abraham leaves Ur in Chaldea (c. -2100) [82] Genesis 11:31
2087 The year Shem died. He was 600 years old (2687–2087).
  • Esau and Jacob were 50, Isaac 110, Ishmael 124, Eber 435 years old.
Genesis 11:10-11
Septuagint
Vulgate
2074 The year Ishmael died. He was 137 years old (2211–2074).
  • Esau and Jacob were 63, Isaac 123, Eber 448 years old.
Genesis 25:17
Septuagint
Vulgate
2060
Ante C. 1759
Jacob was sent away to Paddan-aram [122] to take a wife from the daughters of Laban. Genesis 28:2-5
Genesis 29:20
Septuagint
Vulgate
2058 The year Eber died. He was 464 years old (34 + 430) (2522–2058).
  • Jacob was 79, Esau 79, Isaac 139 years old.
Genesis 11:16-17
Septuagint
Vulgate
2053
Ante C. 1752
The year Jacob completed 7 years of service to Laban for Rachel (2060–2053). He was given Leah instead.
  • Rachel was given to Jacob in return for another 7 years of service (2053–2046).
  • Jacob was 84, Esau 84, Isaac 144 years old.
Genesis 29:21-30
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 2051–2050 The approximate time when Levi was born (about 30–33 months after Jacob married Leah). Genesis 29:31-34
Wisdom 7:1-6
Septuagint
Vulgate
2046
Ante C. 1746
The year Joseph was born.
  • Jacob began to serve Laban another 6 years for his flocks (2046–2040).
  • Jacob was 91, Esau 91, Isaac 151 years old.
Genesis 30:22-34
Genesis 31:41
Septuagint
Vulgate
2040
Ante C. 1739
God commanded Jacob to return to the land of his fathers and to his kindred.
  • Jacob was named "Israel".
  • Joseph was 6, Jacob/Israel 97, Esau 97, Isaac 157 years old.
Genesis 31:3-55
Genesis 32-33
Septuagint
Vulgate
2029
Ante C. 1728
The year Joseph was 17 years old, a mere lad, a boy,[97] he was sold, and taken into Egypt (11th Dynasty). Genesis 37:2-28
Septuagint
Vulgate
2018
Ante C. 1717
11 years had passed. Joseph was 28 years old.
  • In prison he interpreted the dreams of Pharaoh's chief butler and chief baker.
  • The chief butler forgot Joseph for 2 whole years (2018–2016).
Genesis 40:1-41:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
2017 The year Isaac died. He was 180 years old (2197–2017).
  • Joseph was 29, Jacob 120 years old.
Genesis 35:28-29
Septuagint
Vulgate
2016
Ante C. 1715
Joseph was 30 years old when he was brought out of prison and interpreted Pharaoh's dreams. He entered Pharaoh's service, was placed over the whole land of Egypt, and was married to Asenath. Genesis 41:25-32
Genesis 41:46-49
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 2010 Manasseh and Ephraim were born before the year of famine came.
  • Joseph was 36, Israel 127 years old.
Genesis 41:50-52
Septuagint
Vulgate
2009
Ante C. 1708
The 7 years of famine began.[123]
  • Joseph was 37, Israel 128 years old.
Genesis 41:53-54
Septuagint
Vulgate
2007
Ante C. 1706
The year Israel entered Egypt. Genesis 46:1-5
Genesis 46:29-31
Genesis 47:9-11
Genesis 47:28
Exodus 12:40
Septuagint
Vulgate
1990
Ante C. 1689
The year Israel died. He was 147 years old (2137–1990).
  • Joseph was 55 years old (2045–1990).
Genesis 47:28
Septuagint
Vulgate
1977 30 years after Israel entered Egypt, the Egyptians began to enslave the Israelites. Abraham's "posterity would be aliens in a land belonging to others, who would enslave them and ill-treat them 400 years" (1977–1577 B.C.).
  • Joseph was 69 years old (2046–1977). He lived another 41 years.
  • Ephraim and Manasseh were about 39, Levi about 74 years old.
  • See Amenemhat I (reigned 1991–1962 B.C.)
    and Senusret I (coregency 1971–1962, reigned 1971–1926 B.C.)
Genesis 15:13-16
Acts 7:6-7
Septuagint
Vulgate
1936
Ante C. 1635
The year Joseph died. He was 110 years old (2046–1936). Genesis 50:26
Septuagint
Vulgate

Egypt to the Exodus 1914—1577 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
c. 1914 The approximate year that Levi died. He was 137 years old (c. 2051–1914). Exodus 6:16
Septuagint
Vulgate
18th century
c. 1848–1686
Hammurabi, king of Babylonia, reunited the kingdom (18th century B.C.).[82]
Hammurabi began reign in 1848, 1792, or 1736 B.C.[126]—he reigned 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C. according to the middle chronology, 1728 B.C. to 1686 B.C. according to the short chronology.[127]
  • Amraphel cannot be equated with Hammurabi or any other king of whom records are available from the ancient Near East.[126]
  • The Code of Hammurabi c. 1750, has much in common with the other cuneiform collections of Ur-Nammu (21st century B.C.), Lipit-Ishtar (19th century B.C.), the kingdom of Eshnunna (c. 1800 B.C.), the Hittite laws (16th or 15th century B.C.), the Middle Assyrian laws (15th or 14th century B.C.), and the Neo-Babylonian laws (7th century).[126]
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia
  • Egypt prospered under the pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty and conducted extensive trade with all the nations of the Near East.[128]
  • Merneferre Ay, 1700–1677 B.C. (23 years, 18 months, 18 days.) [129]
  • Salitis ?–1674 B.C.[129]
  • Yaqub-Har [130] reigned during the 17th or 16th century B.C., during Egypt's fragmented Second Intermediate Period.[131]
  • See Twelfth through Seventeenth Dynasties
    and Pharaohs of the Fourteenth Dynasty:
    Nehesy, Sekheperenre, Merdjefare,
    (and 14th or 15th ? Dynasty) Sekhaenre Yakbim, Ya'ammu, Qareh (or Qar), 'Ammu, Maaibre Sheshi, Aperanat, Samuqenu, Meruserre Yaqub-Har.
    The current state of Egyptian chronology cannot identify with certainty the sequence, and the length and years, of reigns of pharaohs of the Second Intermediate Period.[132]
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
Genesis 14:1-16
Acts 7:22
Septuagint
Vulgate
1660 The year Aaron was born. Miriam's age is not given.
  • Apepi/Apophis and Khamudi [129] pharaohs of the Fifteenth Dynasty
    Salatis, Sakir-har, Khyan, Apophis, Khamudi
    The current state of Egyptian chronology cannot identify with certainty the sequence, and the length and years, of reigns of pharaohs of the Second Intermediate Period.[132]
Exodus 7:7
Numbers 20:1
Numbers 33:39
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 1659 The cities of Pithom and Ra-amses/Rameses were built (c. 1659–1638).[124] Exodus 1:8-11
Septuagint
Vulgate
c.1659—1657
Ante C. 1571
Pharaoh decreed that every son born to the Hebrews be thrown into the Nile. Exodus 1:22
Septuagint
Vulgate
1657
Ante C. 1571
Moses was born, and hidden 3 months.
interval between death of Joseph 2936 B.C. and birth of Moses 1657 B.C. = 299 years, letterist count.[96] (2936 – 1657 = 299 years.)
Martin Anstey calculated an interval of 64 years instead of 299 years using a carefully-reasoned literalist grammatico-historical methodology:
The Romance of Bible Chronology (1913)
Chapter XI. The Joseph-Moses Connection.
From the Death of Joseph to the Birth of Moses = 64 years.
"The result is obtained by a historical induction from the facts and figures given in the Text itself, and is mathematically exact." [11]
Anstey dates the 430-year sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt from the call of Abraham at the age of 75, when he departed from Haran to go to the land that God would show him, ending with the departure of the Israelites from Egypt at the Exodus. By reckoning the 80th year of Moses at the Exodus, he counts 286 years in the text of Genesis from the call of Abraham to the death of Joseph 110 years old, and assigns the remaining 64 years to the interval between the death of Joseph and the birth of Moses, totalling 350 years (286 + 64 = 350) + 80 = 430 years in Egypt (286 + 64 + 80 = 430).
He does not date the period of the sojourn in Egypt from the entry of Jacob/Israel with his family into Egypt (letterist count 2007 B.C. see above),[89][95][96] when Joseph under pharaoh, having authority over the whole land of Egypt, brought them out of Canaan and first settled them in the land of Goshen where they remained 430 years until the Exodus.
2007 B.C. to 1657 B.C. = 350 years, plus 80 years (age of Moses at the Exodus) = 430 years.
A fundamental principle in logic as in research is if the premise is true the conclusion is true, if the premise is wrong the conclusion is wrong. In either case the mathematics can be exact.
Exodus 2:1-9
Exodus 7:7
Numbers 20:1
Deuteronomy 34:7
Septuagint
Vulgate
1617
Ante C. 1531
Moses was 40 years old (1657–1617) when he killed the Egyptian. Pharaoh sought to kill him, and Moses fled. Exodus 2:11-15
Acts 7:23-30
Septuagint
Vulgate
1615 The year Joshua was born (if like Caleb he was 40 years old when he was sent forth as a leader with the spies from the wilderness of Paran to spy out the land 2 years after the Exodus). Exodus 7:7
Numbers 13:2-16
Deuteronomy 2:14
Joshua 14:6-13
Joshua 24:29
Septuagint
Vulgate
1577
Ante C. 1491
GOD reveals His Name to Moses (Exodus 3:13-15):
Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה ) " I AM that I AM "
( In every other part of the Bible, the Name of God is given as YHVH or YHWH. יהוה " I AM " )
Moses was 80 years old (1657–1577) when he was sent back to Egypt.
Aaron was 83 years old.
The difference between a letterist dating of the Exodus at 1577 B.C. and the archaeological dating of the Minoan Eruption "around" 1645 B.C. is 68 years
(1645 – 1577 = 68). This roughly corresponds to the unspecified number of years spanning the two generations that followed the death of Joshua, not included in this table, so that the date of the Exodus according to an historical-grammatical estimate of the period of time including those two indeterminate generations ("around" one and a half generations, 40 years + 28 years = 68 years) can be moved backward to a date almost exactly corresponding to a 1675 B.C. dating for the Minoan Eruption. This is purely speculative, however reasonable it may be, since the number cannot be drawn directly from the text of the Bible alone.
The difference between a letterist date of 1577 B.C. in this table and the archaeological dating of the Tempest Stele "around" 1550 B.C. "during the reign of Amosis I" (according to the sources cited above this paragraph) is "around" 27 years, or less, since the beginning of the reign of Amosis may have been archaeologically 30 to 50 years earlier than 1550, "around" 1580 or 1600 B.C., 3 to 23 years earlier than the date in this table of 1577 B.C.. Other sources, also cited here, give the beginning of the expulsion of the Hyksos by Amosis I in 1575 B.C. as the beginning of his reign.
In 2006, radiocarbon testing of an olive tree buried under volcanic residue revised the date of the Thera eruption to "around" 1621–1605 B.C., a date "around" 20–40 years later than ("1650 B.C.") estimated in previous decades. The revised archaeological dating for the Minoan Eruption presents the literalist chronologer with a revised speculative historical-grammatical estimate of a lesser difference of 28 to 44 years inserted into the letterist count of the years and moves the resultant Exodus date of 1577 B.C. chronologically less farther back in time, a difference less than the previous 68 years, a lesser difference of 28 to 44 years which could also just as reasonably represent the period of the two generations that lived after Joshua. The date for the Exodus then would be any time from 1621–1605 B.C., according to a literalist estimate, based on a letterist count, adjusted by the 2006 radiometric dating, and thus all of the earlier dates in this letterist table would then be moved backward by the same number of years. The formation of Adam would then be "around" 4274 B.C. to 4290 B.C. Although uncertainty still remains, archaeological findings have begun to converge with the chronology of the numbers of the years in the Biblical text.
[135]
Exodus 3:13-15
Exodus 7:7-12:51
Septuagint
Vulgate

The Wilderness Period to the Conquest of Canaan 1576—1505 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
1576
Ante C. 1490
The Tabernacle was erected 1 year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the first month, on the first day, at the beginning of the second year.
  • Joshua was 39 (?), Moses 81, Aaron 84 years old.
  • According to Exodus 33:11, Joshua was a "young man", not yet 20 years old.[97]
Exodus 33:11
Exodus 40:17
Numbers 9:1-5
Septuagint
Vulgate
1575 Moses sent out Hoshea/Joshua the son of Nun and 11 other leaders [98] in Israel from the wilderness of Paran to spy out the land of Canaan.[136] Caleb was 40 years old.
At their report the congregation cried out, and God decreed the people would wander in the wilderness 40 years.
  • Joshua was 40 (?), Moses 82, Aaron 85 years old.
  • Joshua 14:7 plainly says that Caleb and the brethren who went up with him to spy out the land were sent from Kadesh-barnea, not from the wilderness of Paran.[137]
    Deuteronomy 2:14 plainly says that the time from their leaving Kadesh-barnea until the entire generation, the men of war, had perished was 38 years, "as the LORD had sworn to them." (1575–1537)
  • The liberation of Egypt from Hyksos rule by Amosis I (Theban) in 1575 B.C. marked the beginning of the New Kingdom –1575 to –1200.[82]
  • See Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt and List of Rulers
    Seqenenre Tao II (Theban) reign began 1560/1558 B.C. [138]
    father of Kamose and Ahmose/Amosis I
    Kamose, elder brother/father? of Ahmose (Theban) c. 1555–1550 B.C.
    See Kamose Stele
    According to Grun's Timetables of History Amosis I began to reign 1575 B.C.. Other sources give 1621–1550 B.C. as the beginning of his reign.[139] If he was not the cruel pharaoh of the Exodus, Amosis took advantage of the disastrous devastation that had fallen on Northern Egypt from the Ten Plagues, and the drowning of the chariots with their officers in the Red Sea/Reed Sea, to drive out the Hyksos oppressors and their pharaoh after the Exodus of the Israelites.
    Amenhotep I (Theban) 1555–1530 B.C.
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
Numbers 12:16-13:3
Numbers 13:25-14:37
Numbers 20:1
Deuteronomy 2:14-15
Joshua 14:6-7
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 1538/7 Miriam died (age not given) 1537 (?)—see the interval of time in Numbers between the death of Miriam and the death of her brother Aaron. Numbers 20:1–33:38. Numbers 20:1
Numbers 33:38
Septuagint
Vulgate
1537
Ante C. 1452
The 40th year after the people of Israel had come out of Egypt (1577–1537).
Aaron died. He was 123 years old (1660–1537).
Moses also died. He was 120 years old (1657–1537).
Numbers 20:1
Numbers 33:38-39
Deuteronomy 34:6-7
Joshua 14:6-7
Psalms 90 1769 / 1611 KJV
"A Prayer of Moses"
Jude 9
"the body of Moses"
Septuagint
Vulgate
1537–1505
Ante C. 1434
The conquest of Canaan, a period of 32 (?) years, beginning with Jericho (1536).
The Bible does not state the number of the years of the conquest of Canaan during the lifetime of Joshua, only that Joshua was 110 years old when he died.[11]
Deuteronomy 2:14
Joshua 6:2
Joshua 6:20-21
Joshua 6:26
Joshua 8:21-29
Joshua 11:10-22
Joshua 14:7-10
Joshua 24:25-26
Septuagint
Vulgate
1505
Ante C. 1434
The year Joshua died.[95] He was 110 years old (1615–1505).
"...Israel served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua..." (Joshua 24:30-31).
  • A plain, explicit number representing the remaining days of life of the elders who outlived Joshua cannot be drawn from the text of the Bible; the Bible does not tell the period of time elapsed between the burial of Joshua and the day when "all that generation also were gathered to their fathers." Judges 2:10.[11]
Deuteronomy 34:1-9
Joshua 14:7-10
Joshua 24:29-30
Septuagint
Vulgate

The Judges to the United Monarchy 1505—1018 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
1505 "...the people served the LORD...all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua...and there arose a generation after them, who did not know the LORD...."
  • A plain, explicit meaning for the exact period of "the days of the elders" and of the "generation after them" cannot be drawn from the text of the Bible alone;[90] the Bible text does not explicitly state the number of days of that generation.
    The "300 years" of Judges 11:26 is not useful here in determining the period of that generation and does not correspond to the literal numbering of the years stated plainly in all the chronological texts of the Bible tabulated from David back to Joshua, from 2 Samuel through Joshua (from Jephthah 1186 B.C. back to Cushan-Rishathaim 1505 B.C.: 1505–1186 B.C. = 319 years).[95]
    The "450 years" of Acts 13:19-20 for the period of the judges exactly corresponds to the literal tabulation of the years in this table, from 1505 B.C., after Joshua, to 1055 B.C., when David began to rule over all Israel and Judah (1505 – 1055 = 450), but it does not correspond to the literal tabulation of the years of the "judges until Samuel the prophet" 1115/1075 B.C.. (1505–1115 B.C. = 390 years, and 1505–1075 B.C. = 430 years.) This text too is not useful in determining the number of days and length of years of the 2 generations after Joshua.[11]
  • "...whenever the judge died, they turned back and behaved worse than their fathers..." (Judges 2:18-19)
Judges 2:7
Judges 2:10
Judges 2:18-19
Judges 11:26
Acts 13:19-20
"about 450 years"
to c. 1055 BCE
(1505 – 450 = 1055)
Septuagint
Vulgate
1505–1497 Israel served Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia 8 years.[144] Judges 3:8
Septuagint
Vulgate
1497–1457 Othniel, son of Kenaz the younger brother of Caleb, judged Israel.
  • The land had rest for 40 years 1497–1457, then Othniel died. Judges 3:9-11.
  • The ages of Othniel and Kenaz are not given in the Bible.
  • 1486. Moses and Joshua defeat Sihon king of the Amorites. (Jephthah in the Book of Judges calls them "Ammonites".)
    See Judges 11:4-28 and Numbers 21:21-31.
    Jephthah (1186–1180 B.C.) declared that 300 years before him (in 1486 B.C. literal count[95]), Israel took the land of Sihon king of the Ammonites, from the Arnon to the Jabbok and from the wilderness to the Jordan, and during 300 years (1486–1186) the Ammonites had not taken it back.
    Moses and Joshua took the land of Sihon before Israel had crossed over the Jordan and taken Jericho.[11][90][148]
  • Thutmose III reigned from 1479–1425 BC (18th Dynasty).
Numbers 21:21-31
Deuteronomy 2:16-37
Judges 3:9-11
Judges 11:4-28
Septuagint
Vulgate
1457–1439 Israel served Eglon king of Moab 18 years (1457–1439).[149] Judges 2:19
Judges 3:12-14
Septuagint
Vulgate
1439–1359 Ehud delivered Israel and the land had rest for 80 years. Judges 3:15-30
Septuagint
Vulgate
1359 After Ehud died, Shamgar delivered Israel. Judges 3:31-4:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
1359–1339 Jabin king of Canaan cruelly oppressed the people of Israel for 20 years.
  • Sisera was slain. Jabin was subdued and finally destroyed.
Judges 4:1-7
Judges 4:23-24
Septuagint
Vulgate
1339–1299 The land of Israel had rest 40 years. Judges 5:31
Septuagint
Vulgate
1299–1292 Israel was in the hand of Midian 7 years. Judges 6:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
1292–1252
Ante C. 1245
Gideon/Jerubbaal delivered Israel (1292).
The land of Israel had rest 40 years in the days of Gideon (1292–1252).
Judges 6:11-14
Judges 8:28
Septuagint
Vulgate
1252–1249
Ante C. 1235
Abimelech ruled (king) over Israel 3 years. Judges 9:1-6
Judges 9:22
Septuagint
Vulgate
1249–1226 Tola judged Israel 23 years. Judges 10:1-2
Septuagint
Vulgate
1226–1204 Jair judged Israel 22 years.
  • Pharaoh Merneptah (1224–1214 B.C.) mounted a campaign against Canaan in the 5th year of his reign (about 1220). In the Merneptah Victory Stele, his record of that campaign, dated c. 1209 B.C., he records in the last section that, among others, Israel was utterly destroyed ("laid waste, without seed"). This has been taken as evidence that the people of Israel were already a recognized group in Canaan before 1200 B.C.[151] However, the exact translation and meaning of that text is debated.[152][135]
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
Judges 10:3
Septuagint
Vulgate
1204–1186 Israel was crushed and oppressed in the hand of the Philistines and in the hand of the Ammonites 18 years.
  • Crossing of the Jordan by the Israelites.[82]
  • Destruction of Troy during the Trojan War (–1193, sixth level).[82]
Judges 10:7-9
Septuagint
Vulgate
1186–1180
Ante C. 1187
Jephthah judged Israel 6 years.
  • Ruth 1:1 Ante C. 1298. A period of famine began (10 years, c. 1183—c. 1173).[153] Elimelech and Naomi, with their two sons Mahlon and Chilion went into the country of Moab. Elimelech died, and Naomi and her sons remained there about 10 years (Ruth 1:4).
    Mahlon and Chilion took Moabite wives, Ruth and Orpah.
  • See Bronze Age collapse (1206–1150 B.C.)
Judges 12:7
Ruth 1:1-4
Septuagint
Vulgate
1180–1173 Ibzan judged Israel 7 years.
  • The famine in Israel continued. Mahlon and Chilion died childless.
  • Eli was born (1173).
Judges 12:8-10
Ruth 1:3-6
Septuagint
Vulgate
1173–1163 Elon judged Israel 10 years 1173–1163
  • c. 1172. The famine in Israel ended. Orpah went back to her people.
    Naomi returned with Ruth, and Boaz took Ruth as his wife.
    c. 1172 Obed, son of Boaz, was born about this time—the 1st generation, c. 40 years 1172–1132—the 1st of 2 generations (80 years, literalist estimate [92][93]) before the birth of David 1092.[153]
Judges 12:11-12
Ruth 1:6-18
Ruth 4:13-17
1 Samuel 4:15-18
Septuagint
Vulgate
1163–1155 Abdon judged Israel 8 years. Judges 12:13-15
Septuagint
Vulgate
1155–1115 Israel was in the hand of the Philistines 40 years. This can be divided into 2 periods:
  • 1155–1135. First, Israel was in the hand of the Philistines 20 years 1155–1135.
  • 1135–1115. (beginning Ante C. 1137) Then Samson judged Israel 20 years during the latter half of the same period "in the days of the Philistines" (1135–1115 B.C.).
    c. 1132 Jesse, son of Obed, was born about this time, 2nd generation, c. 40 years 1132–1092, literalist estimate, before the birth of David 1092.[153]
Judges 13:1-5
Judges 15:20
Judges 16:31
Septuagint
Vulgate
no date Unknown period of time (from Samson to Eli):
  • for the outrage at Gibeah and the sending out of the messengers [154]
  • for the calling out of the men of Israel for the war with Benjamin and the months that followed
  • for the smiting of Jabesh-gilead afterward (see Images for Jabesh-gilead map)
  • for the subsequent taking of wives for the survivors during the yearly feast of the LORD at Shiloh and diplomatic negotiation and settlement of grievance (see Images for Shiloh map)
  • for the repair of the cities afterward. Judges 19–21.
    An estimate of 2 years (?) for this period is purely speculative, it cannot be drawn from the text of the Bible alone, and is not reckoned here, according to the literal letter of the numbering of the years (number unknown, zero 0).
Judges 19:30
Judges 20:8-11
Judges 21:5-12
Judges 21:16-23
Septuagint
Vulgate
1115 Eli was 59 years old (1174–1115), and he judged Israel 40 years (1115–1075).
  • Hannah brought her son Samuel to Eli, as soon as the child was weaned (about 2 to 5 years old), to "lend him to the LORD".
  • Samuel grew and the LORD was with him.
    "And all Israel from Dan to Beersheba knew that Samuel was established as a prophet of the LORD...And the word of Samuel came to all Israel."
1 Samuel 1:1-18
1 Samuel 3:19-4:1
1 Samuel 4:18
Septuagint
Vulgate
1115-1105 Eli was 68 years old (1173–1105) and judge of Israel 40 years (1115–1075).
Saul was anointed king over Israel by Samuel the prophet "when Samuel became old" and Samuel was judge over Israel. 1 Samuel 6–10.
Saul reigned 42 years (1105–1063/2), according to 1 Samuel 13:1.[155]
  • According to 1 Samuel 4:10-10:24, Eli the high priest and judge at Shiloh died 98 years old, when the ark of the covenant was captured by the Philistines, after he had judged Israel 40 years—Eli seems to have died years before Samuel anointed Saul king over Israel.
    A literal reckoning of a 42-year reign has Saul anointed king 30 years before the ark was captured by the Philistines and Eli died, 50 years before David brought the ark up to Jerusalem after it had been in the house of Abinadab 20 years.[11][156]
1 Samuel 4:10-18
1 Samuel 6:1-3
1 Samuel 7:2
1 Samuel 8:1
1 Samuel 8:22
1 Samuel 9:25-10:1
1 Samuel 10:17-26
1 Samuel 13:1
1 Samuel 14:52
Septuagint
Vulgate
1103 Eli was 70 years old and judge of Israel 40 years (1115–1075). 1 Samuel 4:15-18.
Saul son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, was anointed king over Israel by Samuel the prophet "when Samuel became old" and Samuel was judge over Israel. 1 Samuel 6–10.
Saul reigned 40 years (1103–1063/2), according to Acts 13:21,[157][158] and according to some readings of 1 Samuel 13:1.[155]
  • A literal reckoning of the beginning of the 40-year reign of Saul according to Acts 13:21 gives a resultant date of 1103 B.C.:[156]
    —beginning of David's reign over all Israel 1055 B.C.[89][95]
    —beginning of David's prior 7 year 6-month reign over the house of Judah 1063/2 (1055 B.C. + 7 years 6 months = 1063/2 B.C.)
    —beginning of Saul's 40-year reign over Israel 1103 (1063/2 B.C. + 40 years = 1103 B.C.)
    See Translations and versions: variant readings of the reign of Saul
1 Samuel 4:8-10
1 Samuel 6:1-3
1 Samuel 7:2
1 Samuel 8:1
1 Samuel 8:22
1 Samuel 9:25-10:1
1 Samuel 10:17-26
1 Samuel 13:1
Acts 13:21
Septuagint
Vulgate
1095 Eli was 88 years old and judge of Israel (1115–1075).
Saul was anointed by Samuel the prophet "when Samuel became old" and Samuel was judge over Israel. 1 Samuel 6–10.
Saul reigned 32 years (1095–1063/2) according to 1 Samuel 13:1.[155]
  • According to 1 Samuel 4:10–10:24 Eli the high priest and judge over Israel died 98 years old when the ark of the covenant was captured by the Philistines, and after he had judged Israel 40 years—Eli seems to have died years before Samuel anointed Saul king over Israel.
    A literal reckoning of a 32-year reign has Saul anointed 20 years before the ark was captured by the Philistines and Eli died (1075), 40 years (1095–1055) before David removed it from the house of Abinadab and brought it up to Jerusalem 8 years after Saul died (32 + 8 = 40).[11][156]
1 Samuel 6–10
Septuagint
Vulgate
1092 The year David son of Jesse was born.[11][89][95] Eli was 82 years old and judge of Israel (1115–1075).
Saul had been king over Israel 13 years (1105–1092), 11 years (1103–1092), 3 years (1095–1092).
1 Samuel 13:1
2 Samuel 5:4-5
2 Samuel 6:1-2
Septuagint
Vulgate
1075
Ante C. 1116
The ark of the covenant was captured by the Philistines.
Eli died. He was 98 years old (1173–1075); he had judged Israel 40 years (1115–1075).
The ark remained in the land of the Philistines 7 months.
  • David was 17 years old (1092–1075).
  • Samuel judged all Israel after Eli died. 1 Samuel 4:10–7:17
  • Saul had remained king over Israel 30 years (1105–1075), 28 years (1103–1075), 20 years (1095–1075), and he continued to reign 12 more years
    (he reigned a total of 42 years 1105–1063/2, 40 years 1103–1063/2, 32 years 1095–1063/2).[11][155][156]
1 Samuel 4:10-6:1
1 Samuel 7
Septuagint
Vulgate
1075 The ark of the covenant was sent back to Israel, and it remained in the house of Abinadab 20 years at Kiriath-Jearim (1075–1055).[159] 1 Samuel 6:2-16
1 Samuel 7:1-2
2 Samuel 5:4-6:11
Septuagint
Vulgate
1075–1064
Ante C. 1096–1057
Samuel judged Israel 11 years after Eli died (1075–1064).
  • He made his sons judges (Ante C. 1096).
  • He anointed Saul king (Ante C. 1095).
    1065. Saul was one (1) year old when he began to reign [160] (1066–1065 B.C.).[161] He reigned 2 years (1065–1063/2). 1 Samuel 13:1.[11][155]
  • When Saul was rejected Samuel anointed David as king (Ante C. 1070).
  • David slew Goliath (Ante C. 1062), and entered Saul's service. Psalm 151.
  • Saul began to fear David, and sought some way to kill him.
    Jonathan made a covenant with David. David fled into the wilderness (Ante C. 1060).
    Saul killed the priests at Nob.
  • Samuel died (c. 1064) (Ante C. 1057). Saul searched for David, to kill him.
1 Samuel 7:15-8:7
1 Samuel 9-12
1 Samuel 13:1
1 Samuel 15:1
1 Samuel 16:1-13
1 Samuel 18:3
1 Samuel 19:1
1 Samuel 20:8-17
1 Samuel 22:17-19
1 Samuel 25:1
1 Samuel 26:2
Psalm 151 [162]
follows Psalm 150 in the Septuagint
Septuagint
Vulgate
1064–1063/2 David fled and dwelt at Ziklag 1 year 4 months.[163] 1 Samuel 27:1-4
1 Samuel 27:7
Septuagint
Vulgate
1063/2
Ante C. 1055
The year Saul was slain on Mount Gilboa with his sons.
He died 72 years old, 70 years old, 32 years old, 3 years old, age unknown.[11][155][161] Compare Acts 13:21, 1 Samuel 7:2; 13:1 and 2 Samuel 5:4-6:11[158]
  • David departed from Ziklag, and went to Hebron.
  • David was 30 years old (1092–1062).
1 Samuel 7:2
1 Samuel 13:1
1 Samuel 31
2 Samuel 1:1-2:3
2 Samuel 5:4-6:11
Acts 13:21
Septuagint
Vulgate
1062–1055 David at Hebron was anointed king over the house of Judah (1062).
  • He reigned over Judah 7 years 6 months (1062–1055).
2 Samuel 2:4-7
2 Samuel 5:4-5
Septuagint
Vulgate
1055
Ante C. 1044
David was anointed king over Israel by all the elders of Israel.
  • David took Jerusalem, and brought the ark up to Jerusalem from the house of Abinadab where it had been kept 20 years (1075–1055).
  • When Uzzah died, David placed the ark in the house of Obed-edom for 3 months. After Obed-edom was blessed, David brought the ark into the city of David (fortress of Zion).
  • David was 37 years old.
2 Samuel 5:3-10
2 Samuel 5:17-6:11
Septuagint
Vulgate
1055–1022 David reigned over all Israel and Judah 33 years.

After David had defeated the Philistines, and defeated Hadadezer
—and after 18,000 Edomites had been slain in the Valley of Salt (2 Samuel 8)
—and after Joab had defeated the Ammonites and the Syrians from beyond the Euphrates so that the Syrians feared to help the Ammonites again (2 Samuel 10)
and after Uriah the Hittite had been killed and David had married Bathsheba and their first child had died (age unknown) (2 Samuel 11-12),
after this period spanning an unknown (brief ? ) number of years
—then Solomon was born 2 Samuel 12:24.

According to 2 Samuel 15:1-12 (Hebrew text [164])
—years after David had exiled his son Absalom
—2 years after Absalom had been brought back to Jerusalem
—during the period of David's 33-year reign over Israel
(and long before David had become "old and advanced in years" 1 Kings 1:1,
see 2 Samuel 3–24)—
Absalom gradually "stole the hearts of the men of Israel" and "It came to pass after forty years / At the end of forty years" Absalom then made final preparations to be declared king at Hebron.[165]
Absalom and his forces were defeated, Absalom was killed, and David continued to reign—through the rebellion of Sheba son of Bichri, through a subsequent 3-year famine, through another war with the Philistines, and afterward through his census of the nation and the plague following which ended with the purchase of the threshing floor for sacrifice, and through the entire period when Adonijah moved to usurp David as king (1 Kings 1–2).
It is evident that a literal 40-year period cannot be inserted as being only one of the many episodes which marked David's literal 33-year reign.
Some translations "speculatively" render the number as four years based on the Greek and Syriac translations as against the Hebrew text which some commentaries declare to be in error.
See ScriptureText.com multilingual 2 Samuel 15:7 multiple text comparison with multiple commentaries on the number "forty" in the Hebrew text of 2 Samuel 15:7.
2 Samuel 5:4-5
2 Samuel 5:13-15
2 Samuel 15:7
1 Kings 2:10-11
1 Chronicles 16:4-37
Septuagint
Vulgate
1022
Ante C. 1014
The year David died. He was 70 years old (30 + 40) (1092–1022). 1 Kings 2:11-12
1 Kings 3:1
1 Kings 11:42-43
1 Kings 14:21
1 Chronicles 29:26-28
2 Chronicles 1:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
1018
Ante C. 1012
Solomon began to build the Temple in the 4th year of his reign (1022–1018).
  • From the end of the reign of Zedekiah and the burning of the temple, back to the 4th year of the reign of Solomon, the literal biblical total is 431 years.[89]
  • The 4th year of Solomon (1018) according to a literal reading of 1 Kings 6:1 was the 480th year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, giving the date of the Exodus as 1498 B.C. (431 + 480 = 911 years, 1498–587 B.C.).[89]
  • The literal biblical sum of the years 2 Chronicles through Exodus from the 4th year of Solomon (1018) back to the Exodus is 559 years, giving the date of the Exodus as 1577 B.C. (431 + 559 = 990 years, 1577–587 B.C.).[95]
1 Kings 6:1
Psalms 72
"A Psalm of Solomon"
Psalms 127
"A Song of degrees for Solomon"
Septuagint
Vulgate
1011 Solomon finished building the house of the LORD the 11th year of his reign (1022–1011). He was 7 years building it (1018–1011). 1 Kings 6:37-38
Septuagint
Vulgate
1002 Saul becomes first king of Israel (-1002 to -1000) and is defeated by Philistines.[82] 1 Samuel 8–31
1000 Accession of David as king of united kingdom of Judah and Israel (-1000 to -960).[82] 2 Samuel 5:3-5

The Divided Monarchy to the Destruction of the Temple 982—587 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
982
Ante C. 975
The year Solomon died (age not given). He had reigned 40 years (1022–982). 1 Kings 11:42-12:20
2 Chronicles 9:30-10:17
Septuagint
Vulgate
982–965/4 Rehoboam reigned 17 years (982-965), and he died.
He was 58 years old (41 + 17) (1022–964)
  • 977. The 5th year of the reign of Rehoboam.
    Shishak / Sheshonq I king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem: "he took away everything". (reigned c. 946–910 B.C.)
  • 965. According to 1 Kings 14:21 Rehoboam died the 17th year of his reign.
    964. According to 1 Kings 15:1 he died the 18th year of the reign of Jeroboam, who had begun his own reign shortly after the beginning of Rehoboam's reign.
  • See 22nd Dynasty of Egypt
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
1 Kings 12:1-2
1 Kings 12:20
1 Kings 14:21
1 Kings 14:25-15:1
2 Chronicles 12:2-13
Septuagint
Vulgate
964–961
Ante C. 958
Abijah/Abijam reigned 3 years. 1 Kings 15:1-2
2 Chronicles 13:1-2
Septuagint
Vulgate
961–920
Ante C. 955
Asa reigned 41 years.
  • 933. King Solomon dies (-933), succeeded by his son Rehoboam I as king of Judah (to -917).[82]
1 Kings 15:9-10
2 Chronicles 16:13-17:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
920–895
Ante C. 889
Jehoshaphat reigned 25 years, and he died. He was 60 years old (35 + 25).
  • Micaiah was prophet.
  • 917. The 3rd year of Jehoshaphat.
    Micaiah was sent with others to teach in the cities of Judah.
    2 Chronicles 17:7-9.
  • 895. Micaiah foretold the death of Jehoshaphat (895 B.C.).
    Micah is an abbreviated form of Micaiah. Micah was prophet during the later reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah (758–697).
    The interval of years from last year of Jehoshaphat through 1st year of Hezekiah, 895–726 B.C., 170 years inclusive, makes it unlikely that Micaiah and Micah are the same.
    Compare 1 Kings 22:28 "Hear, all you peoples!" and Micah 1:2 "Hear, you peoples, all of you!".
    Source: "Micah", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1117, "Micaiah", p. 1119.[167]
1 Kings 22:8-28
1 Kings 22:42
2 Chronicles 17:7-9
2 Chronicles 18:7-27
2 Chronicles 20:31
Septuagint
Vulgate
895–887 Jehoram/Joram reigned 8 years, and he died. He was 40 years old (32 + 8). 2 Kings 8:16-17
2 Chronicles 21:5
Septuagint
Vulgate
887–886 Ahaziah reigned 1 year, and he died.
According to 2 Kings, he was 23 years old when he died (22 + 1).
According to 2 Chronicles, he was 43 years old when he died (42 + 1).
2 Kings 8:25-26
2 Chronicles 22:2
Septuagint
Vulgate
886–879 Athaliah reigned 6/7 years, and was slain. 2 Kings 11:1-16
2 Chronicles 22:10-23:15
Septuagint
Vulgate
879–839
Ante C. 878
Jehoash/Joash reigned 40 years, and he died. He was 47 years old (7 + 40).
  • Beginning of the Kingdom of the Medes (uncertain).[168]
    The tribal warriors are mentioned for the first time in the Assyrian Annals as enemies of Šalmaneser III (858-824).
2 Kings 11:21-12:1
2 Chronicles 24:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
839–810
Ante C. 810
Amaziah reigned 29 years, and he died. He was 54 years old (25 + 29).
  • Hosea and Jonah were prophets.
  • c. 836. The cuneiform inscription of Shalmaneser II (III ?), King of Assyria, claims that he vanquished the Madai (Medes) in his twenty-fourth campaign, about 836 B.C.[168] It was not permanent, for the records of the succeeding reigns down to that of Asshurbanipal (668-625), who vainly strove to hold them in check, constantly refers to the "dangerous Medes".
  • 824. The 15th year of Amaziah's reign.
    Jeroboam II (reigned 824–783) restored the borders of Israel according to the word of the LORD which he had spoken by Jonah son of Amittai.
    2 Kings 14:23-25.
  • Hosea's prophetic ministry began during the reign of Jeroboam II.[169]
2 Kings 14:1-2
2 Kings 14:23-25
2 Chronicles 25:1
Hosea 1:1
Jonah 1:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
810-758
Ante C. 810
Azariah/Uzziah reigned 52 years, and he died. He was 68 years old (16 + 52).
  • Hosea, Jonah, Amos were prophets.
  • Nineveh, capital of Assyria, flourished 800–612 B.C.[170]
  • Jonah son of Amittai was sent to Nineveh to cry against it.
    (See Nahum 3:1-3; Habakkuk 1:6-11; Joel 2:4-10; Isaiah 5:26-30; 36:8; 37:26-27. See Terrorism and Blitzkrieg.)
  • Hosea continued his prophetic ministry during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah (c. 783–726).[169]
  • Amos the prophet from Judah exercised his ministry during the reign of Uzziah beginning c. 767–762 B.C.. "In the days of Uzziah...2 years before the earthquake." Amos 1:1; Zechariah 14:5
    Traces of a major earthquake (dated 765–760 B.C.) have been found at Hazor.[171]
  • c. 761–758. During the reign of Menahem over Israel (reigned 771–761), Tiglath-pileser/Tiglath-pilneser/Pul king of Assyria came against the land.
    According to current historical dating based on Assyrian chronology, Tiglath-pileser reigned 745–727 B.C.[88][172]
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia (Northern Mesopotamia: Neo-Assyrian Dynasty)
2 Kings 15:1-2
2 Kings 15:17-20
1 Chronicles 5:6
1 Chronicles 5:26
2 Chronicles 26:3
Isaiah 5:26-30
Isaiah 36:8
Isaiah 37:26-27
Hosea 1:1
Joel 2:4-10
Amos 1:1
Jonah 1:1
Jonah 3
Nahum 3:1-3
Habakkuk 1:6-11
Zechariah 14:5
Septuagint
Vulgate
758–742
Ante C. 758
Jotham reigned 16 years, and he died. He was 41 years old (25 + 16).
  • Hosea, Jonah, Amos, Isaiah, Micah were prophets.
  • 758. The year of Isaiah's vision of the LORD in the Temple, and his call.
    Isaiah 6:1-8 "Here am I! Send me!" Isaiah exercised his prophetic ministry during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah (c. 759–697 inclusive).[173] He was told to prophesy until the land was utterly desolate and men were moved far away, which did not occur until the beginning of the Exile (587).[174]
  • c. 742. Micah of Moresheth exercised his prophetic ministry during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah (c. 742–697 inclusive). Micah was a contemporary of Isaiah, Hosea and possibly Amos.[175]
2 Kings 15:32-33
2 Chronicles 26:23-27:1
2 Chronicles 27:9
Isaiah 1:1
Isaiah 6:1-13
Micah 1:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
742–726 Ahaz reigned 16 years, and he died. He was 36 years old (20 + 16).
  • Hosea, Jonah, Amos, Isaiah, Micah were prophets.
  • 733. The 9th year of the reign of Ahaz.
    Isaiah foretold the sign of Immanuel when Rezin king of Syria and Pekah king of Israel came up to wage war against Jerusalem and besieged it.
  • 732. Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser/Tiglath-pilneser/Pul king of Assyria asking for rescue from Rezin and Pekah.
  • Pul carried away the Reubenites, Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh into exile.
  • 730. The 12th year of the reign of Ahaz.
    Hoshea son of Elah began to reign in Samaria (reigned 9 years 730–721).
2 Kings 16:2-9
2 Kings 17:1-2
2 Kings 17:24
1 Chronicles 5:6
1 Chronicles 5:25-26
2 Chronicles 27:9-28:1
2 Chronicles 28:19-20
Septuagint
Vulgate
726–697
Ante C. 727
Hezekiah reigned 29 years, and he died. He was 54 years old (25 + 29).
The men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied into the Book of Proverbs (added to it) the words of Solomon of Proverbs 25–31. Proverbs 25:1
"A nation from the north", "the northerner", had come up against the land in a time of drought like a plague of locusts, "their appearance like the appearance of horses, like war horses they ran, as with the rumbling of chariots, like a powerful army drawn up for battle." Joel 2:4-5. An unprecedented plague of locusts was a metaphor and symbol of the Day of the Lord.[178] (Tobit 1:1-2, 11-13; Judith 2:20; Joel 1:6-12, 17-20; 2:2-11; Nahum 3:15-17.) Joel 1:17-20 does not mention locusts, only "seed shrivels under the clods", "fire has devoured the pastures", "the water courses are dried up", a time of severe drought. The drought is also mentioned in Jeremiah 14:1-6 and Amos 7:1-6. The LORD plainly told Amos the plague would not be locusts: "This shall not be.".[171]
Tobit and his fellow Naphtalites were taken captive into exile into the land of the Assyrians to Nineveh. Tobit 1:2-3.
  • 722. Shalmaneser V died. His brother Sargon seized the crown and began to reign as Sargon II king of Assyria in 722. He sent his commander-in-chief to take Ashdod. Sargon finished the destruction of Samaria begun by his brother Shalmaneser V.
    The king of Assyria brought people from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the people of Israel. The operation was conducted by "the great and noble" Asnapper / Asenappar / Osnappar / Asshurbanipal. Erza 4:10.
    The Medes extended their rule over Persia during the 17-year reign of Sargon (Sargon died 705 B.C. according to archaeological dating based on Assyrian chronology.).[168]
    Sargon was succeeded by his son Sennacherib. Tobit 1:18.
  • 714. The 14th year of Hezekiah (714), Sennacherib king of Assyria took all the fortified cities of Judah, and came against Jerusalem. The angel of the LORD slew 185,000 in the camp of the Assyrians, and Sennacherib went back to Nineveh.
    Sennacherib commanded the death of Tobit. Tobit 1:21-24.
  • c. 704. Merodach-baladan (reigned 721–711 and 704) sent a gift and envoys to Hezekiah. During the reign of Sargon II, Merodach-Baladan was little more than a puppet of Assyria, answering to Sargon.[179]
  • Deioces/Daiaukku began (?) to rule the Kingdom of the Medes (reigned 53 years 700/699—647/646).[168]
  • See Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia
2 Kings 17:3-5
see 2 Kings 17:4 mention of
So (סוֹא) in multiple translations of the text with Hebrew versions
2 Kings 17:25-33
2 Kings 18:1-2
2 Kings 18:13
2 Kings 19:20-36
2 Kings 20:12
2 Chronicles 28:27-29:1
2 Chronicles 29:12-19
Ezra 4:10
Tobit 1:1-22
Judith 2:11 DR
Judith 2:20 NRSV
Proverbs 25-31
Isaiah 6:9-13
Isaiah 7:10-20
Isaiah 36:1
Isaiah 37:33-37
Isaiah 39:1
Jeremiah 14:1-6
Joel 1:6-20
Joel 2:2-11
Amos 7:1-6
Nahum 3:15-17
Septuagint
Vulgate
697–642
Ante C. 698
Manasseh reigned 55 years, and he died. He was 67 years old (12 + 55).
  • Isaiah and Nahum were prophets.
  • 681. The 16th year of Manasseh.
    Sennacherib king of Assyria was killed by his sons (681 B.C.).[180]
    2 Kings 19:37; 2 Chronicles 32:21; Tobit 1:21.
    Esarhaddon then reigned (681–669 B.C.).[181]
    Ahikar / Ahiqar immediately interceded for Tobit, who then became blind.
    Tobit was 56 years old (DR), 58 years old (RSV), 62 years old (NRSV, REB, NAB, NJB) when he became blind. Tobit 1:22-2:10; 14:2.
  • See Pseudepigrapha.
  • The Story of Ahikar [182]
  • Prophets warn that the LORD will cast off Jerusalem like Samaria and the house of Ahab. 2 Kings 21:10-15. The LORD brought upon them the commanders of the army of the king of Assyria.
  • 673. After 8 years (681–673) Tobit was cured of his blindness. He was 64 years old, 66 years old, 68 years old. Tobit 14:2.
  • Manasseh was taken with hooks, bound, and brought to Babylon. He repented, and was brought back to Jerusalem, returning from exile. He then purified the house of the LORD. 2 Chronicles 33:10-16; Judith 4:3.[183]
    Prayer of Manasseh
  • 668. Esarhaddon king of Assyria, just before his expedition to Egypt, caused his son Asshurbanipal to be acknowledged crown prince of Assyria (668 B.C.). At the same time he proclaimed his son Shamash-shum-ukin as crown prince of Babylonia. When Esarhaddon died, he was succeeded by Asshurbanipal / Asnapper/Asenappar/ Osnappar (reigned 668-625).
  • Nahum exercised his prophetic ministry sometime after 650 B.C., before the death of Manasseh (642). Nahum 3:8-10 refers to the destruction of the Egyptian capital No-amon of Thebes (No) (in 663) which had already occurred.[184]
  • 647. Phraortes began (?) to rule the Medes (reigned 22 years 647/646—625/624).[168] Asshurbanipal (668-625), who vainly strove to hold them in check, constantly referred to the "dangerous Medes".[168]
  • 642. Manasseh died. His son Amon succeeded him.
2 Kings 19:36-37
2 Kings 21:1-2
2 Kings 21:16-18
2 Chronicles 32:21
2 Chronicles 33:1
2 Chronicles 33:10-16
2 Chronicles 33:20
Ezra 4:10
Tobit 1:22-2:11
Tobit 14:3
Judith 2:20
Judith 4:3
Isaiah 7:18-20
Isaiah 37:36-38
Joel 1:6-12
Micah 1:1
Micah 5:1
Nahum 3:8-10
Nahum 3:15-17
Prayer of Manasseh
Septuagint
Vulgate
642–640
Ante C. 643
Amon [185] reigned 2 years, and he died. He was 24 years old (22 + 2).
  • Isaiah and Nahum were prophets.
2 Kings 21:19
2 Chronicles 33:21-25
Septuagint
Vulgate
640–609
Ante C. 641
Josiah reigned 31 years, and he died. He was 39 years old (8 + 31).
  • Isaiah, Jeremiah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Huldah, Zephaniah were prophets.
  • 637. The year Tobit died 102 years old (DR).[186]
    Ashurbanipal (Ashur-Bani-Pal) had twin sons, Ashur-Etil-Ilani and Sin-Shar-Ishkun. He appointed Ashur-etil-ilani successor to the throne, but Sin-Shar-Ishkun did not recognize him. The fight between them and their supporters forced the aging Asshurbanipal to withdraw to Harran, in 632 at the latest, perhaps ruling from there over the western part of the empire until his death (in 627). Ashur-Etil-Ilani governed in Assyria from about 633. (Some years later Sin-Shar-Ishkun finally succeeded in obtaining the kingship.) [187]
  • 630. The Book of Zephaniah.[188]
  • 628. The 12th year of the reign of Josiah, he purged the land, and broke down the idols and altars of the Baals.
  • 627. The 13th year of Josiah son of Amon (627), the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah (1:2).
    The year Tobit died 112 years old (NRSV, REB, NAB, NJB).[186]
  • 626. Sin-Shum-Lisher, a general, possibly another older son of Ashurbanipal, soon rebelled against King Ashur-Etil-Ilani, made a claim on the throne for himself and proclaimed himself counter-king. Other sources suggest that he was not of the royal family, merely a general in the army usurping the throne. He ruled Assyria briefly in 626 B.C., perhaps a full year, controlling only a part of the empire. He was removed from power, or killed, and succeeded by (his younger brother?), Sin-shar-ishkun, who finally succeeded in obtaining the kingship. In Babylonian documents dates can be found for all three kings. In 626 the Chaldean Nabopolassar (Nabu-apal-usur) revolted from Uruk and occupied Babylon.[189] There were several changes in government. King Ashur-Etel-Ilani was forced to withdraw to the west, where he died (621?).[187]
  • 625. Cyaxares/Uksatar/Umakištar began to rule the Kingdom of the Medes (reigned 40 years 625/624—585/584).[168]
  • 623. The 17th year of Josiah (623).
    The year Ezekiel was born (in 593 BCE he was 30 years old, the 5th year of Jehoiachin's exile [190]). Ezekiel 1:1.
  • "I am rousing the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation." Habakkuk 1:6-11.
    Habakkuk was a prophet of the late 7th century before the fall of Nineveh.
    In the Book of Habakkuk the Babylonians are called Chaldeans, so named for the region from which their rulers came.[191]
  • 622. The 18th year of the reign of Josiah (622). The Temple was repaired, the Book of the Law was found, and the Jews were gathered (2 Kings 23:4-25; 2 Chronicles 34:3-18, 33; 35:17-19; Judith 4:1-3 [183]).
    Josiah was told all the evil that would befall the people and all the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem after his death. 2 Kings 22:15-20; 2 Chronicles 34:23-28.
    The Book of Ecclesiastes. "Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher [Qoheleth], vanity of vanities; all is vanity." [192] Ecclesiastes 1:2
    Josiah in Jerusalem was king over Israel, "and made all who were in Israel serve the LORD their God". He gathered קהל qahal [193] the elders, priests and people together, and preached the book of the law to all the people both great and small, exhorting them to join in the covenant with the LORD (2 Kings 23:15-23; 2 Chronicles 34:29-33; 35:18; Ecclesiastes 1:12).[194]
    The Pesach that year surpassed all those celebrated in the days of the judges and the days of all the kings of Israel and Judah. 2 Kings 23:15-23.
  • 612. The 28th year of Josiah (612). Nineveh the Assyrian capital fell to Nabopolassar and Cyaxares.[189] Under Cyaxares the Medes captured Nineveh in 612 B.C.; they were the first people subject to Assyria to secure their freedom.[168] Nahum 2.
  • 609. The 39th year of Josiah (609).
    3 years after the fall of Nineveh, Pharaoh Neco/Necho/Nechoh, Second Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, began to reign (reigned 609–594 B.C.). When Neco advanced toward Carchemish, Josiah met him in battle and was killed (609).[195]
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia
2 Kings 22:1
2 Kings 22:15-23:25
2 Kings 23:29-30
2 Chronicles 34:1-3
2 Chronicles 34:8-18
2 Chronicles 34:23-33
2 Chronicles 35:16-25
Tobit 14:2-11 DR
Tobit 14:2-11 NRSV
Judith 4:3 NRSV
Ecclesiastes 1:12
Ecclesiastes 2:9
Sirach 49:1-5
Jeremiah 1:1-2
Ezekiel 1:1
Nahum 2
Habakkuk 1:6-11
Zephaniah 1:1
Zephaniah 2:13-15
Septuagint
Vulgate
609
Ante C. 610
Jehoahaz reigned 3 months, and Pharaoh Neco took him away.
  • Neco installed Eliakim/Jehoiakim as king of Judah.
  • Isaiah, Jeremiah and Zephaniah were prophets.
2 Kings 23:31-34
2 Chronicles 36:1-3
Septuagint
Vulgate
609–598
Ante C. 610→
Eliakim/Jehoiakim reigned 11 years, and he died. He was 36 years old (25 + 11).
  • Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zephaniah and Daniel were prophets.
  • 609. Jeremiah 26. Jeremiah spoke in the Temple, and was threatened with death.
  • Pharaoh Neco seized Gaza as a base. Jeremiah 47:1.
  • 606. The 3rd year of Jehoiakim.
    Daniel 1:1-5. Jehoiakim and the treasures of the Temple were taken to Babylon, and Daniel, Hananiah, Azariah, Mishael, young men, were taken with them.
    (see below —598. The 11th year of the reign of Jehoiakim. Nebuchadnezzar bound Jehoiakim in fetters to take him to Babylon and carried off with him part of the vessels of the Temple. 2 Chronicles 36:4-7.)
  • In Babylon, young Daniel saved Susanna from the false witness of the elders. Daniel 13:41-51, 60-62.
  • 605. The 4th year of Jehoiakim.
    Jeremiah called Baruch, who wrote on a scroll the words of the LORD.
    Jeremiah 46:2. Pharaoh Neco was defeated at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar.
    Nabopolassar died.
    The 1st year of Nebuchadnezzar II king of Babylon (605). He reigned 43 years, 605–562 B.C..
    Jeremiah declared the decree of the LORD that peoples will serve the king of Babylon 70 years. (Reckoning from this date 605 – 70 years = 535 B.C..)
    Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh Neco at Carchemish, completing Babylon's conquest of Palestine. 2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2.
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia
  • 603. The 6th year of Jehoiakim (603).
    Daniel 1:5, 17-20. Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon found Daniel, Hananiah, Azariah and Mishael ten times better than all magicians and enchanters in his kingdom. He gave them Babylonian names, "Belteshazzar", "Shadrach", "Meshach" and "Abednego".
  • 601. The 8th year of Jehoiakim (601).
    Darius the Mede was born (he was 62 years old in 539).
  • 599. The 10th year of Jehoiakim (599), the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar.
    Jeremiah 52:28. The king of Babylon carried away 3,023 persons.
    (See below 591 B.C.—3,023 persons carried away "In the 7th year" of Ezekiel 20:1.)
  • 598. The 11th year of the reign of Jehoiakim, the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar.
    According to 2 Kings 24:6 Jehoiakim died (598) and slept with his fathers. According to 2 Chronicles 36:4-7 Nebuchadnezzar bound Jehoiakim in fetters to take him to Babylon and carried off with him part of the vessels of the Temple.
    (see above —606. The 3rd year of Jehoiakim. Jehoiakim and the treasures of the Temple were taken to Babylon. Daniel 1:1-5.)
The Bible does not say that Nebuchadnezzar released Jehoiakim during or after his 3rd year to allow him to return to Jerusalem and then took him away a second time to Babylon in his 11th year—such a conclusion, however reasonable, is speculative only and cannot be drawn solely from a plain reading of the strict letter of the text of the Bible alone according to the method of letterism, which only presents an apparent inconsistency, but which entirely accords with the grammatico-historical method of exegesis which a priori presumptively takes both texts as reliable, consistent and historically factual, and provides an illustrative example of the difference in the two literalist methodologies.[11]
2 Kings 23:36
2 Kings 24:6
2 Chronicles 36:5-7
Isaiah 6:9-13
Jeremiah 25:1-12
Jeremiah 26
Jeremiah 46:2
Jeremiah 47:1
Daniel 1:1-7
Daniel 13:41-45
Daniel 13:60-62
Septuagint
Vulgate
598
Ante C. 590
Jehoiachin/Jeconiah/Coniah reigned 3 months and ten days.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zephaniah and Daniel were prophets.
  • Siege of Jerusalem (599/598). "the tenth month, the month of Tebeth"
    10th month, 10th day of the month (January–February 598)—the year began 599.
  • Ezekiel was taken to Babylon along with King Jehoiachin and 10,000 others, including political and military leaders and skilled craftsmen.[190] Mordecai was one of the captives taken to Babylon with Jeconiah. Esther 11:4.
  • According to 2 Kings 24:6-17 Jehoiachin was 18 years old when he was carried away to Babylon. According to 2 Chronicles 36:9-10 he was 8 years old.
2 Kings 24:6-17
2 Chronicles 36:9-10
Esther 2:16
Esther 11:2-4
Jeremiah 22:24-30
Jeremiah 24:1
Jeremiah 29:1-2
Jeremiah 37:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
598–588
Ante C. 590→588
Mattaniah/Zedekiah was 21 years old (598) when he was made king of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar. He reigned 11 years, until he was 32 years old (587).
  • Isaiah, Zephaniah, Jeremiah and Daniel were prophets.
  • 598. In the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah (598/7) Jeremiah put yoke-bars on his neck, and warned the envoys of Edom, Moab, Sidon, and the court of Judah. Jeremiah 27:1-3. Hananiah defiantly broke the bars, and died the same year.[196]
    Zedekiah sent Elasah and Gemariah to Babylon to Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah sent word by them to the elders and to the priests that 70 years must be completed (598/7 – 70 = 528/7 B.C.). Zephaniah reported to Jeremiah the false prophesy from Babylon,[188] and Jeremiah declared Shemaiah of Nehelam in Babylon to be a false prophet, to be punished by God. Jeremiah 29:1-3, 8-10, 24-32.
  • 597. The Siege of Jerusalem (597 B.C.) in the 9th year of Nebuchadnezzar, the 2nd year of Zedekiah.
  • 594. The 4th year of Zedekiah king of Judah, the 12th year of the reign of Nabuchodonosor/Nebuchadnezzar over the Assyrians in Nineveh.[197][198]
    Nabuchodonosor/Nebuchadnezzar made war against King Arphaxad/Cyaxares who ruled over the Medes in Ecbatana. Book of Judith 1:1-6.
  • 593. The 5th year of Zedekiah king of Judah, the 5th year of the exile of Jehoiachin/Jeconiah/Coniah.
    "in the 5th year at the time when the Chaldeans took Jerusalem and burned it with fire", Baruch read to Jeconiah son of Jehoiakim "this book" (Book of Baruch).[199]
    Baruch took the vessels that had been carried away from the Temple to return them to the land of Judah. Offerings could still be made on the "altar of the Lord our God", and prayer "for Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon, and for the life of Balthasar his son / for Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and for the life of Belshazzar his son". Baruch 1:1-12.
    See Pseudepigrapha.
    Paraleipomena Jeremiou Things Left Out of Jeremiah (4 Baruch)
    Ezekiel's vision of the LORD and his call at the age of 30, the age priests normally were inducted into office (593).[190] Ezekiel 1:1; Numbers 4:30.
  • 592. The 6th year of Zedekiah king of Judah, the 6th year of Jehoiachin (592).
    Ezekiel's vision of the appearance of a man clothed in linen. Ezekiel 8:1.
  • 591. The 7th year, the word of the LORD when the elders came to Ezekiel to inquire of the LORD. Ezekiel 20:1.
    3,023 persons were carried away by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah 52:28.
    (See above 599 BCE "the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar" Jeremiah 52:28—6 years before the call of Ezekiel in "the 5th year of the exile of King Jehoiachin" 593 B.C. Ezekiel 1:2.)
    Nabuchodonosor/Nebuchadnezzar overthrew and utterly destroyed Arphaxad, and plundered Ecbatana. He captured Arphaxad and stuck him down with hunting spears. Judith 1:13-16.
    The 17th/18th year of Nabuchodonosor.
    Nabuchodonosor/Nebuchadnezzar sent his general Holofernes/ Holophernes (evidently a name of Persian origin) [200] to take revenge on the whole territory of Cilicia, Damascus, Syria, Moab, Ammon, all Judea, and Egypt. Judith 2:1.
    The Jews had only recently returned from the captivity (2 Chronicles 34-35),[201] and all the people of Judea were newly gathered together, and the sacred vessels and the altar had been newly consecrated after their profanation.
    Judith 4:1-3. Baruch 1:8-9
    Joakim/Eliakim son of Hilkiah was high priest in Jerusalem. Judith 4:6; Baruch 1:7.[202]
    He was the brother of Azariah, son of Hilkiah, son of Shallum, son of Zadok the high priest. Azariah was the father of Seraiah, the father of Jozadak/Jehozadak the father of Jeshua, who was high priest in the days of Zerubbabel after the Exile.
    1 Chronicles 6:13-15; Ezra 3:2.)
  • 589. The 9th year, 10th month, 10th day. "The king of Babylon has this day laid siege to Jerusalem." 2 Kings 23:31–24:1; Ezekiel 24:1-2.
    The 9th year of Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem. Jeremiah 39:1.
    589. last siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. 607, 599, 587 (?).
    Zephaniah was the priest whom Zedekiah sent to Jeremiah asking him to pray for the nation.[188] Jeremiah 21:1-7; 37:3-21.
    Judith beheaded Holofernes, the Assyrian army was dismayed and they fled. Judith 14:18–15:2. "no one ever again spread terror among the people of Israel in the days of Judith or for a long time after her death." Judith 16:25.
    Jeremiah does say the Chaldeans suddenly withdrew. Jeremiah 37:5.
    In 589 Pharaoh Hophra / Apries began his 19-year reign in Egypt (589–570 B.C.). At the beginning of his reign he tried to drive the Babylonian army away from its siege of Jerusalem,[203] and it suddenly withdrew. Jeremiah 37:4-15; 46:17. Jeremiah was imprisoned.
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
  • 589/8. Jeremiah continued in prison, in the court of the guard, then the princes lowered him into the cistern to die. Ebed-melech interceded for Jeremiah, drew him out, and Jeremiah was put back into the court of the guard. Jeremiah 38.
  • 588. The 10th year of Zedekiah, the 17th/18th year of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.
    Ezekiel prophesied against Pharaoh and all Egypt.
    Ezekiel 29:1-2; 2 Kings 24:7.
    Jeremiah in prison bought the field. Jeremiah 32:1-15.
    Zedekiah freed the slaves, but they were taken back. Jeremiah 34:8-11
Numbers 4:30
2 Kings 23:36
2 Kings 24:17-25:7
2 Chronicles 36:11-20
Judith 1:1-6
Judith 1:12-16 NRSV
Judith 2:1-14 NRSV
compare Judith 2 DR
and Joel 2
Judith 2:1-14
Judith 4:1-3
Judith 13:4-10
Judith 14:8-15:2
Isaiah 22:15-25
Jeremiah 21:1-7
Jeremiah 27:1-3
Jeremiah 28:1-29:3
Jeremiah 29:24-32
Jeremiah 32:1-15
Jeremiah 34:8-11
Jeremiah 37:3-21
Jeremiah 38:1-13
Jeremiah 39:1
Jeremiah 46:17
Jeremiah 52:28
Baruch 1:1-12
Ezekiel 1:1
Ezekiel 20:1
Ezekiel 24:1-2
Ezekiel 29:1-2
Daniel 5:18-22
Septuagint
Vulgate
587 The 11th year of Zedekiah, the 18th year of Nebuchadnezzar.
Isaiah, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Daniel and Ezekiel were prophets.
  • 587. Ezekiel declared that Pharaoh of Egypt will be brought down. Ezekiel 31:1.
  • Siege of Jerusalem (587 B.C.).
  • The 11th year of Zedekiah, the 4th month, the wall was breached. Zedekiah was captured, his sons and the nobles were put to death (Jeremiah 39:2-9). Zephaniah, the Second Priest, was put to death [188] (Jeremiah 52:24-27). Zedekiah, 32 years old, was blinded and taken to Babylon. The Temple was burned, and the people taken into exile.
    832 persons were taken captive. Jeremiah 52:29.
  • Jeremiah prophesied "until the captivity of Jerusalem in the 5th month." Jeremiah 1:3; 52:29.
  • Esau/Edom/Idumea rejoiced and gloated over the destruction of Jerusalem, looted the city, cut off the fugitives, and handed over the survivors. Lamentations 4:21-22; Ezekiel 36; Obadiah 1, 10-14.[204]
  • Gedaliah was appointed ruler of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.
  • 587 B.C. marked the beginning of the 70 years of serving the king of Babylon according to Jeremiah 25:8-12 (70 years = 587–517 B.C.).
    The 19th year and 1st year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar (587 B.C.).
2 Kings 25:2-9
2 Kings 25:22
2 Chronicles 34-35
2 Chronicles 36:17-19
Jeremiah 39:2-9
Jeremiah 52:24-29
Lamentations 4:21-22
Baruch 1:11-12 DR
Ezekiel 31
Ezekiel 36
Obadiah 1
Obadiah 10-14
Septuagint
Vulgate

The Babylonian Captivity to the Decree of Cyrus 586—539 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
586
Ante C. 588
The 19th year and 2nd year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar.
The 12th year of the exile of Jehoiachin/Jeconiah/Coniah.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel and Ezekiel were prophets.
Jeshua, high priest, the father of Joiakim (c. 586–537 B.C.) Ezra 2:2, 36, 40 [205] (Jeshua son of Jehozadak son of Seraiah son of Azariah brother of Joakim/Eliachim son of Hilkiah. Judith 4:6; Baruch 1:7; 1 Chronicles 6:13-15; Ezra 3:2; Isaiah 22:20-24.)
  • Ezekiel 32:1. Lamentation over Pharaoh king of Egypt.
  • See Listings of Pharaonic Dynasties
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia
  • Jeremiah 52:12-16. Nebuzaradan burned the house of the LORD and every great house, the army broke down all the walls around Jerusalem.
    Isaiah 6:13; Jeremiah 37:8-10; 2 Kings 25:8-9.
  • Gedaliah was appointed governor of Judah.
    2 Kings 24:22; Jeremiah 40:1-12.
  • Daniel 2. In the 2nd year Daniel interpreted the dream of the great image.
    Daniel was made ruler over the whole province of Babylon.
  • Daniel 3. Nebuchadnezzar made an image of gold.
    Hananiah, Azariah, Mishael (Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego) were thrown into the furnace. They came out unharmed, and were promoted.
  • 585. Astyages ruler of the Kingdom of the Medes 35 years (585/584–550/549).[168]
2 Kings 25:8-9
2 Kings 25:22
1 Chronicles 6:13-15
Ezra 3:2
Judith 4:6
Isaiah 6:11-13
Isaiah 22:20-24
Jeremiah 37:8-10
Jeremiah 39:2-9
Jeremiah 40:1-12
Jeremiah 52:12-16
Baruch 1:7
Ezekiel 32:1-16
Daniel 2-3
Septuagint
Vulgate
582
Ante C. 587
The 23rd year and 6th year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel and Ezekiel were prophets.
  • Jeremiah 52:30. Nebuzaradan carried away captive 745 persons.
  • The book of Lamentations was written about this time by an eyewitness—similarities between Lamentations and Jeremiah in tenor, theology, themes, language, and imagery favor authorship by Jeremiah.[206]
  • Ishmael son of Nethaniah [207] murdered Gedaliah the appointed governor (Ante C. 587).
2 Kings 25:23-25
Jeremiah 40:13-41:10
Jeremiah 52:30
Septuagint
Vulgate
582/1 The 24th year and 7th year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel and Ezekiel were prophets.
Isaiah 6:11-12
Jeremiah 41:11-44:30
Septuagint
Vulgate
581 Tobit, 158 years old (RSVCE, KJV),[186] told his son to "leave Nineveh, because what the prophet Jonah said will surely happen", and then he died. (The destruction foretold by Jonah, described by Nahum and Zephaniah, occurred in 612 B.C..) [170]
  • Nebuchadnezzar II burns Jerusalem (-581).[82]
    Historians do not agree precisely on the date Jerusalem was burned and destroyed by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II, who ended the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah (see section "Archaeological dates" above; also Zedekiah and Siege of Jerusalem (587 B.C.) [210]). Taking Bernard Grun's proposed 581 B.C.[82] as the key historical base date in a literalist table moves forward by 6 years all the dates above in this table, as well as all those dates below which are arithmetically calculated therefrom. Given that a secure historical date has not been established beyond any possible doubt, the choice of a particular base date from among the range of various dates proposed by archaeologists, scholars and historians is substantially arbitrary. The opinion of the majority of them judges the year 587 B.C. as the most reasonable and probable, based on the most reliable interpretation of the evidence available.
Tobit 14:1-4 DR
Tobit 14:1-4 NABRE
Tobit 14:1-4 NRSV
Tobit 14:2-11 RSVCE, KJV
Jonah 3
Nahum 2
Zephaniah 2:13-15
Septuagint
Vulgate
571 The 27th year of the exile of Jehoiachin/Jeconiah (598–571).
The word of the LORD to Ezekiel that Nebuchadnezzar will be given the land of Egypt and its wealth for his army as recompense for his labor for the LORD.
Ezekiel 29:17-21
Septuagint
Vulgate
562
Ante C. 562
Nebuchadnezzar II died (reigned 605–562 B.C.).
He was succeeded by his son Evil-merodach/Awel-marduk.
Daniel was prophet.
2 Kings 25:27
Septuagint
Vulgate
561–560 Evil-merodach/Awel-marduk began to reign in 561. Daniel was prophet.
  • Jehoiachin was freed from prison the 37th year of his exile (598–561), the first year of the reign of Evil-Merodach/Awel-marduk (reigned 561–560).
  • Evil-merodach died 560 B.C.[211][212]
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia
2 Kings 25:27-30
Jeremiah 52:31-34
Septuagint
Vulgate
560–539 From the reign of Neriglissar (560) to the 1st year of Cyrus (539).
Daniel was prophet.
  • 560. Neriglissar, king of Babylon 560–558
  • c. 559. Cyrus organized the Persians into an army, revolted, defeated his father Astyages and grandfather Cambyses I, and assumed the throne (reigned 559–530 B.C.).[213]
    See History of Media and Persia: Kings of Media and Kings of Persia
  • 557. Labashi-Marduk ruled Babylon briefly.
  • 556. Nabonidus, king of Babylon 556-539.
  • 555. The year Tobiah, son of Tobit, died 99 years old, 82 years after the death of his father (637).[186] Tobit 14:16 (DR).
  • 553. Belshazzar son of Nabonidus was made co-regent, and given charge of the defense of Babylon (553–539).[211][214]
    The Bible plainly says that Belshazzar/Balthasar was the son of Nebuchadnezzar/Nabuchodonosor.
    Daniel 5:1, 10-11, 22; Baruch 1:11-12.
    The names of Neriglissar, Labashi-Marduk and Nabonidus are not in the Bible.
  • 553. The 1st year of Belshazzar (553).
    Daniel's vision of 4 beasts and the Ancient of Days.
  • 550. The 3rd year of Belshazzar (550).
    Daniel's vision of the ram and the he-goat. Gabriel interpreted the vision.
  • 539. The last year of Nabonidus, and of Belshazzar.
Tobit 14:16 DR
Baruch 1:11-12
Daniel 5:1-22
Daniel 7:1-14
Daniel 8:1-17
Septuagint
Vulgate
539
Ante C. 536
The 17th year of Nabonidus, and the 14th year of Belshazzar.
Belshazzar's feast. Daniel interpreted the writing on the wall.
Belshazzar proclaimed Daniel/Belteshazzar the 3rd ruler in the kingdom.
  • See List of Rulers of Mesopotamia
  • 539. The Persian Cyrus the Great entered Babylon without a fight.
    Belshazzar was slain, and Darius the Mede, son of Ahasuerus, a Mede, received the kingdom 62 years old (601–539).[168][213] Daniel 5:30; 8:3-4.
    Daniel 6:28 seems to indicate that Cyrus and Darius ruled simultaneously.[215]
  • See List of Rulers of Persia-Iran in the Bible
  • 539. The 1st year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, by birth a Mede.
    Daniel 9. Daniel's prayer regarding the 70 years of Jeremiah.
    Gabriel came and revealed that 70 weeks of years are decreed.
    Daniel 9:1-2, 21-25. The identity of Darius cannot be drawn from the text of the Bible alone; the Bible does not say that Darius the Mede and Darius I Hystaspes are different persons, the text does not say they are the same.
    (see below—522. The 1st year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, by birth a Mede.)
  • 539. The 1st year of King Cyrus (reigned 559–530 B.C.).
    The Decree of Cyrus (539) freed the captives Babylon had taken.
    The first group of about 50,000 exiles, led by Sheshbazzar prince of Judah, departed and came to the house of God at Jerusalem.[216]
    The literal reading of Ezra 1–7 does not say that Cyrus issued a decree that the city of Jerusalem was to be restored and rebuilt, but only the house of God.
    After their arrival in Jerusalem, Sheshbazzar appears to have been replaced by Zerubbabel, a leader of the people together with Jeshua/Joshua the high priest.[217] It is also possible that the Babylonian name "Sheshbazzar" was given to Zerubbabel the prince of Judah and was the name used by him while he was an exile in the province of Babylon so that Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel are the same person, but the Bible does not explicitly and plainly say so.
  • 539. Daniel continued until the 1st year of King Cyrus, and prospered during the reign of Darius and the reign of Cyrus the Persian.
    Daniel was a companion of Cyrus the king, and the most honored of his friends. Daniel 1:21; 6:28; 14:1-2.
2 Chronicles 36:22-28
Ezra 1
Ezra 2:1-2
Ezra 3:1-2
Ezra 4:1-3
Daniel 1:21
Daniel 5:30-31
Daniel 6:28
Daniel 8:3-4
Daniel 9:1-2
Daniel 9:21-25
Daniel 14:1 DR
Daniel 14:1-2 NABRE
Septuagint
Vulgate

The Second Temple to Alexander the Great 538—334 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
538
Ante C. 535
The beginning of the 2nd year of the coming to the house of God at Jerusalem.
Daniel was prophet.
  • The builders laid the foundation of the Temple of the LORD. Ezra 3:8-13.
  • The people of the land intimidated the Jews, brought accusations against them.
  • Work on the house of God ceased (for 18 years, 538–520). Ezra 4:4-5, 24.
Ezra 3:8-13
Ezra 4:1-5
Ezra 4:24
Septuagint
Vulgate
536
Ante C. 536
The 3rd year of Cyrus king of Persia. Daniel was prophet.
  • Daniel's vision of a man in linen, who revealed what was to befall his people in the latter days. Daniel 10-12.
  • In –536 Cyrus II, the Great, of Persia (–553 to –529) freed the Jews from the Babylonian Captivity and aided their return to Israel.[82] 536 B.C..
2 Chronicles 36:22-23
Ezra 1:1-4
Daniel 10:1-14
Septuagint
Vulgate
530–520 Cyrus the Great died 4 December 530.
He was succeeded by Cambyses II son of Cyrus (reigned 530–522).
  • See List of Rulers of Persia-Iran in the Bible
  • 527. The year that Tobiah, son of Tobit, died 117 years old, 100 years after the death of his father (627).[186] "Before dying he rejoiced over Nineveh's destruction" (612 BCE), and he praised God. Tobit 14:14-15 (NRSV, REB, NAB, NJB).
  • 522. Cambyses was killed. Following the death of Cambyses II, Darius I Hystaspes the Great seized power (reigned 18 years, 522–486).[218]
  • 522. The 1st year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, by birth a Mede.
    Daniel 9. Daniel's prayer regarding the 70 years of Jeremiah.
    Gabriel came and revealed 70 weeks of years are decreed.
    The identity of Darius cannot be drawn from the text of the Bible alone; the Bible does not say that Darius the Mede and Darius I Hystaspes are different persons, the text does not say they are the same.
    (see above—539. The 1st year of Darius son of Ahasuerus, by birth a Mede.)
  • During this period work on the Temple had stopped (538–520), until the 2nd year of Darius (520).
Ezra 4:24
Tobit 14:14 NRSV
Daniel 9:1-3
Daniel 9:23-27
Septuagint
Vulgate
520–519
Ante C. 519
520. The 2nd year of Darius the king (520).
Haggai and Zechariah were prophets.
  • The Jews resumed rebuilding the house of God with the support of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. Ezra 5:1-2.
  • 29 August 520, 2nd year, 6th month, 1st day of the month.[219]
    Haggai's 1st message. Haggai 1:1-11. See Book of Haggai
  • 21 September 520, 2nd year, 6th month, 24th day of the month.
    Temple building resumed. Haggai 1:12-15
  • 17 October 520, 2nd year, 7th month, 21st day of the month.
    Haggai's 2nd message. Haggai 2:1-9
  • October–November 520, 2nd year, 8th month.
    Zechariah's ministry began. Zechariah 1:1-6. See Book of Zechariah
  • 18 December 520, 2nd year, 9th month, 24th day of the month.
    Haggai's 3rd and 4th messages. Haggai 2:10-23
  • 15 February 519, 2nd year, 11th month, 24th day of the month.
    Zechariah's night visions. Zechariah 1:7–6:8.
    Literally, "the going forth of the word of the LORD to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" (Daniel 9:24-27) was announced by Zechariah in Jerusalem in the 2nd year, 11th month, 24th day of the month. Zechariah 1:14-17.
    70 weeks of years = 490 years, from 519 to 29 B.C.. See Herod the Great.
  • Zechariah was also a leading priest at the time of Joiakim's high priesthood,[220] possibly the same as the prophet. Nehemiah 12:16.[221]
Daniel 9:23-27
Haggai 1:1-2:23
Zechariah 1:1-6:8
Septuagint
Vulgate
518–510 The 4th year of Darius the king (reigned 522–486 B.C.).
Zechariah was prophet.
  • 518. Zechariah continued his prophetic ministry. He removed 3 corrupt leaders. The people rejected his leadership, and weighed out 30 pieces of silver as his wages. Zechariah chapters 7–14.
  • 517. The end of the 70 years of serving the king of Babylon (587–517 B.C.) according to Jeremiah 25:8-13. The Jews began rebuilding the city, finishing the walls and repairing the foundations. Ezra 4:12
  • 510. Joiakim, high priest, the father of Eliashib (c. 510 B.C.)
    Nehemiah 12:10, 12, 26.[222]
  • The Book of Obadiah historically appears to belong to the early postexilic period at the end of the 6th century (c. 525–501).[223]
    The Nabataeans infiltrated Edom and Moab from a homeland southeast of Petra (which later became their capital).[224] Indications that this was already happening at the time the book was written can be seen in Obadiah 1, 6-7.
    (See below: 479–478 B.C.)
  • See Darius I
    Behistun Inscription [225]
    Achaemenid Empire
Ezra 3:12
Jeremiah 25:12-13
Zechariah 7:1
Zechariah 11:4-14
Septuagint
Vulgate
486 "...and in the reign of Ahasuerus in the beginning of his reign they wrote an accusation against the inhabitants of Jerusalem." Ezra 4:6. Ezra 4:4-6
Esther 1:1-2
Esther 11:2-4
Esther 13:1
Esther 16:1
Obadiah 6-7
Septuagint
Vulgate
484–483
Ante C. 519
The 2nd year of the reign of "Artaxerxes the Great"/Ahasuerus.
  • Mordecai's dream. Esther 11:2–12:6.
  • Mordecai reported the plot of eunuchs Gabatha and Tharra to kill Artaxerxes. Haman son of Hammedatha in great honor with the king, sought injury to Mordecai and his people because of the eunuchs. Esther 11:2–12:6.
  • 483. The 3rd year of the reign of Ahasuerus (483), Vashti was deposed.
    Beautiful young virgins were sought, and Hadassah/Esther was made queen. Esther 1:1-3, 12-21; 2:1-4, 8, 16-17.
Esther 11:2-12:6
Esther 1:1-2:17
Septuagint
Vulgate
479–478
Ante C. 515
The 7th year of Ahasuerus (reigned 486–465/4 B.C.).
Obadiah was prophet.
It is very difficult to know when Obadiah exercised his prophetic ministry because there is nothing in the heading or introduction of his book to pinpoint the date. Historical clues in the text of the book suggest to literalists two dates, 845 B.C. and 586 B.C., "the latter date evidently more probable".[227]
  • Ezra went up from Babylon to Jerusalem, from the 1st month to the 5th month.
  • At his word, from the 9th month to the 1st month (479–478), the Jews separated from the people of the land and put away their foreign wives and children.
  • About this time the Book of Ruth was written.
  • The Book of Obadiah historically appears to belong to the early postexilic period at the end of the 6th century (c. 525–501).[223]
    Indications that this was already happening at the time the book was written can be seen in Obadiah 1, 6-7.
  • Among the heads of their fathers' families who came up from Babylonia to Jerusalem with Ezra the priest in the reign of Artaxerxes the king was Obadiah the son of Jehiel of the sons of Joab. Among those who set their seal to the covenant of obedience to the law written and set down by Ezra was Obadiah (Nehemiah 9). And Obadiah was among the gatekeepers standing guard at the storehouses of the gates of the governor in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua the son of Jozadak the high priest, in the days of Nehemiah the governor and of Ezra the priest-scribe. If this Obadiah is the prophet, then the Book of Obadiah dates to the late 6th century B.C., and not to the mid-9th century (845 B.C.), during the reign of Jehoash/Joash of Judah, as some suppose, and not to the earliest decades of the 6th century (586 B.C.), immediately after the fall of Jerusalem and the burning of the Temple, as others suppose.
    The Bible does not say this Obadiah and the prophet of the Book of Obadiah are different persons, it does not say they are the same. No evidence one way or the other can be drawn from the letter of the text of the Bible alone.[90]
Ezra 7:1-7
Ezra 8:9
Ezra 10:10-12
Nehemiah 9
Nehemiah 10:1-5
Nehemiah 12:25-26
Obadiah 1:1
Obadiah 6-17
Septuagint
Vulgate
474–473
Ante C. 510→508
The 12th year of Ahasuerus.
  • 474. The pur ("lot", plural purim, "lots") was cast before Haman in the 1st month.
    An edict was issued in the king's name to annihilate all the Jews on the 14th day of the 12th month (473 B.C.).
  • Haman was exposed, and executed.
    Mordecai was given Haman's position. He issued a decree authorizing the Jews to defend themselves and destroy those who hated them.
  • 473. They smote their enemies, and the days of Purim were fixed.
Esther 3:7-13
Esther 13:1-7
Esther 7:5-8:12
Esther 16:1-24
Esther 9:11-32
Septuagint
Vulgate
471 The year that Tobiah, son of Tobit, died 127 years old, 110 years after the death of his father (581).[186]
"But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineveh" (612 B.C.), and he rejoiced.
Tobit 14:14-15 RSVCE, KJV
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 460–445 The Book of Malachi is not dated by a reference to a ruler or specific event.
  • Internal evidence (Malachi 1:6-11; 2:1-3; 3:1, 10) as well as its position in the canon favors a postexilic date. The social and religious problems Malachi addressed reflect the situation in Ezra 9 and 10 and Nehemiah 5 and 13, suggesting dates either before Ezra's return (c. 460) or just before Nehemiah's second term as governor (Nehemiah 13:6-7) (c. 435).[228]
Malachi 1:6-11
Malachi 2:1-3
Malachi 3:1
Malachi 3:10
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 446/5 "...and in the days of Artaxerxes..." Artaxerxes I (reigned 465–424)
  • Bishlam, Mithredath and Tabeel, and Rehum and Shimshai, obtained in writing from Artaxerxes king of Persia authorization to make a decree that the men rebuilding the wall and the city of Jerusalem cease.
  • They went in haste and by force and power made them cease.
  • See List of Rulers of Persia-Iran in the Bible
Ezra 4:7-23
Septuagint
Vulgate
445
Ante C. 454
The 20th year of Artaxerxes.
  • Hananiah came to Susa. He told Nehemiah, cup-bearer to the king,[229] that the wall of Jerusalem was broken down and the gates had been burned with fire.
  • Nehemiah obtained a decree from the king that Jerusalem be rebuilt.
    He went to Jerusalem, and inspected the wall. Nehemiah 1:1–2:15.
    490 years from the decree of Artaxerxes (445 B.C.) through Nehemiah to the governors of province Beyond the River that "the city may be rebuilt", according to Daniel 9:25, gives a date of A.D. 45 (445 + 45 = 490) during the reign of the Roman emperor Claudius (reigned AD 41–54 A.D.).
  • The wall was rebuilt in 52 days and finished in the 7th month, 1st day.
    Nehemiah 6:15.
  • Nehemiah the governor gave his brother Hanani and Hananiah, governor of the cattle, charge over Jerusalem. Nehemiah 7:2.
  • The people were enrolled by genealogies. 1 in 10 volunteered to live in Jerusalem.
  • When the 7th month came Ezra read the Law before the Water Gate, to an assembly of 42,360 persons and 7,337 servants.
    Nehemiah 7:5, 66-67; 8:1-2.
    The 24th day of the 7th month the Israelites separated themselves from all foreigners. Nehemiah 9:1-2. (See Book of Ruth.)
  • Eliashib, high priest (period uncertain), the father of Joiada, Nehemiah 3:1, 20; 12:10; 13:28; Ezra 10:6
  • See Pseudepigrapha.
  • The Revelation of Esdras
  • 1st Esdras (text) and 2nd Esdras (text)
Nehemiah 1:1-2:15
Nehemiah 6:15
Nehemiah 7:2-5
Nehemiah 7:66-67
Nehemiah 7:73-8:1
Nehemiah 8:1-2
Nehemiah 9:1-2
Nehemiah 12:27-45
Nehemiah 13:1-3
Septuagint
Vulgate
445–433
Ante C. 442
Nehemiah was governor of Judah 12 years, from the 20th year to the 32nd year of Artaxerxes (reigned 465–424, 41 years).
  • 433. Nehemiah returned to Artaxerxes in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes.
  • After some time (date not stated in the Bible) he received leave to return to Jerusalem, and he cleansed the Temple. The sabbath rest was enforced.
Nehemiah 5:14
Nehemiah 13:6-12
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 445–333 High priests recorded in Book of Nehemiah 12:10-11:
  • Jeshua, father of Joiakim (c. 586–537 B.C.) Ezra 2:2, 36, 40
  • Joiakim, father of Eliashib (c. 510 B.C.) Nehemiah 12:10, 12, 26
  • Eliashib, father of Joiada, Nehemiah 3:1, 20; 12:10; 13:28; Ezra 10:6
  • Joiada, father of Jonathan (c. 425 B.C.) Nehemiah 12:10-11, 22; 13:28
  • Jonathan, father of Jaddua, Nehemiah 12:11, 14 [230]
Nehemiah 12:1-26
Septuagint
Vulgate
c. 7th–5th century See: Book of Job
The author of the book of Job is not known; it was composed some time between the 7th and 5th centuries B.C.[231]
Some scholars see the story itself as very ancient, even if it was written down in a composition centuries after the events occurred.[232][233]
  • The theophany of Job 37:2–38:2; 42:5-6 is almost identical to the theophany of Ezekiel 1:4, possibly indicating the time of the Exile 6th–5th centuries B.C. "a stormy wind came out of the north, and a great cloud, with brightness round about it", "Hearken to the thunder of his voice and the rumbling that comes from his mouth", "Out of the north comes golden splendor; God is clothed with terrible majesty" and "The LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind". This is highly speculative. Similarity of phenomena demonstrates nothing about the period of time.
  • The only historical reference is to the Sabeans/Sabaeans and the Chaldeans (a word denoting the Babylonians according to Habakkuk 1:6-11, since he was not referring to the Assyrians). Job 1:14, 17. Sabaean rulers are mentioned in Assyrian annals of the late 8th and early 7th centuries B.C. (although some scholars date Sabaean inscriptions to about the 6th century B.C.) [234]
  • The Bible does not say that Job אִיוב and Jobab יובב, the ancient ruler of Edom, are different persons, it does not say they are the same. Genesis 36:33-34. Evidence one way or the other cannot be drawn from the letter of the text of the Bible alone. "This man was the greatest of all the people of the east." Job 1:3. This indicates that Job was a powerful middle-eastern chieftain or prince over vast herds and pasturelands whom only an army would dare attack with impunity. Compare the treaty that King Abimelech and Phicol the commander of his army made with Abraham, and that later, accompanied by his royal advisor Ahuzzath and Phicol, Abimelech made with Isaac. Both Abraham and Isaac are said to have been mighty princes. Genesis 21:22-32; 23:5-6; 26:12-14. The Sabaeans who dared to attack Job were a significant power in the east only in the 7th–6th centuries B.C., around the time period of the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews.[90] The Bible speaks of the Sabeans, but this historical fact, the most significant period of their power and influence 7th–6th centuries B.C., cannot be drawn from the letter of the text of the Bible alone. There is archaeologically and historically no evidence of the existence of the Sabaeans as a people predating the 16th century B.C., that is, not before the time of the Exodus from Egypt 1577 B.C. according to the letterist dating in this table.[235]
  • Job destroys and brings to nothing the wisdom and understanding of the men of Edom, exactly as promised in the Book of Obadiah (v.8) "on that day, says the LORD". God's wrath is kindled against the visiting wise men for not speaking of God what is right, even though their counsels to Job are represented almost verbatim in the books of Psalms and Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, and later in the books of Sirach and Wisdom. They had abused the inspired wisdom sayings that had come from God by applying them wrongly and falsely to an innocent man, according to his outward appearance and his condition, and according to their belief that God will not allow any righteous individual to suffer so terribly. In the canon of the Christian Old Testament Job is placed first, before Psalms and Proverbs. The Jewish Tanakh has Psalms and Proverbs before Job, a rabbinical tradition indicating a later composition of the book after the reigns of David and Solomon.
  • Job clearly demonstrates the limitations of wisdom, the evil of rash judgment of innocent victims of devastating losses, and the need for patient humility in the midst of persecution. It offered devout Jews among the people some explanation for their sufferings during the Exile and after their return to Jerusalem.
  • All of these facts taken together, according to an historical-grammatical method, point to the post-exilic period, around the reign of Cyrus the Persian or later, about the time of Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, (Obadiah?), Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. But this cannot be drawn from the letter of the text of the Bible alone.
  • The Wycliffe Bible Commentary on Obadiah confirms that judgment came upon Edom, starting with the Nabatean invasion soon after the time of Obadiah.[236]
    According to Strabo, XVI.iv.21 "The Nabataeans and Sabaeans, situated above Syria, are the first people who occupy Arabia Felix. They were frequently in the habit of overrunning this country before the Romans became masters of it, but at present both they and the Syrians are subject to the Romans. The capital of the Nabataeans is called Petra …" (boldface emphasis added)
  • Edom was pushed out of its ancient home by the Arabian tribe of the Nabateans, who seized power, so that many Edomites had to move to the west side of the Dead Sea, to newly acquired land in the northern Negev. Hebron was made the new capital of displaced Edom's new home in exile in south Judah. Other towns were Marisa and Beth-Sur. In the Hellenistic age (which starts with the conquests of Alexander the Great in 333), the name "Idumea" refers to the Negev. The Edomite homeland had been taken over by the Nabataeans, who repelled Greek attacks. The Maccabees, especially John Hyrcanus (c. 125 BC), subdued and Judaized the Edomites.
  • The widely disparate datings of Job himself back to the times of Abraham, or Jacob, or Joseph, or their sons, or Moses, as predating the Exodus, originally comes from the speculations of various rabbis in the Talmud.[237] Most Protestants believe and teach that the Book of Job is the oldest book in the Bible, probably written around the time of Abraham.[238] This has become a traditional teaching. But it cannot be drawn from the letter of the text of the Bible alone. The historical Sabeans are not discussed in Bible studies of the Book of Job.
  • See Pseudepigrapha.
  • Testament of Job
Genesis 21:22-32
Genesis 23:5-6
Genesis 26:12-14
Genesis 36:33-34
Job 1:1-3
Job 1:14
Job 1:17
Job 37:2–38:2
Job 42:5-6
Ezekiel 1:4 Obadiah 8
Habakkuk 1:6-11
Septuagint
Vulgate
The subsequent 400 years of Biblical history (425 B.C. to 63 B.C.) which follows in this Table is found in the books of the Septuagint, the Old Testament accepted as inspired and canonical by the Orthodox Church in the Greek Orthodox Bible, and found in the books of the Old Testament of the Vulgate accepted as inspired and canonical by the Catholic Church in the Catholic Bible—books of the Bible accepted as divinely inspired by the majority of Christian believers in the United States.[239]

This period of history is not included in the books of the Masoretic Text of the Tanakh which are accepted as inspired and canonical by Jews, and it is not included in the 66 books of the Old Testament of the Holy Bible which are accepted as inspired and canonical by Protestants.[1] Protestant Christian believers call the books in the Catholic and Orthodox Bibles which include this period of Jewish history "apocryphal", by which term they mean "books not divinely inspired" according to the teaching of the Protestant reformers, and they refer to this period of history as "intertestamental" (between the Old and New Testaments).[240][241]

The following roughly 400-year period of Biblical history included in the Orthodox and Catholic Bibles in this Table extends from c. 363 B.C. (Fourth century B.C.) in the time of Philip of Macedon to c. 63 B.C (First century B.C.), that is, from Jaddua the high priest in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah to Aristobulus II (67–63 B.C.) of the Hasmonean dynasty, about the time of Pompey of Rome (106–48 B.C.), Herod, king of Judea (74–4 B.C.), Augustus Caesar (63 B.C.–A.D. 14), and the time of St. Joseph.

356–334 Alexander was born in 356 B.C., son of Philip of Macedon.
  • 336 B.C.. Philip of Macedon was assassinated, and Alexander at the age of 20 became king of the Greeks (reigned 336–323 B.C.).
  • 334 B.C.. Alexander won a series of victories over the Persians.[242]
    Daniel 7:7, 23. "a fourth beast". Daniel 8:5-7. "the he-goat".
    Daniel 8:5-7. "a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion and do according to his will".[243]
Daniel 7:7
Daniel 7:23
Daniel 8:5-7
Daniel 11:3
1 Maccabees 1:1-4
Septuagint
Vulgate

Jaddua the high priest to John Hyrcanus 333—104 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
c. 333 Jaddua, son of Jonathan, was high priest probably at the end of the Persian period when Alexander the Great approached Jerusalem about 333 B.C.[244] Nehemiah 12:1-11
Nehemiah 12:22
Septuagint
Vulgate
See: First Book of Maccabees (333–124 B.C.)
333–323
Ante C. 323
Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon defeated Darius, and became king of the Persians and Medes (333 B.C.).
1 Maccabees 1:1.
  • 333. Alexander continued his victorious military march into Syria, Egypt, Persia, Media, northern India.
    Daniel 7:7, 23; 8:6-7.
  • 323 (Ante C. 323). He returned to Babylon where he died at the age of 33.[242]
Daniel 7:7
Daniel 7:23
Daniel 8:6-7
1 Maccabees 1:1-7
Septuagint
Vulgate
323–217 "Then his officers began to rule, each in his own place. They all put on crowns after his death, and so did their sons after them for many years; and they caused many evils on the earth" (323–175) The Diadochi.
1 Maccabees 1:8-9. Compare Daniel 8:5-7; 11:3-44.[243][245]
Daniel 8:8
Daniel 11:3-44
1 Maccabees 1:8-9
1 Maccabees 12:7
1 Maccabees 12:19-23
Septuagint
Vulgate
281–246 Reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus Daniel 11 NABRE
literalist footnotes
Daniel 11:5-6
Septuagint
Vulgate
219 Simon the Just, son of Onias I / Jochanan, became high priest (219-196 B.C.).[250]
  • The house of God was renovated, the Temple was reinforced, the wall was built with turrets for the Temple precincts, and the reservoir was dug vast like a sea.
Sirach 50:1-4
1 Maccabees 12:7
Septuagint
Vulgate
See: Third Book of Maccabees (217 June–c. 216/215)
217–c. 215 Persecution under Ptolemy IV Philopator
  • 22 June 217 B.C.. Ptolemy IV Philopator defeated Antiochus III at the Battle of Raphia.
    3 Maccabees 1:1-5; Daniel 11:11.
  • c. 216. Philopator issued a decree condemning all Jews to be destroyed.
  • c. 215. He reversed his command and freed them, and ordered that no one harm them. Those who had renounced Judaism to save themselves were executed.
  • See List of Rulers of Persia-Iran in the Bible
Daniel 11:11
3 Maccabees 1:1-5
3 Maccabees 3:1-5
3 Maccabees 3:12-29
3 Maccabees 6:38-7:16
Septuagint
200 Syria defeated Egypt at the Battle of Panium / Battle of Paneas.
Daniel 11:13.
The siege of Sidon after the Battle of Paneas.
Daniel 11:15[245]
Daniel 11:13-15
Septuagint
Vulgate
197 Antiochus III betrothed his daughter to Ptolemy V Epiphanes. Daniel 11:17
Septuagint
Vulgate
See: Second Book of Maccabees (c. 196–161 B.C.)
196–175 Onias III became high priest (196–175 B.C.). Daniel 11:18
2 Maccabees 3:1-3
Septuagint
Vulgate
177[252]
or
78–77[253]
Ante C. 177
"The 4th year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra, Dositheus, who said that he was a priest and a Levite, and Ptolemy his son brought to Egypt the...Letter of Purim..." Esther 11:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
no date During the high priesthood of Onias III 196–175 B.C..
  • Seleucus, the king of Asia [254] (187–175), sent Heliodorus "a collector" to Jerusalem to take the treasures of the Temple. When he entered he was struck down and flogged. Onias interceded in prayer with an offering for his life, he lived, and with his forces went back to the king.
  • See Seleucid Dynasty
Daniel 11:20 KJV
Daniel 11:20 NABRE
Daniel 11:20 DR
2 Maccabees 3:1-35
Septuagint
Vulgate
175 Seleucus IV Philopator king of Syria died.
He was succeeded by Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Daniel 8:9
Daniel 11:21
2 Maccabees 3:1-35
2 Maccabees 4:7-10
Septuagint
Vulgate
175–170
Ante C. 175
175. Antiochus Epiphanes began to reign in the 137th year of the kingdom of the Greeks (175 B.C.).
1 Maccabees 1:10; Daniel 7:8.
  • 175. Onias III, son of Simon II, high priest (196–175 B.C.), was deposed by Jason (175 B.C.), who had obtained the office of the high priesthood by corrupt means.
    2 Maccabees 4:7-10.
  • Jason introduced Hellenism, and built a Greek gymnasium in sight of the Temple. See Hellenic Greek philosophy, and Pantheism.
  • Menelaus obtained the high priesthood by outbidding his brother Jason. He was high priest until his execution in 162 B.C.[255] 2 Maccabees 4:1-14.[256]
  • 174. Onias III "the prince of the covenant" was murdered by Andronicus at the request of Menelaus.
    2 Maccabees 4:23-35; Daniel 11:22.
    "Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom and burned the gate and shed innocent blood."
    2 Maccabees 1:7-8; 4:26; 5:5-7.
  • 174–170. Antiochus invaded Egypt with a strong force, engaged Ptolemy VI Philometor in battle, captured the fortified cities, and plundered Egypt.
    1 Maccabees 1:16-19; Daniel 7:24; 11:22.
  • See Seleucid Dynasty
Daniel 7:8
Daniel 7:24
Daniel 11:20-22
1 Maccabees 1:10
1 Maccabees 1:16-19
2 Maccabees 1:7-8
2 Maccabees 4:7-10
2 Maccabees 4:23-35
2 Maccabees 5:5-7
Septuagint
Vulgate
169–167
Ante C. 170→168
The persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes.
  • 169. (Ante C. 170) Antiochus returned in the year 143 (169 B.C.). He went up against Israel, and entered the Temple. He murdered many.
    1 Maccabees 1:20-24; Daniel 11:28.
  • 168. Antiochus sent his 2nd expedition into Egypt.
    2 Maccabees 5:1;[257] Daniel 11:29-30.
  • 167. (Ante C. 168) A chief collector of tribute came from Antiochus.
    He killed many, plundered the city, burned it, and fortified the city of David (the tower of David) as a citadel against the Jews. By decree of the king Judaism was forbidden.
    Daniel 7:25; 8:10-12.
  • Early in December, 167 B.C.,[258] on the 15th day of the month Chislev in the year 145, "they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering."
    1 Maccabees 1:29-54; Daniel 11:31; 12:11.
  • In Modein,[259] Mattathias slew the king's officer who was monitoring the sacrifices, he tore down the pagan altar, fled with many, and revolted. They received "a little help" when the Hasideans [260] joined him.
    1 Maccabees 2:15-44; Daniel 11:33-35.
Daniel 7:25
Daniel 8:10-12
Daniel 11:28-31
Daniel 11:33-35
Daniel 12:11
1 Maccabees 1:20-24
1 Maccabees 1:29-54
1 Maccabees 2:15-44
2 Maccabees 5:1
Septuagint
Vulgate
166–164 The Maccabean revolt
  • 166. Mattathias died in the 146th year of the kingdom of the Greeks (166 B.C.).
    1 Maccabees 2:70.
  • Judas Maccabeus [261] took command and led the revolt against the Greeks (166–160 B.C.).
    1 Maccabees 3–9; 2 Maccabees 5:27-15:37; Daniel 11:32-35; 12:1-3.
  • 165. The Greek generals Apollonius and Seron were crushed by Judas.[262]
    Antiochus sent Lysias [263] to wipe out Judea and Jerusalem, and crossed over the Euphrates river in the 147th year (165 B.C.) to collect revenues from Persia.
    Lysias, Ptolemaeus of Commagene,[264] Nicanor,[265] and Gorgias,[266] also Philip, Timothy and Bacchides [267] were repeatedly defeated in battle (165–164).
    1 Maccabees 3:10-4:35; 2 Maccabees 8:8-9:1
  • 164. The Dedication of the Temple (Hanukkah) in the 148th year (164 B.C.).
    1 Maccabees 4:36-56; 2 Maccabees 10:1-9; Daniel 12:12.
Daniel 8:13-14
Daniel 11:32-35
Daniel 12:1-3
Daniel 12:12
1 Maccabees 2:65-3:1
1 Maccabees 3:10-4:35
1 Maccabees 4:36-56
2 Maccabees 5:27
2 Maccabees 8:8-9:1
2 Maccabees 10:1-9
Septuagint
Vulgate
163–160 The death of Antiochus IV to the death of Judas Maccabeus.
  • 163. Antiochus the king died in the 149th year (163 B.C.) in the mountains somewhere between mount Zion "the glorious holy mountain" [268] and "the [Caspian] sea" in Persia.[269] He had departed from Ecbatana (see map) and was driving furiously toward Jerusalem when he was struck down. See Zagros Mountains.
    1 Maccabees 6:1-16; 2 Maccabees 9:1-28; Daniel 7:26; 11:44-45; 12:11.
    Antiochus died the thousand two hundred and ninetieth day from the time that the continual burnt offering was taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate was set up. Daniel 12:11. A swift messenger set out, and brought the news to Jerusalem 45 days later (a journey of 800 miles, average 17.77 miles per day). "Blessed is he who waits and comes to the thousand three hundred and thirty-five days." (The 1,290th day + 45 days = the 1,335th day.)
  • The Book of Daniel is "unsealed" [270] and its contents made known to the people beginning the thousand three hundred and thirty-fifth day.
    Daniel 12:12.[271]
  • Antiochus V Eupator was set up as king (163 B.C.). He invaded Judea.
    Antiochus ordered Menelaus executed. He was thrown into a tower full of ashes and suffocated to death.
    2 Maccabees 9:1-10, 28; 13:1-8.
  • 162. Judas besieged the citadel (Tower of David) in the 150th year (162).
    1 Maccabees 6:19-20.
  • 161. (Ante C. 162) Demetrius I Soter began to reign in the 151st year (161–152 B.C.).
    Alcimus [272] presented a large bribe to Demetrius, and incited the king against Judas. Demetrius set up Alcimus as high priest.
    Nicanor (the Seleucid general) was sent to kill Judas, but he hesitated.
    When Judas avoided him, Nicanor threatened to destroy the Temple.
  • Judas' vison of the high priest Onias and the prophet Jeremiah.
    Nicanor was slain in battle and beheaded (161 B.C.).
    "And from that time the city has been in the possession of the Hebrews."
    1 Maccabees 7:1, 26-35, 43-50; 2 Maccabees 14:3-4, 12-14; 15:12-16, 25-37
  • Judas sends Eupolemus son of John son of Accos, and Jason son of Eleazar to Rome to establish friendship and a treaty of alliance with the Romans, and to request Roman support against Demetrius.
    1 Maccabees 8.
  • See List of Consuls of the Early Roman Republic
  • 160. Bacchides and Alcimus encamped against Jerusalem in the 152nd year (Ante C. 161). Judas Maccabeus was slain at the Battle of Elasa (160 B.C.).[273]
    1 Maccabees 9:1-18.
  • See Seleucid Dynasty
Daniel 11:44-45
Daniel 12:11-12
1 Maccabees 6:1-16
1 Maccabees 6:19-20
1 Maccabees 7:1
1 Maccabees 7:26-35
1 Maccabees 7:43-50
1 Maccabees 8
2 Maccabees 2:1-10
2 Maccabees 9:1-18
2 Maccabees 9:28
2 Maccabees 13:1-8
2 Maccabees 14:3-4
2 Maccabees 14:12-14
2 Maccabees 15:12-16
2 Maccabees 15:25-37
Septuagint
Vulgate
159–140
Ante C. 160→140
Jonathan Apphus [274] accepted the leadership and took the place of his brother Judas (160/159 B.C.).
1 Maccabees 9:28-31.
  • 159. (Ante C. 160) Alcimus gave orders to tear down the wall of the inner court of the sanctuary in the 153rd year (159 B.C.). He was stricken with paralysis and died in great agony.
    1 Maccabees 9:54-56.
  • 152. (Ante C. 153) In the 160th year (152 B.C.) Alexander Balas (Alexander Epiphanes) landed and occupied Ptolemais. Demetrius marched out to meet him, and was killed.
    Alexander appointed Jonathan Apphus, brother of Judas Maccabeus, high priest.
    October 23–30, 152 B.C., Jonathan first discharged his office as high priest.[275]
    1 Maccabees 10:1-21.
  • 150. Ptolemy VI Philometor set out from Egypt with his daughter Cleopatra Thea, came to Ptolemais in the 162nd year (150 B.C.), and gave her to Alexander in marriage.
    Jonathan was given honor, and clothed in purple.
    1 Maccabees 10:55-62.
  • 147. (Ante C. 148) Demetrius II of Syria son of Demetrius came from Crete, and appointed Apollonius governor of Coelesyria. He came against Jonathan with a large force in the 165th year (147 B.C.), and was defeated.
    1 Maccabees 10:67-85.
  • 145. (Ante C. 145) Alexander was beheaded by Zabdiel the Arab,[276][168] Ptolemy died 3 days later, and Demetrius became king in the 167th year (145 B.C.).
    1 Maccabees 11:14-19.
  • 143. (A.M. 3861, Ante C. 143) Diodotus Tryphon (Trypho) treacherously shut up Jonathan and his men in the city of Ptolemais and slew them.
    1 Maccabees 12:39-48.
    In the reign of Demetrius in the 169th year (143 B.C.), the Jews in Jerusalem wrote to the Jews in Egypt in the critical distress which came upon them in the years after Jason and his company had revolted from the holy land and burned the gates and shed innocent blood.
    2 Maccabees 1:7-8.
  • 142. (Ante C. 143) In the 170th year (142 B.C.) the yoke of the Gentiles was removed from Israel.
    The 1st year of Simon, great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews.
    The land had rest all the days of Simon.
    1 Maccabees 13:41-42; 14:4.
  • 141. (Ante C. 142—141) The citadel was cleansed, and the Jews entered it with praise in the 171st year (141 B.C.).
    Simon made his son John commander with his residence at Gazara.
    1 Maccabees 13:51-53
  • 140. (Ante C. 140) The 3rd year of Simon the great high priest, he agreed to be high priest, and commander and ethnarch of the Jews and priests and protector.
    Demetrius marched into Parthian Media [277] to make war against Trypho in the 172nd year (140 B.C.).Arsaces I sent a commander, who defeated and took him.
    Simon next sent Numenius to Rome to confirm and renew the alliance with the Romans that was first made with Judas.
    1 Maccabees 14:1-3; 14:24; 14:47.
  • See List of Rulers of Persia-Iran in the Bible
  • See Seleucid Dynasty
  • See List of Consuls of the Early Roman Republic
1 Maccabees 9:28-31
1 Maccabees 9:54-56
1 Maccabees 10:1-21
1 Maccabees 10:55-62
1 Maccabees 10:67-85
1 Maccabees 11:14-19
1 Maccabees 12:39-48
1 Maccabees 13:41-42
1 Maccabees 13:51-53
1 Maccabees 14:1-4
1 Maccabees 14:24
1 Maccabees 14:47
2 Maccabees 1:7-8
Septuagint
Vulgate
138–104
Ante C. 139→124
The 5th year of Simon the great high priest to the death of John Hyrcanus son of Simon.[278]
  • 138. (Ante C. 139→138) In the 174th year (138 B.C.), Antiochus VII Sidetes son of Demetrius I and younger brother of Demetrius II besieged Dor, and shut Trypho in.
  • Antiochus broke off relations with Simon, Trypho escaped, and Cendebeus invaded Judea. Judas and John, sons of Simon the high priest, took Simon's place at the head of the army and defeated Cendebeus.
    Lucius, consul of Rome, responding to Simon's renewal of friendship and alliance with Rome, wrote to Ptolemy and to Demetrius and their allies, warning them to not make war against Simon the high priest and the people of the Jews.
    1 Maccabees 15:10-24, 37-41; 16:1-10.
  • See List of Consuls of the Early Roman Republic
  • 134. (Ante C. 135→133) In the 177th year, Ptolemy son of Abubus and son-in-law of the high priest killed Simon and 2 of his sons at Dok. John Hyrcanus son of Simon killed the assassins sent also against him and became high priest of an independent Judea in the 177th year (134 B.C. Beginning of the Hasmonean Dynasty).
    Daniel 7:27; 1 Maccabees 16:14-24.
  • 132. The 38th year of the reign of Ptolemy VII Physcon [279]
    Book of Sirach/Ecclesiasticus: "I arrived in Egypt in the 38th year of the reign of King Euergetes, and while there, I found a reproduction of our valuable teaching. I therefore considered myself in duty bound to devote some diligence and industry to the translation of this book."
    Sirach Foreword (Sirach 1:1).
  • 124. (Ante C. 124) The Jews in Jerusalem and Judea in the 188th year (124 B.C.) sent a letter to the Jews in Egypt that they are to see that the feast of booths/tabernacles (Sukkoth) is kept.
    2 Maccabees 1:9.
  • 104. John Hyrcanus died.
    John was ruler and high priest from 134 B.C. until his death in 104.[280]
  • The Book of Wisdom has been dated to about a hundred years before the coming of Christ, written by a devout Jew as an admonition to his fellow rulers and kings.[281]
  • The Book of Judith—"The unknown author composed this edifying narrative of divine providence at the end of the second or the beginning of the first century B.C." (c. 100 B.C.).[282]
    "During the life of Judith and for a long time after her death, no one again disturbed the Israelites."
    Judith 16:25 (NAB).[283]
  • Jubilees/Book of Jubilees
  • See Seleucid Dynasty
Sirach 1:1
Daniel 7:27
1 Maccabees 15:10-24
1 Maccabees 15:37-41
1 Maccabees 16:1-10
1 Maccabees 16:14-24
2 Maccabees 1:1-9
Septuagint
Vulgate

Esther 11:1—the 4th year of Ptolemy and Cleopatra as possibly 78–77 B.C.

Before Christ (BC) Event Bible texts
177 or 78–77 "The 4th year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra, (Ptolemy XII Auletes ? and Cleopatra V Tryphaena ? ) Dositheus, who said that he was a priest and a Levite, and Ptolemy his son brought to Egypt the...Letter of Purim..." (Book of Esther) Esther 11:1
Septuagint
Vulgate

2 Maccabees 1:10-12—Aristobulus II 66–63 B.C.

Before Christ (B.C.) Event Bible texts
66–63















63 (?)


23 (?)



































12

"...To Aristobulus,[285] who is of the family of the anointed priests, teacher of Ptolemy the king Ptolemy XII Auletes...Having been saved by God out of grave dangers we thank him greatly for taking our side against the king. For he drove out those who fought against the holy city."

  • Mary is the 13th generation (a full generation younger than Joseph), born about the time that Herod made plans to tear down the House of the LORD (the Temple of God) and (re)build it.
    Compare Hebrews 10:4-7 "a body hast thou prepared for me."
    — St. Joseph was about 40 years old when Mary was born c. 23 B.C. literalist estimate. 63 B.C. – 23 B.C. = 40 years (a generation)
  • The work of rebuilding the Temple began in 19 B.C. which was the 18th year of King Herod’s reign.[289] 46 years later it was completed, A.D. 27 (19 + 27 = 46). John 2:19-20

  • See John 8:57 "Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old." The plain explicit meaning of the literal letter of the text is "not yet fifty", it does not say "not yet forty". A letterist reading of the literal letter of this text makes Jesus between forty-five and fifty years old when those words were said.
  • Luke 3:23 says that Jesus was "about" 30 years of age "when he began". The words "his ministry" (when he began his ministry) are not in the Greek text of the New Testament and the earliest Biblical manuscripts, but have been understood by many as implied according to what they take to be the ordinary meaning of the phrase, and the words have consequently been traditionally added to the text in various translations to "complete the meaning" (according to the traditional understanding of the translators).
    A letterist reading of "when he began" (the son, as was supposed, of Joseph) recognizes in that phrase the same plain exact parallel phrase in the Old Testament of the official declaration of the age of the son who succeeded his father as king "when he began to reign". See
2 Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 14:21, 1 Kings 22:42, 2 Kings 8:17, 2 Kings 8:26, 2 Kings 11:21, 2 Kings 14:2, 2 Kings 15:2, 2 Kings 15:33, 2 Kings 16:2, 2 Kings 18:2, 2 Kings 21:1, 2 Kings 21:19, 2 Kings 22:1, 2 Kings 23:31, 2 Kings 23:36, 2 Kings 24:8, 2 Kings 24:18,Luke 3:23 WYC,Luke 3:23 DR,Luke 3:23 AMP,Luke 3:23 MSG,Luke 3:23 NKJV,Luke 3:23 LEB,Luke 3:23 MOUNCE, Luke 3 Interlinear Greek-English Biblehub.com, Luke 3 English/Greek Elpenor 23 Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα ἀρχόμενος, ὤν, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, υἱὸς Ἰωσήφ, τοῦ Ἡλί,. See the parallel passages in the Books of Chronicles.
  • This letterist reading of the literal letter of the phrase "you are not yet fifty" and "thirty years [of age] when he began" (KJV "began to be about thirty years of age") sees Jesus as 30 years old when Joseph died, when Jesus began to succeed Joseph the son of David in the house of David according to the line of David as a lawful heir to the throne of David. 12 years later he would have been 42 years old (6 × 7 = 42) when he began his 3-year public ministry in A.D. 30. and 45 years old when the Jews said to him, "you are not yet fifty years old."
  • If Jesus died and rose again from the dead in the year A.D. 33 according to tradition (the Bible does not give the year), the following arithmetic is perfectly reasonable, according to the literal letter of the text:
    A.D. 33 – 45 years = 12 B.C.
    That was the year Halley's comet appeared without a tail, a po-h'sing, looking like a star with rays, according to Chinese records of the time.[292][293]
    Halley's Comet is observed to move retrograde from east to west across the sky night after night whenever it has appeared. It first appears rising in the eastern sky just after sunset, and about 6 months later it sets in the west just after sunset, and then, after moving around the sun, it begins to reappear in the east at dawn just before sunrise, and night after night it rises earlier and earlier (less later in the night), moving retrograde from east to west across the sky, until it is last sighted in the western sky at dawn just before sunrise.
    See Luke 2:2.Cyrenius/Quirinius was Consul of Rome in 12 B.C.
    See Historical Evidence for Quirinius (biblehistory.net).[294]

  • Jesus would have been 12 years old plus 1 day at his bar mitzvah, in A.D. 1, in anno domini one, The Year of the Lord, One, when in the Jewish community he was first accounted a full-grown Jewish man beginning his 13th year, with full legitimate authority in Israel as a son of Abraham to comment on the meaning of the Torah.
    The year A.D. 1 was not A.I. 1, in anno incarnationis one, The Year of the Incarnation, One, when the Word first became flesh and dwelt among us (meaning the numbers of years after the incarnation of the Lord at the Annunciation).
    The year A.D. 1 was not A.N. 1, in anno nativitatis one, The Year of the Birth, One (meaning the numbers of years after the birth of the Lord).
  • A.U.C. 754 is the same year A.D. 1. ab urbe condita--"from the foundation of the city [of Rome]"—or anno urbis conditae--"in the year of the foundation of the city".
    Many scholars have been puzzled that Dionysus Exiguus, the most brilliant scholar of his day, chose A.U.C. 753 as the year Jesus was "born" (most church and political leaders assumed that was his meaning), making January 1, A.U.C. 754 the first day of the first year of the Lord, January 1, A.D. 1.
    Many experts believe Dionysus made a mistake of at least 4 years, based on what most historians believe is the most probable date of the death of Herod before the year A.U.C. 753, around 4 B.C. (this is still debated).[295]
    12 B.C. plus 2 years according to the time the wise men had said the star first appeared equals 10 B.C., and 7 years in Egypt 10 B.C. through 4 B.C., plus 4 more years equals A.D. 1 "when he was twelve years old" Luke 2:42. (Between 1 B.C. and A.D. 1 no year "zero (0)" is inserted, so the countdown of 12 years from 12 B.C. ends not with zero but with A.D. 1.)
  • Pontius Pilate served as the prefect of Judaea from A.D. 26 to 36.
    If Jesus was crucified under Pontius Pilate in the year A.D. 33 according to tradition, less than a year after the Jews said to him "thou art not yet fifty years old" (John 8:57, see John 10:22-23), then he was between 45 and 50 years old when he died and rose again from the dead, according to a strictly literal reading of the literal letter of that text, so that he was born about 12 B.C..
  • The evening of passover (the seder) on a Thursday evening followed by the day of passover on a Friday occurred on a Thursday-Friday in A.D. 33 (Friday being the normal weekly "day of preparation" of the normal weekly Saturday sabbath).
    The Saturday sabbath the next day was also the solemn first day of the 7-day Feast of Unleavened Bread (Exodus 12:1-20), which made that particular Saturday sabbath a solemn "high sabbath" John 19:31. The Jews of that time called the 8 days of the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread together "The Feast of Unleavened Bread" during which they ate "The Passover" for 8 days, and the day of Passover itself was called "the first day of the feast of unleavened bread" Matthew 26:17. See
    When does Passover begin? Erev Pesach, Pesach, and Chag Ha-Matzot
    How do we explain the "Passover discrepancy"?
    When Precisely Did Jesus Die? The Year, Month, Day and Hour Revealed.
    Did the Moon Appear as Blood on the Night of the Crucifixion?
  • Jesus was arrested at the "hour of darkness" Luke 22:53 (3 A.M.) [296]
    About 6 hours later Jesus stood before Pontius Pilate. John says
    "he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour; and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!" John 19:13-14
    Mark says
    "And it was the third hour, and they crucified him." Mark 15:25
    See John 19:14; Mark 15:25.
    There is in reality no conflict here regarding the time of day. John does not say it was the sixth hour of the day. Mark does not say it was the third hour of the day. See multiple translations of Mark 15:25. "nine in the morning", "third hour". See multiple translations of John 19:14. "noon", "sixth hour", "six o'clock in the morning". 14 ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα, ὥρα δὲ ὡσεὶ ἕκτη· καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις· ἴδε ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν. John 19:14 MOUNCE, John 19:14 Interlinear Greek-English Biblehub.com
    The letterist reading of these verses takes their meaning as simple and plain statements of the time of day, and implicitly adds to the book the words "of the day" in both places. The phrase "it was the preparation of the passover" is read implicitly as "it was the preparation [day] of the [feast of the] passover [to come that evening]". These inserted meanings, supplied by readers, translators and commentators according to their ordinary understanding of what they see as the plain and simple meaning of the literal letter of the text (the time of day), is an example of eisegesis, which only offers an inconsistent and contradictory reading of the Biblical text. Some conservative Bible exegetes suggest that John used the secular Hebrew reckoning of the hours of the day used by the Jews in Judea (beginning at 12 midnight), and that Mark used the normal Roman reckoning of the day (beginning at 6 A.M.), but however reasonable this speculation may seem to be, such a resolution of the apparent discrepancy between these two texts cannot be drawn from the text of the Bible alone. They do not include the fact that Matthew, a Jew, in his Gospel also used the Roman reckoning of noon as "the sixth hour" and of 3 P.M. as "the ninth hour".[90][297] The accounts of Mark and John are set against each other by a letterist reading of the text, giving liberal critics another pretext to reject the historicity and reliability of the Gospels.
    The literalist reading of these passages in context sees the fact that Jesus is proclaimed by John "the Lamb of God" and sees the clear teaching of the apostles that "Christ our passover is sacrificed for us" 1 Corinthians 5:7. Jesus had been prepared as the passover sacrifice. Jesus began his sacrifice at the end of the passover seder, he prayed and agonized in the garden of Gethsemane, was betrayed by Judas, arrested, tried, abused, brought before Pilate, and then brought before Herod, who sent him back to Pilate. Hours had passed. It had been about six hours since his arrest and about 3 hours since the chief priests with the scribes and the elders had brought him to Pilate. Then Jesus was scourged and mocked. All this was the preparation of "Christ our passover" for the great sacrifice of atonement. When Pilate sat him down on the judgment seat to pronounce sentence it was the preparation for what was to come next, and it was the preparation for passover. ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα. After he was condemned, handed over, and was led out, carrying the cross, he was crucified. And it was about 3 hours after the priests, scribes and elders had first brought him before Pilate. The literalist reading of John 19:14 and Mark 15:25, in contrast to the letterist reading, does not implicitly add the words "...of the day" to the "hour" in John 19:14 and Mark 15:25, and does not add the words "preparation [day] of the [feast of the] passover [to come that evening]", but reads them within the immediate context of the passion of the Lord without any addition, just as they are:
    "he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour" "And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull. And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not. And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him."
    In reality the literalist reading of these passages in the immediate context of the passion and according to the Bible alone presents no conflict. He was crucified at 9 A.M., and he cried out and poured out his spirit and died at 3 P.M..
  • Jesus was placed in the tomb on Friday, the 1st day. He lay in the tomb Saturday, the 2nd day. He was in the tomb Sunday morning, the 3rd day, until the "rising of the sun"—"and be raised again the third day" Matthew 16:21; Mark 16:1-2. Compare Matthew 12:40; Mark 8:31; Luke 18:33; John 2:19.
    "The heart of the earth" is literally the molten core of this planet according to a letterist reading of the literal letter of the text which does not admit of any figure of speech in the Bible—and descending to the core of the earth is also a letterist interpretation of "he descended first into the lower parts of the earth" Ephesians 4:9, where he "preached to the spirits in prison". But he was in the tomb only 2 nights, Friday night and Saturday night only, and only 1 day, Saturday alone. This presents the devout letterist reader of the Bible with a difficult problem having no simple and clear solution, according to the plain and explicit meaning of the literal letter of those texts. Jesus himself said "three nights", not two, "three days", not one. The understanding of the ordinary reader of the Bible is that 3 days and three nights is plainly and simply 72 hours. This does not fit into Friday evening just before sunset, through Saturday, to dawn and sunrise on Sunday morning (about 14 days after the time of the Spring Equinox 12 hours + 24 hours + 12 hours = 48 hours = 2 days).
    It is this letterist interpretation of the Bible which delights the liberal critics with what they see as proof that the Bible is inconsistent and self-contradictory, and therefore cannot be historically reliable or factually true.
According to the literalist reading, Jesus entered the heart of the earth at the beginning of his Passion on the night he was in the Garden of Gethsemane, when he "began to be sorrowful and very heavy", "even unto death" Matthew 26:37-38; Mark 14:33; Luke 22:44. "The LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all." Isaiah 53:6. Saturday was actually 2 days, the day of the Sabbath (the 7th day of the week) and the first day of the yearly Feast of Unleavened Bread (the 1st day of the Feast), a solemn day of assembly which coincided that year with the weekly Sabbath day. The 3 nights in the "heart of the earth" are Thursday night, Friday night, and Saturday night, followed by the Resurrection on Sunday morning.
  • The 3 days and nights are April 2/3, April 3/4, April 4/5, A.D. 33. (Sunday 5th.)
    The one night and day of the Day of Passover (1) beginning with the evening, and the two nights and days of the Sabbath (1) and the first Day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (1) beginning with their two evenings coinciding together, equals 3 days and 3 nights, with the Resurrection on Sunday morning.

This is the result of a counting of numbers according to the letter of the text of the Bible alone.

2 Maccabees 1:10-16
Septuagint
Vulgate

Literalist difficulties in tabulating the chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah

The literal reading of the letter of the text of the Bible according to the method of letterism presents a particular difficulty when the comparative chronology of the kings is calculated, correlated and tabulated from the Bible alone.

Numerical totals of the reigns

Reference texts for Biblical data presented here are the RSVCE and KJV. Bible links are provided for verification and for multiple comparisons of different translations and versions of the Bible. All resulting figures are numerically derived from cited texts in published Bibles using plain arithmetic. The data presented here should not be regarded as definitive. This is not research, nor is this presented as research. This is an illustrative demonstration of simple mechanical arithmetic only, using known numbers in the Bible.

A literal count of the years of the chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah gives the following totals for the Divided Monarchy:[298]

Kingdom of Judah: Rehoboam to Hezekiah

Rehoboam 17 years 1 Kings 14:21. ——Rehoboam 18 years 1 Kings 14:31-15:1
Abijam/Abijah 3 years 1 Kings 15:1-2
Asa 41 years 1 Kings 15:9-10
Jehoshaphat 25 years 1 Kings 22:41-42
Jehoram/Joram 8 years 2 Kings 8:16-17
Ahaziah 1 year 2 Kings 8:25-26
Athaliah 7 years 2 Kings 11:1-16
Jehoash/Joash 40 years 2 Kings 11:21-12:1
Amaziah 29 years 2 Kings 14:1-2. ——Amaziah 30 years 2 Kings 13:10; 2 Kings 14:1-2; 2 Kings 14:7-8; 2 Kings 14:17; 2 Kings 14:23
—(15th year + 15 years = 30 years)
Azariah/Uzziah 52 years 2 Kings 15:1-2
Jotham 16 years 2 Kings 15:32-33. ——Jotham 20 years 2 Kings 15:30
Ahaz 16 years 2 Kings 16:1-2
Hezekiah 29 years 2 Kings 18:1-2 The 6th year of the reign of Hezekiah of Judah saw the end of the Kingdom of Israel:

2 Kings 17:3-6; 2 Kings 18:10-11
6th year to the 29th year of Hezekiah = 29 – 6 = 23 years past the end of the Kingdom of Israel.

Reckoning 12 years of the reign of Hezekiah, and beginning with Rehoboam son of Solomon:
17 + 3 + 41 + 25 + 8 + 1 + 7 + 40 + 29 + 52 + 16 + 16 + 6 of Hezekiah = 261 years.
18 + 3 + 41 + 25 + 8 + 1 + 7 + 40 + 30 + 52 + 20 + 16 + 6 of Hezekiah = 267 years.

Kingdom of Israel: Jeroboam to Hoshea

Jeroboam son of Nebat 22 years 1 Kings 14:20
Nadab 2 years 1 Kings 14:20; 1 Kings 15:25
Baasha 24 years 1 Kings 15:27-28; 1 Kings 15:33. ——Baasha 33 years 2 Chronicles 16:1-5
—(3rd year to the 36th year = 36 – 3 = 33 years)
Elah 2 years 1 Kings 16:6-10
Zimri, Tibni and Omri 12 years 1 Kings 16:10-29 verses 10, 15, 18, 21-23, 29. ——Zimri, Tibni and Omri 11 years
—(27th to the 31st year = 4 years, and 31st to the 39th year = 7 years: 4 + 7 = 11.)
Ahab 22 years 1 Kings 16:28-29
Ahaziah 2 years 1 Kings 22:48-51
Jehoram/Joram 12 years 2 Kings 1:17; 2 Kings 3:1
Jehu 28 years 2 Kings 10:36
Jehoahaz 17 years 2 Kings 13:1-2
Jehoash/Joash 16 years 2 Kings 13:10
Jeroboam II 41 years 2 Kings 14:16; 2 Kings 14:23
Zechariah 6 months 2 Kings 15:8-10.
Shallum 1 month 2 Kings 15:10; 2 Kings 15:13-15. ——Zechariah and Shallum 7 months, Zechariah and Shallum 1 year 2 Kings 15:8; 2 Kings 15:13; 2 Kings 15:17 the 38th year of Azariah to the 39th year of Azariah = 1 year
Menahem 10 years 2 Kings 15:14; 15:17.
Pekahiah 2 years 2 Kings 15:22-23
Pekah son of Remaliah 20 years 2 Kings 15:23-27
Hoshea son of Elah 9 years 2 Kings 15:27-32; 2 Kings 17:1

22 + 2 + 24 + 2 + 12 + 22 + 2 + 12 + 28 + 17 + 16 + 41 + 6 months + 1 month + 10 + 2 + 20 + 9 = 241 years 7 months.
22 + 2 + 33 + 2 + 11 + 22 + 2 + 12 + 28 + 17 + 16 + 41 + 1 year of 12 months + 10 + 2 + 20 + 9 = 250 years.

Kingdom of Judah (to the 6th year of Hezekiah) 261/267 years.
Kingdom of Israel (to their exile) 241 years 7 months (242 years)/250 years.

By a literal count according to the Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was dissolved and the people taken into exile by Shalmaneser in the 241st/242nd, 250th, 261st, 267th year after Solomon 982 B.C.[89]

  • 982 B.C. – 241/242 years = 741/740 B.C.
  • 982 B.C. – 250 years = 732 B.C.
  • 982 B.C. – 261 years = 721 B.C.
  • 982 B.C. – 267 years = 715 B.C.
For the period of the Divided Monarchy, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galil [299] and Kenneth Kitchen.[300]
See the New World Encyclopedia article featuring a comparison chart of the differing dates of the literalist Bible chronologies of conservative archaeologists William F. Albright, Edwin R. Thiele and Gershon Galil for the Kingdom of Israel.



See a chart of The Genealogy of the Kings of Israel and Judah:
Jeroboam king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah were killed the same day–
Hoshea king of Israel was taken away during the reign of Hezekiah king of Judah.



Precise historical dates for the reigns of the kings of ancient Israel and Judah cannot be given. Only a general chronology is possible with the current state of historical knowledge of archaeological source texts.

Biblical numberings of the years of the kings

In the following table the apparent internal numerical inconsistencies in all the numerical textual data relating to each ruler, together with the resultant numerical differences in reckoning the length and the beginning and ending dates of his reign, are carried forward and applied to the beginning and ending dates of the succeeding ruler. The mechanical arithmetical results in this table are thus cumulative.

Bible texts The numbers and totals of the years of reigns reckoned according to the literal letter of the text

Solomon

1 Kings 11:42-43
LXX Vulgate
Solomon reigned 40 years and died, and his son Rehoboam began to reign over all Israel and Judah.
This number specifies when his successor began to reign, and is carried forward in the table.

Rehoboam

1 Kings 14:21
1 Kings 12:1-20


1 Kings 14:31
1 Kings 14:31-15:1




1 Kings 14:31
LXX Vulgate

Rehoboam of Judah began to reign the 40th year of Solomon.
After Rehoboam began to reign the Monarchy became divided.

The year of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text has been carried forward here.
Rehoboam reigned 17 years, from the 40th year of Solomon to the 17th year of Jeroboam.
Rehoboam reigned 18 years, from the 40th year of Solomon to the 18th year of Jeroboam.

Rehoboam died the 17th year of Jeroboam of Israel.
Rehoboam died the 18th year of Jeroboam of Israel.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Rehoboam died, and his son Abijam/Abijah began to reign over Judah.

Abijam/Abijah of Judah

1 Kings 14:31-15:1
1 Kings 14:20

1 Kings 15:1-2
2 Chronicles 13:1-2



2 Chronicles 13:19-21
1 Kings 14:20



1 Kings 15:8
LXX Vulgate

Abijam/Abijah son of Rehoboam of Judah began to reign the 18th year of Jeroboam.

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Abijam/Abijah reigned 3 years, from the 17th year of Jeroboam to the 20th year of Jeroboam.
(17th to the 20th year = 3 years: 20 – 17 = 3.)
Abijam/Abijah reigned 3 years, from the 18th year of Jeroboam to the 21st year of Jeroboam.
Abijam/Abijah reigned 3 years, from the 20th year of Jeroboam to the 1st year of Nadab son of Jeroboam of Israel.

Abijam/Abijah of Judah outlived Jeroboam of Israel.
Abijam/Abijah of Judah died the 20th year of Jeroboam of Israel
Abijam/Abijah of Judah died the 21st year of Jeroboam of Israel
Abijam/Abijah of Judah died the 1st year of Nadab son of Jeroboam of Israel.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Abijam/Abijah died, and his son Asa began to reign over Judah.
Asa reigned over the Kingdom of Judah during the reigns of Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, Tibni, Omri and Ahab kings of Israel.

Jeroboam of Israel

1 Kings 12:17-20
2 Chronicles 10:12-17
1 Kings 11:42-12:20
1 Kings 14:20-21
1 Kings 15:1-2
2 Chronicles 12:16-13:2
1 Kings 15:9
1 Kings 15:25

1 Kings 12:17-20
2 Chronicles 10:12-17


2 Chronicles 13:19-21











1 Kings 14:20
LXX Vulgate

Jeroboam son of Nebat of Israel began to reign the 1st year of Rehoboam of Judah.
Jeroboam of Israel reigned 22 years, from the 40th year of Solomon son of David to the 1st year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.
(Rehoboam 18 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, 1st year of Asa 1 = 22 years: 18 + 3 + 1 = 22.)
Jeroboam of Israel reigned 22 years, from the 40th year of Solomon to the 2nd year of Asa of Judah.
(Rehoboam 17 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, 2nd year of Asa 2 = 22 years: 17 + 3 + 2 = 22.)


The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Jeroboam of Israel reigned 22 years, from the 1st year of Rehoboam son of Solomon to the 3rd year of Asa of Judah.
(1st year of Rehoboam 17 – 1 = 16 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, 3rd year of Asa = 22 years: 16 + 3 + 3 = 22.)

Jeroboam of Israel died before Abijam/Abijah of Judah died, before the 20th/21st year of the Kingdom of Judah, before the end of the reign of Abijam/Abijah.
Jeroboam of Israel reigned 22 years, from the 38th/39th year of Solomon to the 2nd/3rd year of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.
(The 38th/39th year to the 40th year of Solomon = 2/1 years, Rehoboam 17/18, Abijam/Abijah 2nd/3rd year = 22 years of Jeroboam of Israel:
2 + 18 + 2nd year = 22 years:
2 + 17 + 3rd year = 22 years of Jeroboam of Israel:
1 + 18 + 3rd year = 22 years.)

Jeroboam died the 2nd year of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.
Jeroboam died the 3rd year of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.
Jeroboam died the 1st year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.
Jeroboam died the 2nd year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.
Jeroboam died the 3rd year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Jeroboam of Israel died, and his son Nadab began to reign over Israel.

Asa of Judah

1 Kings 15:9-10









compare
1 Kings 16:29











1 Kings 22:41


1 Kings 15:24
1 Kings 22:41
LXX Vulgate

Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah began to reign the 20th year of Jeroboam of Israel.

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Asa reigned 41 years, from the 20th year of Jeroboam of Israel to the 11th year of Omri of Israel.
(Rehoboam 17 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, Asa 41 = 61 years of the Kingdom of Judah: 17 + 3 = 20 years + 41 years = 61.
Jeroboam 22 years, Nadab 2, Baasha 24, Elah 2, Zimri-Tibni-Omri 12 = 62 years – 1 year = 61 years of the Kingdom of Israel = 11th year of Omri of Israel.)

Asa reigned 41 years, from the 21st year of Jeroboam of Israel to the 12th year of Omri of Israel.
(Rehoboam 18 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, Asa 41 = 62 years: 18 + 3 + 41 years = 62.
Jeroboam 22 years, Nadab 2, Baasha 24, Elah 2, Zimri-Tibni-Omri 12 = 62 years = 12th year of Omri of Israel.)

Omri reigned 12 years, and his son Ahab began to reign.
Ahab son of Omri began to reign the 38th year of Asa of Judah.

Asa reigned 41 years, from the 1st year of Baasha of Israel to the 3rd year of Ahab of Israel: 24 + 2 + 12 = 38 + 3rd year of Ahab = 41 years. This makes the 1st year of Jeroboam of Israel the 38th year of King Solomon who reigned 40 years: thus Jeroboam began to reign 3 years before Rehoboam son of Solomon began to reign, from the 37th year of Solomon forward to the 40th year = 3 years, Rehoboam 18 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, Asa 41 = 65 years: 3 + 18 + 3 + 41 = 65; in Israel, Jeroboam 22 years, Nadab 2, 1st year of Baasha 1 = 25 years + Baasha 23 more years, Elah 2, Zimri-Tibni-Omri 12, 3rd year of Ahab 3 = 65 years: 22 + 2 + 24 + 2 + 12 + 3 = 65. The 4th year of Ahab results with a reckoning of 17 years for the reign of Rehoboam.) Counting literally back 41 years of Asa from the 3rd year of Ahab son of Omri (and Ahab began to reign the 38th year of Asa), the resultant year of the beginning of Asa's reign is the 1st year of Baasha of Israel.

Asa died the 11th year of Omri of Israel.
Asa died the 12th year of Omri of Israel.
Asa died the 3rd year of Ahab son of Omri of Israel.
Asa died the 4th year of Ahab son of Omri of Israel.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Asa of Judah died, and his son Jehoshaphat began to reign over Judah.

Nadab of Israel

1 Kings 15:25


1 Kings 14:21



1 Kings 14:31-15:1






1 Kings 15:25-28




1 Kings 15:28
LXX Vulgate

Nadab son of Jeroboam of Israel began to reign the 2nd year of Asa of Judah.

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Nadab reigned 2 years, from the 2nd year of Asa of Judah to the 4th year of Asa of Judah. (Rehoboam 17 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, 4th year of Asa 4 = 24 years: 17 + 3 + 4 = 24 years to the 4th year of Asa.
Jeroboam 22 years, Nadab 2 = 24 years: 22 + 2 = 24 to the 4th year of Asa.)
Nadab reigned 2 years, from the 1st year of Asa of Judah to the 3rd year of Asa of Judah.
(Rehoboam 18 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, 3rd year of Asa 3 = 24 years: 18 + 3 + 3 = 24 years to the 3rd year of Asa.
Jeroboam 22 years, Nadab 2 = 24 years = 22 + 2 = 24 years to the 3rd year of Asa of Judah.)
Nadab reigned 2 years. from the 1st year of Abijam/Abijah of Judah to the 3rd year of Abijam/Abijah, when Asa son of Abijam/Abijah began to reign 41 years and Baasha of Israel began to reign 24 years.
(Baasha 24 years, Elah 2, Zimri-Tibni-Omri 12, 3rd year of Ahab 3 = 41 years of Asa: 24 + 2 + 14 + 3 = 41 years.)

Nadab was killed by Baasha son of Ahijah of Israel the 4th year of Asa of Judah.
Nadab was killed by Baasha son of Ahijah of Israel the 3rd year of Asa of Judah.
Nadab was killed by Baasha son of Ahijah of Israel the 3rd year of Abijam/Abijah son of Rehoboam when Asa began to reign 41 years.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Nadab was killed, and Baasha son of Ahijah began to reign over Israel.

Baasha of Israel

1 Kings 15:28





2 Chronicles 16:1-5






1 Kings 16:6
LXX Vulgate

Baasha son of Ahijah of Israel began to reign the 3rd year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here. Baasha reigned 24 years, from the 4th year of Asa of Judah to the 28th year of Asa of Judah.
Baasha reigned 24 years, from the 3rd year of Asa of Judah to the 27th year of Asa of Judah.
Baasha reigned 24 years, from the 3rd year of Abijam/Abijah son of Rehoboam to the 24th year of Asa of Judah.
Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah the 36th year of Asa of Judah.
Baasha reigned 33 years, from the 3rd year of Asa of Judah to the 36th year of Asa of Judah, or later (?)

Baasha died the 28th year of Asa.
Baasha died the 27th year of Asa.
Baasha died the 24th year of Asa.
Baasha died the 36th year of Asa, or later (?)
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Baasha died, and his son Elah began to reign over Israel.

Elah of Israel

1 Kings 16:8







2 Chronicles 16:1-5


1 Kings 16:8-10
LXX Vulgate

Elah son of Baasha of Israel began to reign the 26th year of Asa of Judah.
(However, according to 1 Chronicles 16:1-5 Baasha of Israel was still alive and king of Israel 10 years after he had died and Elah had begun to reign 1 Kings 16:6, 8.)

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Elah reigned 2 years, from the 28th year of Asa of Judah to the 30th year of Asa of Judah.
Elah reigned 2 years, from the 27th year of Asa of Judah to the 29th year of Asa of Judah.
Elah reigned 2 years, from the 26th year of Asa of Judah to the 28th year of Asa of Judah.
Elah reigned 2 years, from the 24th year of Asa of Judah to the 26th year of Asa of Judah.
Elah reigned 2 years, from the 36th year (or later) of Asa of Judah to the 38th year (or later) of Asa of Judah.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Elah was killed by Zimri, and Zimri began to reign over Israel.

Zimri of Israel

1 Kings 16:15








1 Kings 16:18
1 Kings 16:21-22
LXX Vulgate

Zimri began to reign over Israel the 27th year of Asa of Judah.

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Zimri reigned 7 days the 38th year of Asa (or later).
Zimri reigned 7 days the 30th year of Asa.
Zimri reigned 7 days the 29th year of Asa.
Zimri reigned 7 days the 28th year of Asa.
Zimri reigned 7 days the 27th year of Asa.
Zimri reigned 7 days the 26th year of Asa.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Zimri fled from Omri, and burned the king's house over himself, and died.
Half the people of Israel followed Omri, and half followed Tibni son of Ginath to make Tibni king of Israel.

Tibni and Omri of Israel

1 Kings 16:15-23
1 Kings 16:15
1 Kings 16:23
Omri of Israel contended 4 years with Tibni of Israel for the Kingdom of Israel, from the 27th year of Asa of Judah to the 31st year of Asa of Judah.
Omri's people overcame Tibni's people, Tibni died, and Omri began to reign over Israel.

Omri of Israel

1 Kings 16:23

2 Chronicles 16:1-5






1 Kings 12:1-20; 14:20
1 Kings 14:31-15:1




1 Kings 16:29


1 Kings 16:28
LXX Vulgate

Omri of Israel began to reign the 31st year of Asa of Judah, 4 years after the 27th year of Asa and 10 years before the 41st year of Asa when Asa died.
(However, according to 1 Chronicles 16:1-5 Baasha of Israel was still alive and king of Israel 10 years after he had died and 5 years after Omri had begun to reign 1 Kings 16:6, 8.)

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Omri reigned 12 years, from the 31st year of Asa of Judah to the 2nd year of Jehoshaphat of Judah.
(31 + 12 = 43. Asa reigned 41 years. The 31st year of Asa + 12 years = [31st to the 41st year of Asa (when he died) = 10 years of Asa] + 2 years of Jehoshaphat his son = 12 years: 10 + 2 = 12 years of Omri.)

The calendar year assigned to the 31st year of Asa will vary according to the reckoning of the length of the reign of Rehoboam son of Solomon: 17 years or 18 years (1 Kings 12:1-20; 14:20; 14:31-15:1).

Omri reigned 12 years, from the 30th year of Asa of Judah to the 1st year of Jehoshaphat of Judah.
Omri reigned 12 years, from the 29th year of Asa of Judah to the 41st year of Asa.
Omri reigned 12 years, from the 28th year of Asa of Judah to the 40th year of Asa.
Omri reigned 12 years, from the 27th year of Asa of Judah to the 39th year of Asa.
Omri reigned 12 years, from the 26th year of Asa of Judah to the 38th year of Asa.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Omri died, and his son Ahab began to reign over Israel.

Ahab of Israel

1 Kings 16:29

2 Kings 8:16
1 Kings 22:42
1 Kings 22:50









1 Kings 16:29




compare
1 Kings 22:29-40
1 Kings 22:51
Ahab died during the reign of Jehoshaphat of Judah.


1 Kings 15:9-10






1 Kings 22:40
LXX Vulgate

Ahab son of Omri of Israel began to reign the 38th year of Asa of Judah.

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 9th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah to the 6th year of Jehoram/Joram son of Jehoshaphat of Judah.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 2nd year of Jehoshaphat of Judah to the 24th year of Jehoshaphat of Judah.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 1st year of Jehoshaphat of Judah to the 23rd year of Jehoshaphat of Judah.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 41st year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah to the 22nd year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 40th year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah to the 21st year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 39th year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah to the 20th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 38th year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah to the 19th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 36th year of Asa son of Abijam/Abijah to the 17th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.

Ahab died from battle, the 6th year of Jehoram/Joram son of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
(According to 2 Chronicles 16:1-5 Baasha, who killed Nadab son of Jeroboam of Israel, reigned to the 36th year of Asa, then according to a literal count Elah son of Baasha reigned 2 years to the 38th year of Asa, Omri reigned 12 years to the 9th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa, and Ahab reigned 22 years to the 6th year of Jehoram/Joram son of Jehoshaphat of Judah and died from battle wounds during the reign of Jehoram/Joram of Judah.)

Ahab died the 6th year of Jehoram/Joram son of Jehoshaphat of Judah (Joram reigned 25 years).
Ahab died the 24th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab died the 23rd year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab died the 22nd year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab died the 21st year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab died the 20th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
Ahab died the 19th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table.

Ahab died, and his son Ahaziah began to reign over Israel.

Jehoshaphat of Judah

1 Kings 15:24
1 Kings 22:41-42







1 Kings 22:50







1 Kings 15:33
2 Chronicles 16:1-5






















1 Kings 15:24
2 Kings 8:16-17
















1 Kings 22:41-42


1 Kings 22:50
2 Kings 8:16-17


LXX Vulgate

Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah began to reign the 4th year of Ahab son of Omri of Israel.

The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here.
see above: Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah.

Asa died the 11th year of Omri
Asa died the 12th year of Omri
Asa died the 3rd year of Ahab of Israel
Asa died the 4th year of Ahab son of Omri
(1 Kings 15:24–From the 11th year of Omri to the 4th year of Ahab = 5 years.)

see above: Ahab son of Omri of Israel.

Ahab died the 6th year of Jehoram/Joram son of Jehoshaphat of Judah (Joram reigned 25 years).
Ahab died the 24th year of Jehoshaphat
Ahab died the 23rd year of Jehoshaphat
Ahab died the 22nd year of Jehoshaphat
Ahab died the 21st year of Jehoshaphat
Ahab died the 20th year of Jehoshaphat
Ahab died the 19th year of Jehoshaphat
(From the 19th year of Jehoshaphat to the 24th year of Jehoshaphat = 5 years.)

According to 1 Kings 15:33 Baasha reigned 24 years.
According to 1 Kings 15:33 and 2 Chronicles 16:1-5 Baasha reigned (at least) 33 years, from the 3rd year of Asa of Judah to the 36th year of Asa of Judah.
From 24 to 33 is an increase of 9 years in the reckoning of the years of the Kingdom of Israel.
According to 1 Kings 22:51 Ahaziah son of Ahab of Israel reigned 2 years.
According to 1 Kings 22:51 and 2 Kings 3:1 Ahaziah son of Ahab reigned 1 year. 2 years to 1 year is a decrease of 1 year in the reckoning of the years of the Kingdom of Israel: + 9 – 1 = 8 years.

The reigns of the kings of Israel which are correlated to the years of the reign of Jehoshaphat of Judah will vary according to the reckoning of the years, all drawn from the literal letter of the texts of the Bible.

A literal count of the years from the 1st year of Rehoboam son of Solomon to the end of the reign of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah gives a variant total of 86 or 87 years (1 Kings 14:21; 14:31-15:1).
Rehoboam 17/18 years, Abijam/Abijah 3, Asa 41, Jehoshaphat 25 = 86/87 years: 17/18 + 3 + 41 + 25 = 86/87 representing a difference of 1 year.

A literal count of the years from the 1st year of Jeroboam son of Nebat to the 86th or 87th year of the Kingdom of Israel ends variously in the reigns of Omri, Ahab son of Omri, Ahaziah son of Ahab, and of Jehoram/Joram brother of Ahaziah son of Ahab.
Jeroboam 22 years, Nadab 2, Baasha 24/33, Elah 2, Zimri-Tibni-Omri 12, Ahab 22, Ahaziah 2/1, Jehoram/Joram 12 years = 98/106 years representing a difference of 8 years.
98 years to the end of the reign of Jehoram/Joram of Israel and 86/87 years to the end of the reign of Jehoshaphat of Judah represents a difference of 12/11 years (1 Kings 14:21; 14:31-15:1).

Jeroboam to the 1st year of Jehoram/Joram of Israel = 87 years.
22 + 2 + 24 + 2 + 12 + 22 + 2 + 1st year of Jehoram 1 = 87.
Jeroboam to the 2nd year of Jehoram/Joram of Israel = 87 years.
22 + 2 + 24 + 2 + 12 + 22 + 1 + 2nd year of Jehoram 2 = 87.
Jeroboam to the 16th year of Ahab son of Omri of Israel = 87 years.
22 + 2 + 33 + 2 + 12 + 16th year of Ahab son of Omri = 87.

Ahab son of Omri of Israel died the 24th, 23rd, 22nd, 21st, 20th, 19th year of Jehoshaphat of Judah: 6 different years.
Asa son of Abijam/Abijah of Judah died the 11th, 12th year of Omri of Israel and the 3rd, 4th year of Ahab son of Omri of Israel: 4 different years, each as the beginning of the reign of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.

In a table displaying the correlated years of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah the 9 years extending the 24-year reign of Baasha of Israel to 33 years from the 3rd year of Asa of Judah to the 36th year of Asa of Judah places the reigns of Omri, Ahab and Ahaziah of Israel 9 years farther from the 87th year of the Kingdom of Judah (9 years later) and the end of a 1-year reign of Ahaziah son of Ahab of Israel 8 years farther (8 years later). The 11th year of Omri of Israel when Asa died then becomes the 3rd year of Omri of Israel when Asa died and the 1st or 2nd year of Jehoram/Joram son of Ahaziah son of Ahab, as the year Jehoshaphat died, becomes the 17th year of Ahab of Israel, as the year Jehoshaphat died.

All of the above data, taken directly from the text of the Bible itself, strictly according to the letter of the text, and arithmetically reckoned mechanically, provides the following resultant figures:
Jehoshaphat reigned 25 years:

from the 3rd year of Omri to the 16th year of Ahab, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 4th year of Omri to the 17th year of Ahab, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 7th year of Omri to the 20th year of Ahab, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 8th year of Omri to the 21st year of Ahab, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 11th year of Omri to the 2nd year of Ahaziah, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 12th year of Omri to the 1st year of Jehoram/Joram of Israel, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 12th year of Omri to the 2nd year of Jehoram/Joram of Israel, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 3rd year of Ahab to the 5th year of Jehoram/Joram of Israel, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 4th year of Ahab to the 5th year of Jehoram/Joram of Israel, when Jehoshaphat died
from the 4th year of Ahab to the 6th year of Jehoram/Joram of Israel, when Jehoshaphat died.

Jehoshaphat of Judah died, and his son Jehoram/Joram began to reign over Judah.
Jehoram/Joram son of Jehoshaphat of Judah should not be confused with Jehoram/Joram son of Ahab of Israel.
Note the unusual wording of the King James Version of the text of 2 Kings 8:16, apparently indicating that Jehoshaphat was still alive when his son Jehoram/Joram began to reign.
Compare multiple translations of 2 Kings 8:16 and multiple translations of 1 Kings 22:50

The complex problem of tabulating a literal chronology of the kings

The table to this point illustrates the complex problem of constructing a literal chronology of the reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah according to the letter of the text of the Bible alone. Letterism clearly presents the chronologist with the dilemma of having to choose numerical data. He or she must judge which texts are to be ignored as "unimportant" in deriving specific historical dates for a "straightforward, uncomplicated" letterist Bible chronology. This is a real problem when the fundamental premise of the letterist approach holds that every word of the Bible, every number, as plainly understood by the ordinary reader, is equally from the afflatus of the Holy Spirit of God Himself and cannot be untrue.[301] The hermeneutical method of letterism does not ask if the meaning of the number in the text "as plainly understood by the ordinary reader" is what the Biblical author really meant, nor does it ask if that plain meaning is in fact what the writer is really saying to his people: it simply says, "Forty years means forty years and that's all it means, plain and simple." [302] As can be seen in the table above, the meaning of the numbers of the reigns of the kings according to the literal letter of the text is not "plain and simple". Tabulation of all the numbers of the years of the kings of Israel and Judah according to the plain, explicit, uninterpreted letter of the data in the Bible offers only inconsistent and contradictory confusion, and "God is not the author of confusion." 1 Corinthians 14:32-33; 2 Peter 1:20; 2 Peter 3:15-17.[303] This is not including the additional dilemma of confronting those differences in chronology sometimes evident in a comparison of the numbers in different ancient manuscripts. The letterist chronologer must then judge which one(s) as source(s) to consult to the exclusion of others, and then judge which Biblical numbers to include in a tabulation of Bible chronology to the exclusion of other numbers in the sacred text that are just as equally Biblical. The Apostle Paul taught that not all are teachers or prophets and that not all have the same gifts 1 Corinthians 12:28-29. This includes those Bible scholars who provide the most reasonable and informed exegesis of the meaning of the numbers in Biblical chronology according to the author's intent, and this in turn offers immense benefit to archaeologists as a guide.

Understanding the actual intent of the Biblical authors through the historical-grammatical method of literalist exegesis provides a means of harmonizing apparent chronological inconsistencies in the Scriptures according to the true literal sense.[11][53]

Historical-grammatical method in Literalist Bible chronology

The apparent numerical inconsistencies highlighted by letterism can be harmonized and resolved by interpretation of the Biblical data according to the historical-grammatical method,[56] which aims at discovering the sensus literalis historicus, or "the literal historical meaning" of the text.[304][305][306][53]

A mechanically rigid, excessively letterist reading of the text weakens the credibility of scripture.
A secular-humanist liberal abuse of legitimate historical-critical methodology weakens the credibility of scripture.[307]
Both do violence to the word of God. Both make the Bible subject to contempt and ridicule. And both cause scandal.[308]

Every person who approaches Bible study, usually to learn about the historical events it relates, is heavily influenced by the hermeneutical theory, or interpretive understandings, he or she brings to the text, consciously or unconsciously. According to Dr. J. Philip Hyatt, very little of the Bible relates history for its own sake, or for the purposes that a modern historian would adopt. It is, therefore, history of a special order, designed not simply to inform the reader, but to awaken in the reader a response to what the Lord of history has done.[50][61]

"A person who is not open to the possibility of God entering the historical process in a very tangible and real way is not going to get very far with the meaning of those events." —Dr. Donald A. Hagener, Fuller Theological Seminary.[309]

The aim of the historical-grammatical method is to strive to discover the Biblical author's original intended meaning in the text, to discover that meaning of the passage and that message which the original author would have intended and what the original hearers would have understood without adding to or taking away from the meaning of the message. Almost all of the books of the Old Testament were written to be read aloud to an assembly of persons. A fundamental principle of exegesis or exposition of the text is that the words and sentences can have but one significance in one and the same connection: a text has at least one meaning, and one's interpretations of that meaning will be right or wrong. The moment this principle is neglected the message of the author becomes obscured by uncertainty and conjecture, and exegesis becomes eisegesis.[50][61] Eisegesis occurs when a reader imposes his or her interpretation into and onto the text, saying that it means what it does not mean (reader-response Biblical interpretation).[310] Eisegesis is severely condemned according to many literalist readings of the text of the Book of Deuteronomy and the Book of Revelation [311]

"Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish aught from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you." KJV —Deuteronomy 4:2[312][313]
"For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophesy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophesy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book." KJV —Revelation 22:18-19 [314]
In an effort to avoid any deviation from the literal meaning of the text, a literalist Bible chronology draws data from the best available textual evidence. Using the best textual readings of letterism as a beginning, a literalist chronology can be established and sometimes also be corroborated by the most reliable extant extra-Biblical findings of archæologists and textual historians (Biblical manuscripts). Where widely varying interpretations or readings are proposed for a text, those most closely supporting the literal reading of the letter of the earliest available Biblical texts are adopted by Biblical literalist researchers, such as Donald G. Bryant, Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen. Apparent internal inconsistencies in the textual data can often be harmonized, not always to the satisfaction of everyone, by recognizing such common practices in antiquity as coregencies or overlapping reigns of a king and his successor, and rival kings contending for the rule of the kingdom and differences between the records of Israel and Judah in the manner of counting the years of a king's reign.[11][90]
For example: the "20th year of Jotham" the son of Azariah/Uzziah (a characteristically Biblical formal statement of reign), is quite plainly and most explicitly stated in 2 Kings 15:30. This is followed immediately in 2 Kings 15:32-33 by the equally plain and explicit statement that Jotham the son of Uzziah reigned 16 years, and that he was 25 when he began to reign. A letterist critical reading sees an inconsistency here: the text says what it says: the numbers are clear and plain: Jotham's 20th year is his 20th year, but his 16 years of reign is 16 years. An historical-grammatical critical reading understands a highly probable coregency during which Jotham reigned 4 years (?) in the name of his father Uzziah over the king's household, and governed the people of the land, from the day Uzziah was stricken with leprosy for his sin to the day Uzziah died (2 Kings 15:1-5; 2 Chronicles 26:16-21), at which time Jotham officially began his own reign of 16 years (4 + 16 = 20). The Bible states officially that Azariah/Uzziah reigned 52 years and then he died; it states officially "the 20th year of Jotham", and it says "Jotham reigned 16 years"; but it does not say plainly and explicitly that Jotham was king 20 years, it does not say plainly and explicitly that he was 20 years old, and it does not say plainly and explicitly that Jotham was coregent with his father 4 years.
In the same way, an historical-grammatical reading of the unusual phrasing of 2 Kings 8:16 sees a probable coregency, as when David made Solomn king while he was alive, with Jehoshaphat wholly incapacitated (stroke? retired?) and his son made legitimate reigning king while he was still alive, and still respected as "being king of Judah", and his son reigning as king (continuing to reign) after Jehoshaphat had died.[315]
A letterist reading of these texts offers only contradiction and confusion. In reality there is no conflict here. These texts can be understood as making sense only according to the sensus literalis historicus the true historical literal sense, according to the rules of sound interpretation.

Uncertainty remains at many points. Biblical chronology includes numbers which were significant to the biblical authors, and at times integral to their message.[316] Differences between ancient and modern calendars often necessitates the giving of alternate dates, a resultant year both earlier and later by modern reckoning (such as 587/586 B.C.). Furthermore, different methods of harmonizing the dates of Biblical kings yield slightly different results.[61][88]

Moses Maimonides: figurative and literalist readings

Moses Maimonides wrote that passages in the Bible which, in their literal sense, contain statements that can be refuted with proof, must and can be interpreted other than literally in a figurative manner, but that a mere argument in favor of a certain proposed theory which rejects literal readings is not enough reason to reject the literal meaning of a Biblical text and interpret it figuratively when the literalist theory can be supported by an equally good argument in its favor. (Guide for the Perplexed, Chapter XXV.) [317]

Lack of consensus

A comparison of literalist chronologies such as those listed in the External links below and those which have been established by William F. Albright, Edwin R. Thiele, Donald G. Bryant, Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen present some apparent differences which to date have not been completely resolved, and research continues. See Biblical archaeology.

Given current difficulties of harmonizing the numerical dating of plainly stated numbers of years in the chronology of the Biblical text, together with a lack of precision due to unknown numbers of years not included by the Biblical authors, a self-consistent, textually-based literalist Bible chronology leading to total and complete consensus on the fixing of precise historical dates in the Bible, by the methods of literal letterism and historical-grammatical exegesis, does not at present appear possible.

Currently, Biblical literalists have agreed that more recent literalist chronologies constructed from data in the Bible together with legitimate historical-critical findings provide useful approximations of datings as they begin to converge. More recent scientific datings of historical archaeological findings are now seen to be in closer harmony with the chronology of the Biblical text.[318] What has been called by experienced researchers an "unreasonable" insistence on only figurative meanings by liberal scholars (Biblical Minimalism) has begun to decline, yet the theory still remains influential. (B. Ramm, W. A. Elwell, J. P. Hyatt, Pontifical Biblical Commission, J. F. Drinkard, Jr., E. R. Clendenen).[50][53][88][319][320]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 See the following five sources:
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 ''Encyclopedia Britannica'': "Literal interpretation". Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2014-03-25.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "substantial controversy": heated debate, disagreement. See explanatory article "Arguments and Inference".
  4. Jose ben Halafta ("Seder Olam Rabbah" A.D. 2nd century)
  5. Eusebius Hieronmymus Sophronius, Jerome ("Chronicon" A.D. c. 380)
  6. Bede ("De temporibus" A.D. 703, "De temporum ratione" A.D. 725)
  7. Joseph Justus Scaliger ("Thesaurus temporum" 1606)
  8. Johannes Kepler ("Rudolphine Tables" 1627)
  9. John Lightfoot (chronology published 1642–1644)
  10. James Ussher ("Ussher's chronology "Annales veteris testamenti, a prima mundi origine deducti" 1650)
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 Anstey, Rev. Martin, B.D., M.A. (London), The Romance of Bible Chronology, Marshall Brothers, Ltd., London, Edinburgh and New York. October 3rd, 1913. This work is seen as significant within the tradition of Biblical literalism for developing the first Bible chronology that successfully resolved the Bible's apparent chronological gaps.
    See also Chronological Falsehoods By Ernest L. Martin, Ph.D., 1998 (askelm.com) praise of Martin Anstey's work.
  12. Hyrus, Conrad. "Biblical Literalism: Constricting the Cosmic Dance", The Christian Century, August 4–11, 1982. pp. 823–27. The Christian Century Foundation
  13. Mandy Wilson "The History of Biblical Literalism: What You May Not Know", Causeways, March 24, 2013 (blog).
    —Wilson's provocative blog does not seem to be derived from an academic peer-reviewed source, nor from a traditional published medium with an active editor. Wilson appears to be quoting several sources, and she does not offer citation of her source references, e.g.:
    "Some scholars date the birth of Christian fundamentalism (as we know it) back to the 1878 Niagara Bible Conference." (no citations given);
    "Some have referenced Martin Luther, stating that fundamentalism was born along with his theology of Sola Scriptura." (no citations given);
    "In the 1980’s, theologian and pastor Urban T. Holmes went so far as to state that 'literalism is a modern heresy—perhaps the only heresy invented in modern times'." (no citation given);
    "Another theologian, Ruth Tiffany Barnhouse, suggests that fundamentalism should be regarded as 'the bastard child of science and religion'." (no citations given)
    For an assessment of their liberal point of view—See
    Urban T. Holmes, III (obituary), Episcopal priest,
    What Is Anglicanism? by Urban T. Holmes – Review (Evangelical);
    Patriarchy and the Ordination of Women, by Ruth Tiffany Barnhouse
    Ruth Tiffany Barnhouse, author).
  14. Borg, Marcus J., Reading The Bible Again For The First Time: Taking the Bible Seriously But Not Literally, HarperSanFrancisco; Reprint edition (February 5, 2002); HarperCollins, Oct. 13, 2009. 336 pages.
  15. Review of Marcus J. Borg's book: Reading the Bible Again For The Very First Time.
  16. Armstrong, Karen (2000). The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Alfred A. Knopf|Knopf/HarperCollins. Part Two: "Fundamentalism"
  17. The Fundamentals: A Testimony To The Truth, 1910–1915, 4 Vol. Bible Institute of Los Angeles, ed. A. C. Dixon, Reuben Archer Torrey.
  18. Laurence Tomson (Geneva Bible 1560, 1599)
  19. Matthew Henry 1708-1710
  20. John Gill 1746-63
  21. John Wesley 1754-65
  22. Adam Clarke 1831
  23. Albert Barnes 1834
  24. R. A. Torrey 1880
  25. David Brown 1882
  26. Marvin R. Vincent 1886
  27. B. W. Johnson 1891
  28. See the literalist premise as expressed in multiple 17th—21st century literalist Bible commentaries on the meaning of 2 Timothy 3:16 "All scripture is inspired by God". Multiple translations and versions of this Bible text are presented, followed by the text of the commentaries with their original published sources noted. (biblehub.com)
  29. The 1878 Niagara Bible Conference 1878 Niagara Bible Conference Creed (NBCC) Retrieved 25 December 2013
  30. Leo XIII Encyclical (18 November 1893) Providentissimus Deus (PD) online link to document.
  31. Text of Chicago Statement On Biblical Inerrancy, October 1978 —Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  32. Kathleen Kenyon. —Kenyon, Kathleen 1906–1978 WorldCat Identities: Works by Kathleen Kenyon Retrieved 19 January 2014
  33. William G. Dever. —Books by William G. Dever
  34. Thomas L. Thompson. —Thompson, Thomas L., 12 works. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  35. William F. Albright. —Albright, William F., The Bible and the Ancient Near East, ed. G. Ernest Wright, Bibliography: lists over 825 published scholarly contributions which appeared between 1911 and 1958. see A Review by Thomas F. McDaniel of William F. Albright's History, Archaeology, and Christian Humanism, Palmer Seminary. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  36. Bryant G. Wood. —Wood, Bryant G. 1936– WorldCat Identities: Works by Bryant G. Wood. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  37. Norman L. Geisler. —Geisler, Norman (1977, May 1996) A Popular Survey of the Old Testament, Baker Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8010-3684-2; Geisler, Norman (1982, 4 August 2004) Decide For Yourself: How History Views the Bible, Zondervan. ISBN 978-1-59244-783-1.
  38. See Clarity of scripture.
  39. Thompson, Thomas L., (2000)The historicity of the patriarchal narratives, Trinity Press, pp. 14–15.
  40. 40.0 40.1 See Biblical numerology and Significance of numbers in Judaism.
  41. See Holman Bible Dictionary: Calendars and calendars.wikia.com "Calendar era"
  42. "Exact" historical dates are provided for ancient Israel by archaeological researchers from Assyrian chronology, through the use of lists of year names (eponyms) that can be linked to a solar eclipse known to have occurred in 763 B.C.. Assyrian tablets refer to Ahab king of Israel, who fought Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar and died in 853 B.C., and to Jehu king of Israel, who in his 1st year paid tribute to Shalmaneser III in 841 B.C.. From these dates an historical chronology is reckoned from the length of the reigns in the books of First and Second Kings, giving Solomon's 40-year reign as 970 to 930 B.C., instead of 1022 to 982 as reckoned from the length of the reigns in the books of Kings, starting from the commonly accepted historical date of the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 B.C.. Source: Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. and E. Ray Clendenen, "Chronology of the Biblical Period", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 2003, p. 291b. ISBN 978-0-8054-2836-0. —Note that the well-known exact historical chronologies of literalist researchers William F. Albright and Edwin R. Thiele based on Assyrian chronology do not agree.
    A recent reassessment of Assyrian chronology offers a demonstration that Assyrian records cannot be trusted.
    —See Newgrosh, Bernard. The Chronology of Ancient Assyria Re-assessed (2005)
    Bernard Newgrosh is one of the leading figures in British circles investigating catastrophism and the reconstruction of ancient history.
  43. Ahituv, Shmuel, ed., Echoes from the Past: Hebrew and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period (Jerusalem: Carla, 28 February 2008). p. 528. ISBN 965-220-708-1.
  44. Tevet: Remembrance of the Siege of Jerusalem 587 B.C. —hebrew4christians.com
  45. See article Old Testament Analysis: Estimates of the Biblical Date for Creation. —skeptically.org
  46. Palmer B. Is the Earth 6,000 Years Old, 9,000 Years Old, or 13,000 Years Old? How biblical literalists get their numbers.
  47. See discussions of the meaning of "biblical authority":
  48. "discount the Bible's chronological data entirely" (Biblical Minimalism). See the article "Minimalism, 'Ancient Israel', and Anti-Semitism", by Philip Davies
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 "Chronology of the Biblical Period", Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. and E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003), pp. 691b–695a. ISBN 978-0-8054-2836-0.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 50.5 Hyatt, J. Philip (© January 1, 1964 by The Bethany Press). The Heritage of Biblical Faith: an aid to reading the Bible. Saint Louis, Missouri: The Bethany Press. p. 367. ISBN 978-0-8272-1416-3., ASIN: B000MLV588, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 64-13404. Chapter I: A Modern Approach to the Bible. (1964 edition in the public domain, not the 1977 edition published by Chalice Press © 1977.
  51. Hyatt, J. Philip, The Heritage of Biblical Faith, 1964, p. 41.
  52. "who can neither deceive nor be deceived". —from An Act of Faith (prayer, traditional):
    O my God, I firmly believe that You are one God in three Divine Persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. I believe that Your Divine Son became man and died for our sins, and that He will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because You revealed them, who can neither deceive nor be decieved. Amen.
    This We Believe: Prayers and Teachings of the Catholic Church, Human Life International, 4 Family Life Lane, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA. Phone: 540-635-7884. Fax: 540-636-7363. Website: www.hli.org. E-mail: hli@hli.org.
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 53.4 53.5 Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) n. 116: "The literal sense is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture and discovered by exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation: 'All other senses of Sacred Scripture are based on the literal.' St. Thomas Aquinas STh I, 1, 10 ad 1." ISBN 1-57455-109-4.
    "The task of interpreting the Word of God authentically has been entrusted solely to the Magisterium of the Church, that is, to the Pope and to the bishops in communion with him"Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) n. 100.
    This statement has been wrongly interpreted as if it is saying that only the Pope and the bishops acknowledging his authority are the only authentic Bible scholars and textual historians. This is not its meaning.
    It means that they have been entrusted, as pastors of the faithful, with discerning and preserving the real meaning of the message of the text of the Bible, as a whole, as being doctinally and historically true, and with the task of evaluating the particular interpretations of exegetes and Biblical theologians as being consistent or inconsistent with the divine message of the Bible. See Acts 15:1-32 and 2 Timothy 2:15-18 and Hebrews 13:7-17.
  54. 54.0 54.1 Reading strictly according to the "surface meaning" of the literal letter of the text alone can be problematic. The task of resolving apparently inconsistent numerical and chronological data in the Scriptures according to the actual "literal sense" of the text so as to support and preserve confident belief in the veracity, authenticity and accurate historical reliability of the Bible as against the skepticism of its detractors is entrusted to competent biblical researchers:
    See Leo XIII Encyclical (18 November 1893) Providentissimus Deus (PD)—online link to document
    "...the first thing to be done is to vindicate the trustworthiness of the sacred records at least as human documents..." (PD 17.)
    "... It follows that those who maintain that an error is possible in any genuine passage of the sacred writings, either pervert the Catholic notion of inspiration, or make God the author of such error. And so emphatically were all the Fathers and Doctors agreed that the divine writings, as left by the hagiographers, are free from all error, that they labored earnestly, with no less skill than reverence, to reconcile with each other those numerous passages which seem at variance – the very passages which in great measure have been taken up by the "higher criticism"; for they were unanimous in laying it down, that those writings, in their entirety and in all their parts, were equally from the afflatus of Almighty God, and that God, speaking by the sacred writers, could not set down anything but was true...." (PD 21.)
    See especially Anstey, Martin. (1913). The Romance of Bible Chronology—online link to text
    "Bible study is the study of the Bible. There are many methods and departments; none is without value; all of them, when done thoroughly rather than superficially, tend to the deepening of conviction as to the accuracy of the records." —From the Foreword by Rev. G. Campbell Morgan, D.D.
    See Pius XII Encyclical (30 September 1943) Divino Afflante Spiritu (DAS)—online link to document
    "...the manner of speaking, relating and writing in use among the ancients is made clear by [studying] innumerable examples." (DAS 12.)
    "For it is the duty of the exegete to lay hold, so to speak, with the greatest care and reverence of the very least expressions which under the inspiration of the Divine Spirit have flowed from the pen of the sacred writer, so as to arrive at a deeper and fuller knowledge of his meaning." (DAS 15.)
    "...the supreme rule of interpretation is to discover and define what the writer intended to express." (DAS 34.)
    "...moreover there are not wanting even non-Catholic writers, who by serious and calm inquiry have been led to abandon modern opinion and to return, at least in some points, to the more ancient ideas [of literal interpretation]." (DAS 43.)
  55. literal meaning of "literalism" according to four different dictionaries online:
  56. 56.0 56.1 Historical-grammatical method: a Christian hermeneutical method that strives to discover the Biblical author's original intended meaning in the text
    —Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2. See also
  57. Ramm, Bernard (1970). Protestant Biblical Interpretation. Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-7600-5.  p.48
  58. See Great Conservative Minds: A Condensation of Russell Kirk’s “The Conservative Mind”, by Aaron McLeod
  59. See An excerpt from The Truth about Conservative Christians: What They Think and What They Believe by Andrew Greeley and Michael Hout
  60. See two explanations of what is meant by dynamic and formal equivalence in translation:
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 "Bible hermeneutics", Steve Bond, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 203–207.
  62. For published sources which explain the literalist premise of Bible interpretation—
    —see online Literalist Commentaries on 2 Timothy 3:16which features:
    Barnes Notes on the Bible —Albert Barnes 1834
    Clarke's Commentary on the Bible —Adam Clarke 1831
    Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible —John Gill 1746–63
    Geneva Study Bible —notes 1599
    Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary —David Brown (Free Church of Scotland), et al. 1882
    Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary —Matthew Henry 1708–1710
    People's New Testament —B. W. Johnson 1891
    Pulpit Commentary —Electronic Database by BibleSoft, inc. © 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2010
    Scofield Reference Notes —Cyrus I. Scofield 1917 (see also fundamentalist exposé article The Shocking Truth About C.I. Scofield
    Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge —R. A. Torrey c. 1880
    Vincent's Word Studies —Marvin R. Vincent 1886
    Wesley's Notes —John Wesley 1754-65
    See also the same "Bible commenter" feature link in the external online menu for each of the other Bible passages cited and linked following in the same paragraph: Hebrews 11:6; Titus 1:2; 2 Peter 1:20-21; John 17:17; 14:16-17; 16:13-14; 1 Peter 1:23-25; John 10:35; Romans 3:4; and 1 John 5:10. The Biblecommenter link provides the same source commentaries listed above for each of these, providing a supporting representative overview of the literalist premise for interpretation of the letter of the Biblical text.
  63. Hebrews 11:6 and Psalms 14:1
  64. Titus 1:2
  65. 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Peter 1:20-21
  66. John 17:17
  67. John 14:16-17 and John 16:13-14; 1 Peter 1:23-25
  68. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, Greek Dictionary of the New Testament, Strong's number 3089. λυω "luō"; to "loosen" (literally or figuratively):—break (up), destroy, dissolve, (un–) loose, melt, put off.
    John 10:35
  69. 2 Timothy 2:12-13; James 1:17-18
  70. "coherent", that is, having a consistently reasonable basis of belief. See Coherentist Theories of Epistemic Justification
  71. "manuscript": for example, the Dead Sea Scrolls, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus, and the John Rylands Fragment.
  72. 1 Samuel 13:1. Many Bible footnotes say "this verse is not in the Septuagint."
  73. 1 Samuel 13:1. ---- years old. Many Bible footnotes say "the number is lacking in Hebrew."
  74. "Jericho", Karen Joines and Eric Mitchell, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 885–888.
  75. 75.0 75.1 Stroud, Kenneth A., "Thiele's Biblical Chronology As a Corrective for Extrabiblical Dates", Andrews University Seminary Studies 34 (1996), pp. 293–317.
  76. Dever, William G. (March/April 2006). "The Western Cultural Tradition Is at Risk", Biblical Archaeology Review 32 (2): 26 & 76.
  77. Millard, Alan Ralph, James Karl Hoffmeier, David Wesley Baker, Faith, Tradition, and History, Eisenbrauns, 1994 ISBN 978-0-931464-82-9, p. 15.
  78. Bryant G. Wood and Piotr Bienkowski debate:Biblical Archaeological Review, Volume 2, Number 3 March/April 1990 issue
  79. 607 B.C. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, and the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses.
    See the following articles critiquing this date for the Fall of Jerusalem and the beginning of the 70 years of Jeremiah 25:11-12; 29:10
    A. It was taught for years that Jerusalem fell in 606 B.C. then quietly changed to 607 B.C. so the numbers would add up."
    607 B.C. date is rejected
  80. 80.0 80.1 Albright, William F., The Biblical Period From Abraham to Ezra: An Historical Survey, New York, Harpercollins College Div, June 1, 1963, ISBN 978-0-06-130102-5; and From the Stone Age to Christianity (2nd ed., with a new introduction); Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1957. ISBN 978-1178713176
  81. 81.0 81.1 Thiele, Edwin, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2nd ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 978-0-8254-3825-7.
  82. 82.00 82.01 82.02 82.03 82.04 82.05 82.06 82.07 82.08 82.09 82.10 82.11 82.12 82.13 82.14 82.15 82.16 82.17 82.18 82.19 82.20 82.21 82.22 82.23 82.24 Grun, Bernard, The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events, New Fourth Revised Edition based on Werner Stein's Kulturfahrplan, English Language Edition Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7432-7003-8.
  83. Green, William Henry
    Bibliotheca Sacra 47 (April, 1890) 285-303. Public Domain. 1890. Primeval Chronology. Article VII. Primeval Chronology. By The Rev. Professor William Henry Green, D. D., Princeton Theological Seminary., Bibliotheca Sacra, 1890.
    "The Most Important Biblical Discovery of Our Time": William Henry Green and the Demise of Ussher's Chronology, Ronald L. Numbers
    Warfield, B. B.,
    "On The Antiquity and Unity of the Human Race", Princeton Theological Review, 1911.
  84. Ussher annotations seem to date back to the early 1700's, possibly late 1600's. - see page 6 of Jones, F.N. Chronology of the Old Testament. New Leaf Publishing Group, Mar 1, 2005 ebook version ISBN 978-1-61458-210-6 (pages 1 to 60 available via Google Books).
  85. 85.0 85.1 Sources for Ussher Chronology dates:
    —September 1, 1899 Edition, Douay-Rheims Version, The Old Testament, translated from the Latin Vulgate, first published by The English College at Douay 1609, footnotes —(Saint Benedict Press, Charlotte, North Carolina, XXIX);
    A. D. 1611 King James Version and Revised Version of A. D. 1881 arranged in parallel columns, O. A. Browning & Co., Toledo, Ohio, Potter, Chase & Co., Kansas City, MO, J. H. Buckmaster, Toledo, Ohio, 1881, intercolumnar notes.
  86. For discussions of the history of controverted debates over variant translations of the text, such as those here cited between the Douay-Rheims and the KJV as examples, see:
    Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (1651). Chapter 35: The Signification in Scripture of 'Kingdom of God'. Hobbes advances detailed critical arguments why the Vulgate rendering (basis of the Douay-Rheims translation) is to be preferred.
    Bobrick, Benson (2001). Wide as the Waters: the story of the English Bible and the revolution it inspired. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84747-7.
    Bruce, Frederick Fyvie (2002). History of the Bible in English. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0-7188-9032-9.
  87. The Douay-Rheims Bible reads: "...from the day the ark of the Lord abode in Cariathiarim days were multiplied, (for it was now the twentieth year,)..." that is, when the Books of Samuel were first written, at the beginning of the reign of King David. 1 Samuel 7:2. See 1 Chronicles 29:29-30. —Source: "Samuel, books of", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1440–1443.
  88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 88.4 For discussion of this and other apparent numerical discrepancies in the Bible's chronology of the years of the reigns of the kings see "Chronology of the Biblical Period", Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. and E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 2003, Holman Bible Publishers, p. 291b ISBN 978-0-8054-2836-0.
  89. 89.00 89.01 89.02 89.03 89.04 89.05 89.06 89.07 89.08 89.09 89.10 89.11 89.12 89.13 89.14 587 B.C. back to 1022 B.C. = 435 years: Zedekiah 11 years 587–598, Jehoiachin and Jehoiakim 11 years 598–609, Jehoahaz and Josiah 31 years 609–640, Amon 2 years 640–642, Manasseh 55 years 642–697, Hezekiah 29 years 697–726, Ahaz 16 years 726–742, Jotham 16 years 742–758, Uzziah 52 years 758–810, Amaziah 29 years 810–839, Joash 40 years 839–879, Athaliah 7 years 879–886, Ahaziah 1 year 886–887, Joram 8 years 887–895, Jehoshaphat 25 years 895–920, Asa 41 years 920–961, Abijam 3 years 961–964, Rehoboam 17 years 964/5–982, Solomon 40 years 982–1022 = 435 years. 587 B.C. plus 435 years = 1022 B.C. minus 4 years = 1018 B.C.. The 4th year of Solomon thus calculated literally is 1018 B.C..
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 90.4 90.5 90.6 90.7 "The Bible is not completely self-interpreting. We can gain much from thorough reading of the text itself, and frequently from comparison of various passages in the Bible. Still, we often require aid from outside the Bible itself." Hyatt, The Heritage of Biblical Faith , p. 45.
  91. 91.0 91.1 (Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary © 2003 by Holman Bible Publishers) Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Nashville, Tennessee: Holman Bible Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8054-2836-0. 
  92. 92.0 92.1 92.2 "Generation", Trent C. Butler, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 634–635.
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 Genesis 15:13-16 apparently equates 400 years with four generations.
    Numbers 32:11-13 may reckon a generation as 60 years; it included people 20 and above giving them 40 more years to die; or a generation may be interpreted as the 40 years of adulthood between ages 20 and 60.
    Job 42:16 states that after his tragedies Job lived 140 years and saw four generations, making a generation about 35 years.
    2 Kings 10:30 and 2 Kings 15:12 relate God's promise to Jehu that his sons would rule to the fourth generation, apparently meaning four sons: Jehu began ruling about 841 B.C., his first son Jehoahaz about 814 B.C., and in the fourth generation Zechariah of Israel died about 752 B.C.: five generations ruling less than 90 years, the four sons (four generations) ruling about 60 years, a generation averaging fewer than 20 years.
    The text of Psalms 49:11 (49:12) יב קִרְבָּם בָּתֵּימוֹ, לְעוֹלָם-- מִשְׁכְּנֹתָם, לְדוֹר וָדֹר; קָרְאוּ בִשְׁמוֹתָם, עֲלֵי אֲדָמוֹת. in the literal Hebrew expression "generation דור and generation דור " actually means in its most literal sense "through all generations" or "forever". In Numbers 10:8 "to your (his, their) generations" similarly means forever. This is a peculiarly Hebrew idiom.
    Source—"Generation", Trent C. Butler, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 634b.
    In Strong's Concordance, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary of the Old Testament, the sign × (multiplication) denotes a rendering in the KJV that results from an idiom peculiar to the Hebrew:
    "GENERATIONS
    ". . .
    "Psalm 49:11 and their dwelling places to all g.......1755.
    1755. דור dôre, dore; or (shortened) דר dôr, dore...× evermore, generation, [n-]ever, posterity."
  94. "slightly misleading translations of the original Hebrew". See
  95. 95.00 95.01 95.02 95.03 95.04 95.05 95.06 95.07 95.08 95.09 95.10 95.11 95.12 95.13 (David brought up the ark 1055 B.C.) 1055 B.C. to 1577 B.C. = 522 years. The ark had remained in the house of Abinadab 20 years back to the death of Eli 1055–1075, Eli judged Israel 40 years 1075–1115, Samson (20 years 1115–1135) and the Philistines (the same time period, but preceding him by 20 years 1135–1155) a total period of 40 years 1115–1155, Abdon 8 years 1155–1163, Elon 10 years 1163–1173, Ibzan 7 years 1173–1180, Jephthah 6 years 1180–1186, the Ammonites and Philistines 18 years 1186–1204, Jair 22 years 1204–1226, Tola 23 years 1226–1249, Abimelech 3 years 1249–1252, Gideon 40 years 1252–1292, Midian 7 years 1292–1299, the land rested after Deborah 40 years 1299–1339, Jabin 20 years 1339–1359, Shamgar and Ehud 80 years 1359–1439, Eglon 18 years 1439–1457, Othniel 40 years 1457–1497, Cushan-Rishathaim 8 years 1497–1505, a generation that did not know the LORD (zero 0 years, the Bible does not specify), the days of the elders who outlived Joshua (zero 0 years, the Bible does not specify), death of Joshua 110 years old back to Kadesh/wilderness of Paran (age 40?) 70 years (?) 1505–1575, Kadesh/wilderness of Paran to the Exodus 2 years 1575–1577. 1055 B.C. plus 522 years = 1577 B.C..
  96. 96.0 96.1 96.2 96.3 96.4 96.5 96.6 "4246 BC." Reckoning the years (beginning with the Exodus from Egypt as 1577 B.C.) in Egypt 430 years, Israel/Jacob (before 17 years in Egypt) 130 years, Isaac 60, Abraham 100, Terah 70, Nahor 29, Serug 30, Reu 32, Peleg 30, Eber 34, Shelah 30, Arpachshad 35, Shem 100 (2 years after the flood), Noah 503 (601 years old when the flood ended and Shem was 98—he was 503 years old when Shem was born—503 years), Lamech 182, Methuselah 187, Enoch 65, Jared 162, Mahalalel 65, Kenan 70, Enosh 90, Seth 105, Adam 130 = 2669 years back to 4246 B.C. (1577–4246).
  97. 97.0 97.1 97.2 97.3 Joseph at 17 years old was a mere "lad", a "boy" ( נער ). Joshua was a "young ( נער ) man". According to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary of the Old Testament, the word "lad" or "boy" (Genesis 37:2), and "young (man)" (Exodus 33:11), is a translation of Strong's number 5288 נער na'ar. It means an active boy from the age of infancy to adolescence, and by implication a servant—boy, child, lad, servant, young (man).
  98. 98.0 98.1 98.2 "Elder", Fred A. Grissom, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 472-473.
  99. 99.0 99.1 99.2 Conservative archaeologist Dr. Bryant G. Wood and other archaeologists in agreement with him support an "Early Date" for the Exodus c. 1446 B.C in contrast to those who support a "Late Date" in the 13th century (late 1200s B.C.). See article "Recent Research on the Date and Setting of the Exodus".
  100. "Conquest of Canaan", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 330–331.
  101. In the Bible the words "stricken in years" and "well stricken in years" (KJV), "advanced in years" (NRSV, NAB), "very old" (REB, JB), also "full of years" and "full of days", and "ancients", "elders", "seniors", are applied only to persons about 70 years old and upward. —See: Genesis 17:17; Genesis 18:11; Genesi 21:5; Genesis 24:1; Genesis 25:7-8; Genesis 35:28-29; Leviticus 19:32; Joshua 13:1Joshua 14:6-13 and Hebrews 7:7Joshua 23:1-13; Joshua 24:24-29; 2 Samuel 5:4-5 and 1 Kings 1:1; 1 Kings 2:10-11; 1 Chronicles 23:1; 1 Chronicles 29:26-27; Ezra 3:11-12; Job 42:12-17; Psalms 119:100; Jeremiah 19:1; Ezekiel 9:6; Daniel 7:9.
  102. Egyptian history references in this article are linked to When these sites have little or no information, the historical reference is (reluctantly) linked to
  103. "Tempest Stele". See articles
  104. "The Admonitions of Ipuwer". See
  105. Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, © 1966 Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America, published by Thomas Nelson Publishers for Ignatius Press, ISBN 0-89870-490-1.
  106. (1987, 1980, 1970 by the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C.) Saint Joseph Edition of The New American Bible. Catholic Book Publishing Co., New York, N.Y.. 
  107. A Biblical harmony is an hermeneutical method of analyzing parallel and often disparate accounts within the Bible in an attempt to resolve apparent conflicts and demonstrate its cohesive unity. See a New Testament example: HARMONY OF MT 24, MK 13, LK 21, 17 —zhinanpost.com
  108. As with the literalist reckoning of the Ussher Chronology, the dates associated with the literalist reckoning of the Seder 'Olam Rabbah (A.M.) should not be relied upon as fact. —Source: Jenkins, Everett, (The Creation: secular, Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, and Muslim perspectives: The Seder Olam Chronology, p. 330)
  109. Catholic Encyclopedia: Biblical Chronology.
  110. Clayton, Peter A., Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p. 42. Thames and Hudson, London, 2006. ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9.
  111. Malek, Jaromir, "The Old Kingdom" in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-19-280458-7, p. 88.
  112. See also
    World Iraq history: Lagash - 2500-2271 BC, 2144-2046 BC and
    Gudea, King of Lagash (around 2130 BC)
  113. See also Sargon of Akkad
  114. Dates of Sargon according to Sumerian King List. Kramer, S. Noah, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character, Chicago, 1963.
  115. See Victory Stele of Naram Sin
  116. Ur of the Chaldees. See also Ur
  117. See also Chedorlaomer jewishencyclopedia.com, Amraphel jewishencyclopedia.com, Siddim Valley (south of the Dead Sea) - Map of Ancient Israel (Old Testament Maps) bible-history.com
  118. See also Topical Bible: Zoar (biblehub.com)
  119. A firestorm is generated when a conflagration becomes so intense that the rising column of hot air over the burning area draws in violent winds of hurricane force that fan and intensify what then becomes a self-sustaining, uncontrollable blaze reaching temperatures of hundreds of degrees over the burning area: See also
    Major Meteor Showers (amsmeteors.org)
    The Tunguska Impact--100 Years Later - NASA Science (science.nasa.gov)
    The Fire-bombing of Dresden: An eye-witness account (timewitnesses.org)
    The Tokyo Fire Raids, 1945: The Japanese View (eyewitnesstohistory.com)
  120. The King James Version of Genesis 21:14 translates ילד yeled as "child". According to Strong's Concordance of the Bible Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary of the Old Testament (Strong's number 3206) this word also means "young man".
  121. "lad": According to Strong's Concordance of the Bible, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary of the Old Testament, number 5288. נער na'ar, a boy (as active) from the age of infancy to adolescence; by implication, a servant:—babe, boy, child, lad, servant, young (man). The same term is also applied (by interchange of gender) to a girl, a damsel, of similar latitude in age.
    Ishmael 17–20 years old by the reckoning in this table was also נער na'ar (Genesis 21:17-20), a "lad", a "boy", young (man), youth, when he and his mother Hagar were cast out after Isaac was weaned.
  122. See also Padan-aram (JewishVirtualLibrary.org from Britannica Encyclopedia) and Images for Padan-aram map
  123. Ashton, John F., PhD, and Down, David. Unwrapping the Pharaohs: How Egyptian Archaeology Confirms the Biblical Timeline p.84, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2006. ISBN 0890514682
  124. 124.0 124.1 Ra-amses / Rameses was the site of the new Hyksos capital (1638–1530 B.C.) called Avaris before they were driven out by the Theban pharaoh Ahmose I, the first pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who then established a fortress and settlement on this site. Ahmose I's successors, down to Thutmose III, built and used a large royal compound just south of this site, which was in use until the reign of Amenhotep II. However, Pharaoh Raamses II / Ramesses II also built near this site. Source: "Pithom and Rameses", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1301.
  125. See article Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (jewishencyclopedia.com)
  126. 126.0 126.1 126.2 "Hammurabi", Gary D. Baldwin and E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 708–710.
  127. Problems of Chronology: Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Syro-Levantine Region
  128. "Egypt", Daniel C. Browning, Jr. and Kirk Kilpatrick, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 463b–469.
  129. 129.0 129.1 129.2 129.3 129.4 129.5 129.6 Ryholt, Kim S. B., The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1800–1550 B.C., (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications) vol 20, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997. p. 192.
  130. See also Yaqub-Har pedegree (?)
  131. Ryholt, K. "The Date of Kings Sheshi and Ya'qub-Har and the Rise of the Fourteenth Dynasty", The Second Intermediate Period: Current Research, Future Prospects, edited by M. Maree, Orientalis Lovaniensis Analecta 192, Leuven, Peeters, 2010, pp. 109–126.
  132. 132.0 132.1 132.2 132.3 132.4 Thomas Schneider: Ancient Egyptian Chronology – Edited by Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, and David A. Warburton. Brill 2006. available online, scroll down to pp. 195/6 and footnote 135 for Schneider date 1658 B.C.. "Providing any exact figure for the total duration of the period of Dyn. 13–17 is impossible." (p. 195)
  133. See nomen of Pharaoh Wazad and Petrie, Flinders. (1897) A history of Egypt from the earliest times to the 16th dynasty —online text
  134. Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000) The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 148. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  135. 135.0 135.1 Institute for Biblical & Scientific Studies. Biblical Archaeology - Evidence of the Exodus from Egypt
  136. See also Wilderness of Paran (BiblePlaces.com) and Paran (JewishVirtualLibrary.org).
  137. See also Kadesh Barnea: Located at ancient El Beidha, 5 km north of Petra and The Madaba Map.
    See additional Images for Kadesh-barnea map
  138. The regnal years as recorded in Ancient Egyptian king lists are the basic foundation of Egyptian chronology as proposed by Egyptologists, and there is no certainty regarding their chronological accuracy. Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text (for example, the Turin King List), or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers (for example, the Abydos King List), even for a short period of Egyptian history. It is further complicated by occasional conflicting information on the same regnal period from different versions of the same text; thus, the Egyptian historian Manetho's history of Egypt is only known by extensive references to it made by subsequent writers, such as Eusebius and Sextus Julius Africanus and the dates for the same pharaoh often vary substantially depending on the intermediate source. Sources:
    Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, paperback 2006.
    Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2000.
    K. A. Kitchen, "The Chronology of Ancient Egypt", World Archaeology: Chronologies, 23, (1991), pages 202, 479–483
    James Breasted's dates are taken from his Ancient Records (first published in 1906), volume 1, sections 58–75.
    Verner, Miroslav. "Contemporaneous Evidence for the relative chronology of DYNS. 4 and 5", Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, and David A. Warburton (editors), (Leiden: Brill, 2006) pp. 124-8.
  139. See article Minoan eruption
  140. The account of Moses' death in the Book of Deuteronomy, among other texts in the Torah, suggests that Moses did not write the whole of what is now contained in the Five Books of Moses. —Source: "Deuteronomy, book of", Daniel I. Block, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 415–419, page 417a.
  141. See also Getting Archaeology Right at Ai and Is the Bible Wrong About the City of Ai in Joshua 7-8? (these articles defend the accuracy of the Bible.)
  142. See also The Burning of Hazor - Archaeology Magazine Archive
  143. John Garstang and Kathleen Kenyon and Carbon-dating—see article How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?. According to carbon-dating, Jericho (Jericho City IV) was destroyed between 1617 and 1530 B.C.. The site remained uninhabited (Joshua's curse ? Joshua 6:26) until the city was refounded in the 9th century B.C.. John Garstang determined that Jericho was destroyed by fire around 1400 B.C., corresponding to the conservative biblical dating of the Israelite conquest current at that time. Kathleen Kenyon's findings disagreed with Garstang and with the accepted biblical dating, and she dated the destruction and the city wall to a much earlier time, in the 1600–1500s, c. 1550. But she believed that the Exodus and the conquest under Joshua took place in the 1200s and declared that, since the city had already been long uninhabited through the entire 13th century, it was "impossible" that Jericho had been destroyed by Joshua according to the biblical account. "While critical scholars underline the conflict between archaeological data and the biblical conquest narrative, in reality there is no conflict here."—Karen Joines and Eric Mitchell.
    Source: "Jericho", Karen Joines and Eric Mitchell, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 885–888.
    Israeli-Canadian journalist Simcha Jacobovici (The Exodus Decoded, 2006) pointed out that if researchers of the future insisted that the American Civil War took place at the time of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States in the 1960s at the time of the Vietnam War, and then looked for evidence supporting occurrence of the Civil War at that time, they would find none, and the presidency of Abraham Lincoln would be regarded as only legendary. If chronological dating provided by a more literal reading of the Tanakh were taken seriously, then concrete archaeological evidence for the historical accuracy of the biblical text would become more evident: "It's staring them in the face, and they don't recognize it."
  144. See also
    Cushan-Rishathaim (biblicaltraining.org)
    Chushan-Rishathaim (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
    Cushan-rishathaim (jewishencyclopedia.com)
  145. See Images for Aram-Naharaim map
  146. "1498. The Exodus." Simcha Jacobovici coincidentally argues for a similar literalist date of c. 1500 B.C. without directly adverting to the arithmetically derived textually based chronological date used in this table. His use of extra-biblical archæologically dated evidence in support of his arguments for a 16th/15th century date for the Exodus has been criticised and rejected by a majority of mainstream researchers:
  147. See Hatshepsut (biography.com)
  148. Harmonizing the 300 years of Judges 11:4-28 back to the time of Israel in the wilderness, and the 450 years of Acts 11:19-20 as the period of time between Joshua and King Saul, is an apparent inconsistency which is resolved simply by proposing the speculative possibility that one or both of these numbers is/are figures of speech used by the speakers, and/or that many of the saving actions of the "governors" שופטים shoftim ("judges") in Israel could have occurred simultaneously or overlapped in time. This is not explicitly stated in the Book of Judges, which "plainly" relates their exploits solely as a sequential series of events, so that taking the texts literally, without recourse to the method of grammatico-historical exegesis, confronts uninstructed readers of the Bible with what appears to them to be an impossible inconsistency which can be unsettling.
  149. Eglon's Belly and Ehud's Blade: A Reconsideration
  150. New Evidence for Thutmose III as Exodus Pharaoh in 1446 BC ("Early Date").
  151. "Chronology of the Biblical Period", Dr. Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. and Dr. E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 293b.
  152. See "Error or forgery on the Stele of Merneptah, known as Israel Stele", Joseph Davidovits (davidovits.info)
    and Does the Merneptah Stele Contain the First Mention of Israel? (biblicalarchaeology.org)
    see online Standard Translation of the text of the Merneptah Victory Stele
  153. 153.0 153.1 153.2 1183 B.C.—from 1092 B.C. back to 1183 B.C., 2 generations plus 10 years. Counting back literally 2 generations, mechanically allotting the traditional 40 years each (total 80), from the birth of David reckoned as 1092 BC, literal count, plus 10 years according to Ruth 1:1 (total 90 years) = 1182 BC (1092 + 90), a time of famine during the historically documented Bronze Age collapse 1206–1150 B.C.. Such a literalist calculation is pure speculation and has no recognized historical value. The Ussher chronology places the famine in 1298 B.C.. The Book of Ruth is not dated by reference to a ruler or specific event, other than a famine. The totalled numbers of the years of the 2 generations (80 years) cannot be drawn from the letter of the text of the Bible; the Bible does not give the ages and years of the 2 generations, only the genealogy of Boaz, father of Obed (1st generation), the father of Jesse (2nd generation), the father of David. Many dismiss the genealogy in 4:18-22 as irrelevant. —Source: "Ruth, book of", Daniel I. Block, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1422–1424.
  154. See commentary Judges 19 - Gibeah's crime
    See also Images for Gibeah
  155. 155.0 155.1 155.2 155.3 155.4 155.5 The text of the manuscript, translation or version of the Bible being consulted will affect the calculation and tabulation of the years in a literalist chronology based on the Old Testament texts/translations of 1 Samuel 13:1. Saul's age when he began to reign and the number of years he reigned according to published texts vary and remain uncertain (the variant Bible versions in English are here abbreviated):
    Saul was 30 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned 42 years (1105–1063/2). NIV, NLT, NASB, HCSB, ISV, NIRV
    Saul was [30] years old when he began to reign, and he reigned [42] years (1105 ? – 1063/2). GOD'S WORD
    Saul was [30] years old when he began to reign, and he reigned [40] years (1103 ? – 1063/2). NET
    Saul was 30 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned (?) years (unknown). Hexaplar
    Saul was 40 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned 32 years (1095–1063/2). NLV
    Saul was 40 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned (?) years (unknown). ASV, WEB, Amplified (est.)
    Saul was 30 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned 2 years (1065–1063/2). ERV
    Saul was (?) years old when he began to reign, and he reigned 2 years (1065–1063/2). CEV, Darby, Complete Jewish Bible (chabad.org), with Rashi commentary (chabad.org), Latin Vulgate, Luther Bibel 1545, MT (Masoretic) and JPS (1917) Jewish Hebrew-English, NRSV (Oremus)
    Saul was a son/child of one (1) year in his reigning/when he became king/began to reign, and he reigned 2 years over Israel.
    DR, Jubilee Bible 2000, Wycliffe Bible, YLT
  156. 156.0 156.1 156.2 156.3 Compare 1 Samuel 14:18 in multiple English translations together.
    Bible versions based on the Masoretic Text (MT) state that "the ark" was with Saul and the people as they went into battle.
    Bible versions based on earlier Hebrew manuscripts, and the witness of the Septuagint and Vulgate translations of the Hebrew text predating the MT, state that "the ephod" was with Saul and the people as they went into battle—this reading is supported by the statement in the text (v. 19) that Saul told the high priest Ahijah "withdraw your hand" (from within the ephod).
    The possibility that after the death of Eli the ark was brought out of the house of Abinadab by Saul to go before the people in battle is only a speculation when the text of 1 Samuel 7:2 plainly states that the ark remained in the house of Abinadab in Kiriath-jearim for 20 years, "a long time", after the death of Eli.
    The possibility that Saul was king for 30, 28, 20 years (literal reckoning) as commander of 3,000 men of Israel (1 Samuel 13:2 and 1 Samuel 14:52) before and during the battle with the Philistines when the ark was captured appears unlikely, when 1 Samuel 4–8 does not mention Saul and only long afterward in chapter 8 do the elders of the people say to Samuel, "Give us a king."
  157. See Acts 13:21 multiple text comparison and commentaries (biblehub.com).
  158. 158.0 158.1 Acts 13:21. "...God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for 40 years." Saul was anointed king of Israel by the prophet Samuel long after the high priest Eli died (1 Samuel 4:10-8:10) "when Samuel became old" and Samuel was judge over Israel (1 Samuel 7:15-16). The subsequent 7 months after Eli died, and the 20-year period during which the ark of the covenant remained in the house of Abinadab after the death of Eli, until David removed it to Jerusalem, does not allow a literal 40-year reign after Eli died, plus a literal 7 years 6 months for David's reign over the house of Judah before he was crowned king over all Israel and Judah, after which he brought the ark up to Jerusalem: a total of at least 48 years 1 month. Taking literally the numerical data of 40 years at face value as presented by the letter of the text of Acts 13:21, together with the 20 years of 1 Samuel 7:2, plus the 7 years 6 months of 2 Samuel 5:4-5 after Saul died and before David brought the ark up to Jerusalem, Saul would thus have been king 28 years before the death of Eli when the Philistines captured the ark, returned it to Israel after 7 months, and it was placed in the house of Abinadab for 20 years: therefore (strictly according to a reading of the letter of the text) long after the death of Eli, when Samuel was old, Saul was anointed king and reigned 28 years before Eli died.
    This apparent paradox is resolved by literalist researchers using the literal letter of the text (letterism) as a beginning, and applying the historical-grammatical method of exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation, to uncover what they believe to be the real sensus literalis historicus, the true "literal sense" of the text—the actual meaning intended by the biblical author.
    See below Historical-grammatical method in Literalist Bible chronology
    See above Apparent textual inconsistencies
    See also Figure of speech and Hyperbole
    Sources:
    Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) n. 116
    Martin Anstey, Romance of Bible Chronology
    Edwin Thiele, Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings
  159. See "120 years" (!) in article Kiriath Jearim (BiblePlaces.com).
    Compare "twenty years" in Smith's Bible Dictionary: Kirjath-jearim
    and the parallel Bible translations of 1 Samuel 7:2 The ark remained at Kiriath Jearim a long time ... (biblehub.com)
  160. "one year old" —See The Pulpit Commentary: 1 Samuel 13.
  161. 161.0 161.1 Several literalist Bible translators present Saul as being one year old when he became king (1 Samuel 13:1):
    "Saul was a child of one year when he began to reign..." Douay-Rheims Bible
    "Saul was a son of one year when he became king..." Jubilee Bible 2000
    "Saul was a son of one year..." Wycliffe Bible
    "A son of a year [is] Saul in his reigning..." Young's Literal Translation
    See 1 Samuel 13:1—multiple translations.
    Some versions state in footnotes that the "Hebrew text is defective", and "The number is lacking in Heb."
    Some Bible footnotes and commentaries offer additional speculative interpretations of the meaning of "one year" according to what their authors as researchers see as the actual "literal sense" according to the rules of sound exegesis (for example, Douay-Rheims Bible, Young's Literal Translation).
  162. Psalm 150 and 151 —ellopos.net (English and Greek parallel text)
    Psalm 151 (with Adam Clarke's commentary) —piney.com.
    Psalm 151 Oremus NRSVAE. —biblegateway.com
  163. See also Ziklag (Bibleplaces.com)
    and Ziklag - Smith's Bible Dictionary - Bible Dictionary
  164. Hebrew text: RSVCE 2 Samuel 15:7 "And at the end of four years...footnote: "Gk Syr: Heb. forty".
  165. "forty years": according to the New American Standard Bible (NASB), King James Version (KJV), King James Version 2000 (KJV 2000/Jubilee 2000), American King James Version (AKJV), Douay-Rheims Bible (DR), Darby's Translation (DARBY), English Revised Version (ERV), Webster's Translation (WT), World English Bible (WEB), Young's Literal Translation (YLT)
  166. See also "Let us sing to the Lord": The Biblical Odes in the Codex Alexandrinus, James A. Miller, Marquette University and Notes on the Codex Alexadrinus Psalter, Rev. Symeon-Anthony Beck
  167. See also The Artistic Dimension: Literary Explorations of the Hebrew Bible, By Keith Bodner pp. 39ff. Confusing Micaiah and Micah. (books.google.com)
  168. 168.00 168.01 168.02 168.03 168.04 168.05 168.06 168.07 168.08 168.09 168.10 Kingdom of the Medes. See the following articles:
  169. 169.0 169.1 "Hosea", Billy K. Smith, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 784-785.
  170. 170.0 170.1 "Nineve or Nineveh", Edwin Yamauchi, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1192.
  171. 171.0 171.1 "Amos", Ray L. Honeycutt, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1192.
  172. "Tiglath-Pileser", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1595.
  173. 173.0 173.1 Many scholars divide the Book of Isaiah among 2 or more authors, but other scholars hold a single authorship. —Source: "Isaiah, book of", Harold Mosley and Steve Bond, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 837b–841b.
  174. 2 Kings 25:11-12, 2 Kings 25:21, 2 Kings 25:26; 2 Chronicles 36:20-21; Lamentations 1:3-5.
  175. "Micah", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1117.
  176. See also Shalmaneser V (thefreedictionary.com)
  177. See also different date Encyclopedia Britannica: Osorkon IV 777–750 B.C.
  178. 178.0 178.1 "Joel, book of", Alvin O. Collins, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 929–930.
  179. "Merodach-Baladan", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1108.
  180. "Assyria", Daniel C. Browning, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 136.
  181. "Esarhaddon", M. Stephen Davis, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 502.
  182. See Information on The Story of Ahikar
  183. 183.0 183.1 In the 1899 edition of the Douay-Rheims Bible, prefatory notes correlate the period of the Book of Judith with the reign of Manasseh and state that the writer of this book was "generally believed to be the high priest Eliachim (also called Joachim)".
  184. "Nahum, book of", Scott Langston, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1170.
  185. "Amon". According to Matthew 1:10 his Hebrew name was Amos.
  186. 186.0 186.1 186.2 186.3 186.4 186.5 The text of the manuscript, translation or version of the Bible being consulted will affect the calculation and tabulation of the resulting numbers of the years in a literalist chronology.
    Tobit died 102 years old according to online Douay-Rheims Bible 1899 (American edition)—in 637 B.C., during the reign of Josiah.
    And his son Tobiah died 82 years later 99 years old in 555 B.C..
    Tobit died 112 years old according to online New Revised Standard Version (OREMUS)—in 627 B.C., during the reign of Josiah.
    And his son Tobiah died 100 years later 117 years old in 527 B.C..
    Tobit died 112 years old according to the 4 versions in The Complete Parallel Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version NRSV, Revised English Bible REB, New American Bible NAB, New Jerusalem Bible NJB, © 1993, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    Tobit died 158 years old according to standard printed editions of RSVCE and KJV with Apocrypha Bibles—in 581 B.C., during the Exile, 31 years after Nineveh was destroyed. And his son Tobiah died 110 years later 127 years old in 471 BC.
  187. 187.0 187.1 http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Places/District/813588 Ancient Worlds
    https://wikis.engrade.com/threeempires/assyrianempire Three Empires
  188. 188.0 188.1 188.2 188.3 "Zephaniah 2.", "Zephaniah, book of", Paul L. Redditt and E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1706-1707.
  189. 189.0 189.1 "Nabopolassar", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1167.
  190. 190.0 190.1 190.2 "Ezekiel", Daniel I. Block, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 536–537.
  191. "Habakkuk", "Habakkuk, book of", John H. Tullock, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 696–594.
  192. "vanity". Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary of the Old Testament, 1892. הבל hebel, heh'-bel; or (rarely in the abstract) הבל hab-ale'; from 1891; emptiness or vanity; figuratively something transitory and unsatisfactory; often used as an adverb:— (in KJV from an idiom peculiar to the Hebrew) altogether, vain, vanity.
  193. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary of the Old Testament, 6950. קהל qahal, to convoke, assemble, gather. Qahal is the root of the word Qoheleth (Greek Ecclesiastes), translated "preacher", one who assembles or gathers the people.
  194. The Bible shows Josiah greater and wiser than Solomon, which is not the popular tradition. 2 Kings 23:25 and Sirach 49:1-5. Josiah's wisdom did not depart from him as it departed from Solomon in his old age. 1 Kings 11:4, 6, 11, 33; Ecclesiastes 2:9. Both Qoheleth (Hebrew) and Ecclesiastes (Greek) denote one who presides over an assembly, that is, a preacher or teacher (cf. 2 Kings 23:1-3 and 2 Chronicles 34:29-32). Traditionally, Solomon has been identified as the author of Ecclesiastes/Qoheleth, "but in modern times many, including a large number of conservative scholars" assign the book to an author and a period later than Solomon. The Bible does not state that Solomon ever read the Book of the Law, the Law of Moses, or the Torah, to the assembly of Israel. cf. 1 Kings 8 and 1 Kings 10:24, and 2 Chronicles 5:2-7:10 and 2 Chronicles 9:22-23Sources:
    "Josiah", M. Stephen Davis, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 954–956.
    "Ecclesiastes, book of", Stephen R. Miller, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 452b–455a.
  195. "Necho", "Nechoh", "Neco", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1181.
  196. Compare Romans 13:1-5, Galatians 1:7-8, 2 Thessalonians 2:15, Titus 3:1-2, Titus 3:10-11, Hebrews 13:17, 2 Peter 1:19-20, 2 Peter 3:16-17, 1 John 2:18-19 (KJV), 1 John 4:6, Jude 8, Jude 17-19 and Revelation 22:19. See also Heresy.
  197. See Catholic Encyclopedia: Nabuchodonosor
  198. Nabuchodonor, Book of Judith (DR) is placed here according to a letterist reading of the text which uncritically takes "Nabuchodonosor" as one of the forms of the name of Nebuchadnezzar II (as noted in the Douay-Rheims preface to Judith, and as used in Baruch 1:11-12 Douay-Rheims), also called Nebuchadrezzar in the books of Jeremiah and Ezekiel; just as Tiglath-pileser is also called Tiglath-pilneser and Pul, and Azariah king of Judah is also called Uzziah, and Jehozadak the high priest is called Jozedech and Jozadak in 1 Chronicles (6:14-15), Ezra and Nehemiah. —Source: articles "Jehozadak", "Tiglath-Pileser", "Uzziah", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 879, 1595, 1644.
  199. See also United States Conference of Catholic Bishops: Baruch — introduction
  200. See A Historical Commentary on the Book of Judith, by Damien Mackey, March 2003—the author identifies Holofernes with Esarhaddon.
  201. The earlier Assyrian captivity. Hebrew Tales: The Story of Judith, University of California (pages.ucsd.edu)
  202. The prefatory introduction to the Book of Judith in the Douay-Rheims Bible says that the sacred writer of the book is generally believed to be the high priest Eliachim, also called Joachim (Joakim). The text of Judith in the Douay-Rheims renders Joakim as "Eliachim". Judith 4:5-6, 10; 15:9. See multiple versions of Judith 4:5/4:6:
    CEB Joakim,
    DR Eliachim,
    KJV 1611 Ioacim,
    KJV 1769 Joacim,
    NABRE Joakim,
    NRSV Joakim,
    RSV Jo'akim,
    RSVCE Jo'akim,
    Vulgate ch. 4 (see v.5) Eliachim,
    Septuagint (LXX) ch. 4 scroll down (see v.6) Joacim.
    It is not impossible that Joakim/Eliakim/Eliachim the high priest, son of Hilkiah the high priest, as a high-ranking member of the court of Judah, should be appointed by God to also function as master of the palace, steward and prime minister of the country, chief among those charged with overseeing and directing the welfare of the people. He did not need to issue orders in the name of the king or consult with him for permission to act. It is not strange that the ineffective and vacillating King Zedekiah is never mentioned in the Book of Judith. See Isaiah 22:15-25., Zechariah 3:1-7, and Zechariah 6:9-14.
    Joakim exercised religious and military authority comparable to that of Jonathan in Maccabean times (see 1 Maccabees 10:18–21)
  203. "Hophra", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 781.
  204. The prophetic author of Obadiah in verses 10-14 refers to the past. The book itself belongs to the early postexilic period. —Source: "Obadiah 10.", "Obadiah, book of", Leslie C. Allen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1204b-1205.
  205. "Jeshua 3.", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 898-899.
  206. "Lamentations, book of", David K. Stabnow, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1008.
  207. See Gill's Exposition of the the Entire Bible: Jeremiah 41
  208. "Johanan 1.", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 931.
  209. Text of Ascension of Isaiah online (earlychristianwritings.com)
  210. There has been some debate as to when the second siege of Jerusalem took place. Though there is no dispute that Jerusalem fell the second time in the summer month of Tammuz (Jeremiah 52:6), William F. Albright dates the end of Zedekiah's reign (and the fall of Jerusalem) to 587 BC, whereas Edwin R. Thiele offers 586 B.C., and Bernard Grun proposes 581 B.C. (The Timetables of History).
    • Thiele, Edwin, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2nd ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, ISBN 978-0-8254-3825-7.
    • Hughes, Jeremy, Secrets of the Times (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1990) 229.
    • McFall, Leslie, "A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles", Bibliotheca Sacra 148 (1991) 45.
    • Strand, Kenneth, "Thiele's Biblical Chronology as a Corrective for Extrabiblical Dates", Andrews University Seminary Studies 34 (1996) 310, 317.
    • Finegan, Jack, Handbook of Biblical Chronology (rev. ed.; Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1998) 257–259.
    • Young, Rodger C., "When Did Jerusalem Fall?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 47 (2004) 21–38.
  211. 211.0 211.1 "Babylon", Daniel C. Browning, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 155–160.
  212. "Evil-merodach, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 521.
  213. 213.0 213.1 "Cyrus", Mike Mitchell, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 377b-378.
  214. Bible History: Belshazzar & Darius the Mede
  215. "Darius 1. Darius the Mede", T. J. Betts, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 389–390.
  216. "Haggai, book of", E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 701.
  217. "Sheshbazzar", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 1485.
    "Zerubbabel", Paul L. Redditt, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1708–1709.
  218. "Darius 2. Darius I", T. J. Betts, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 389-390.
    "Persia", Albert F. Bean, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1279-1280.
  219. "Haggai", "Haggai, book of", E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 701–703.
  220. See also Topical Bible commentary: Joiakim (biblehub.com) and Holman Bible Dictionary: Jeshua
  221. "Zechariah 18." "Zechariah, book of", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1701–1702.
  222. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 898-899
    "Joiakim", p. 940.
  223. 223.0 223.1 "Obadiah", Leslie C. Allen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p.1205.
  224. "Nabateans", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1166–1167.
  225. See also Behistun Inscription (crystalinks.com)
    History of Iran: Words of Darius the Great in Biston's Inscription
    Full Transcription and Translation of the Behistun Inscription
  226. "Ahasuerus", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 37.
    See also "Persia" pp. 1279-1280, and "Xerxes" p. 1694.
  227. Quartz Hill School of Theology: Book of Obadiah
  228. "Malachi, book of", E. Ray Clendenen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1070-1071.
  229. See Topical Bible: Cupbearer—multiple commentaries. —biblehub.com
  230. "Jeshua 3.", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 898-899
    "Joiakim", p. 940, "Eliashib 3." p. 477, "Joiada 2." p. 940b, "Jonathan 11. 12." p. 944
  231. New American Bible, Book of Job, prefatory notes. Catholic commentary on Job, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (usccb.org)
  232. Truth Behind Reality: The Biblical Book of Job – Is It Old or Real Old? Posted on March 29, 2011
  233. Jewish Encyclopedia: The Book of Job
  234. Encyclopedia Phoenicia: Sabaeans (phoenicia.org)
    Encyclopaedia Britannica: Sabaeans.
  235. THE SABAEAN INSCRIPTIONS AT ADI KAWEH–EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE NARRATIVE OF THE SHEBA-MENELIK CYCLE OF THE KEBRA NAGAST (earliest datings 1400 B.C.)
  236. The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, June 1, 1962, by Charles F. Pfeiffer (Editor), Everett F. Harrison (Editor) 1552 pages. Publisher: Moody Publishers; 1st edition (June 1, 1962) ISBN 0802496954 ISBN 978-0802496959.
  237. Jewish Encyclopedia: Job
  238. LaVista Church of Christ: Which Book is the Oldest in the Bible? Posted November 3, 2007 (lavistachurchofchrist.org)
    The Scroll Eaters: The Oldest Book: Job 1–5. Posted on January 24, 2011 (thescrolleaters.wordpress.com)
    Job the man – Web encyclopedia – Christian answers.net
  239. The Catholic Church is the world's largest Christian body comprised of several distinct "Rites". The Catholic Church (Latin Rite) is the largest religious body in the United States, with over 60 million adherents (4 times as large as the second largest church, the Orthodox).
    “The Global Catholic Population,” © 2011, Pew Research Center.
    The Largest Catholic Communities
    The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church, and also referred to as the Orthodox Church and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, most of whom live in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Russia.
    The Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Church. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese Of America (1983). Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
    Christianity:Basics:Eastern Orthodox Church Denomination. about.com. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
    Christianity. Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
  240. See the essay "A Defense of the Protestant position on the Apocrypha", by Jim Carroll. (Presbyterian) —jiminger.com.
    See the essay Why Luther and the Protestant Reformers Removed Books From the Biblewhen the page comes up with photo-image of Orthodox Study Bible, scroll down to the essay immediately below it.
  241. See Percentage of Christians in Protestant Denominations (29.5%).
  242. 242.0 242.1 "Alexander the Great", Lynn Jones, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 45.
  243. 243.0 243.1 See literalist interpretations of the four kingdoms of Daniel:
    To the four succeeding world kingdoms, Babylonian, Median, Persian, and Greek, is opposed the heavenly kingdom of God and the kingdom of God’s people on earth—and then the triumphant removal of the yoke of Greek dominion and oppression (the fourth kingdom) from off the Jews and the rise of the independent theocratic Jewish high-priestly Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea governed by the high priest and the Second Temple, from "the first year of Simon" called Thassi, the high priest and commander and ethnarch of the Jews, to Joseph and Mary and the birth of Jesus Christ the Son of God. According to this view the kingdom of the Jews (of God), after the death of Judas Maccabeus and his brother Jonathan, is ruled by the high priests of the line of Aaron, "sons of men", in the name of God until the angel's annunciation to Mary and Joseph of the incarnation in her womb of the perfect high priest and king, Jesus, "one like a son of man". Others combine the two empires of the Medes and the Persians as one kingdom or empire, to present the Roman empire as the fourth kingdom: Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Greek, Roman. Explanations of the rise of Republican and Imperial Pagan Rome as the complete fulfillment of the fourth empire of Daniel have proven to be difficult and unsatisfactory for some, while all of the Reformers agreed with Martin Luther that it must be so.
  244. "Jaddua", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p. 864b.
    See also Jaddua (jewishvirtuallibrary.org) and Jaddua (biblehub.com)
  245. 245.0 245.1 Daniel 11:3-44. When read literally these verses plainly describe the dynastic histories of the Ptolemies in Egypt (the king of the south) and the Seleucids in Syria (the king of the north), the two divisions of the Hellenistic empire that were of interest to the author (verse 6). In verses 10-20 is described the struggle between the two kingdoms for control of Palestine, in which the Seleucids were eventually victorious. The reference in verse 20 is to Seleucus IV, who sent Heliodorus to plunder the temple treasure in Jerusalem (2 Maccabees 3). Finally, verses 21-45 describe the career of Antiochus IV and his persecution. —Source: New American Bible, Revised Edition, Daniel 11:5-45 "The Hellenistic Age", footnotes. —Rulers and battles are listed individually by name with dates.
  246. See also Onias I (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  247. A'reus I. (Ἁρεύς) Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities edited William Smith (1870) page 279. New American Bible, 1 Maccabees 12:7, footnote.
  248. New American Bible, Daniel 11:6, footnote.
  249. Text of the Letter of Aristeas, R.H. Charles-Editor. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1913
  250. New American Bible, Sirach 50:1, footnote; 1 Maccabees 12:7, footnote. "son of Jochanan", Onias I, high priest from 323 to 300 or 290 B.C.
    See also X. Simon the Just (sacred-texts.com)
  251. New American Bible, 2 Maccabees 3:1-3, footnotes. Onias III high priest, 196–175 BC; Seleucus IV Philopator, reigned 187–175 BC.
  252. Douay-Rheims Bible 1899 American edition, Esther 11:1, footnote
  253. The Saint Joseph Edition of the New American Bible © 1986, 1970 by the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Washington, D.C., Esther chapter F, 10
  254. See maps
  255. New American Bible, 2 Maccabees 4:23, footnote.
  256. New American Bible, 2 Maccabees 3–4, footnotes. The gymnasium where the youth exercised naked lay in the Tyropoeon Valley to the east of the citadel, directly next to the temple on its eastern side.
  257. New American Bible, 2 Maccabees 5:1, footnote. "168 B.C."
  258. New American Bible, 1 Maccabees 1:54, footnote.
  259. Map of Ancient Israel: Modein (bible-history.com)
  260. See also Hasideans (newadvent.org)
  261. See also Judas Machabeus (newadvent.org)
  262. Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews: How Judas Overthrew the Forces of Apollonius and Seron and Killed the Generals of their Armies Themselves (biblehub.com)
  263. Lysias (Syrian chancellor) Lysias (Greek: Λυσίας; died 162 BC) was a 2nd-century Seleucid General and governor of Syria under the Seleucid Empire.
  264. Ptolemy I, King of Commagene, an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period.
  265. Nicanor (died 161 BC) was a Syrian-Seleucid General under Antiochus Epiphanes and Demetrius Soter.
  266. Gorgias was a Syrian-Seleucid General of the 2nd century BC, in the service of Antiochus Epiphanes.
  267. Bacchides,(Greek: Βακχίδης) was a Hellenistic Greek general; friend of the Syrian-Greek king Demetrius; and "ruler in the country beyond the river"—Euphrates.
  268. Psalms 48:1-2; Psalms 50:2
  269. The Zagros Mountains (Zagros Folded Zone) between the Caspian Sea and Babylon is where Antiochus IV Epiphanes died according to 1 Macc. 6 and 2 Macc. 9, and Daniel 11:45. "between the sea and the glorious holy mountain...he shall come to his end with none to help him."—"...among the mountains in a strange land." (See Map: Zagros Folded Zone: Zagros Mountains) A majority of Biblical scholars maintain that Daniel wrongly prophesied that Antiochus would die in Palestine. Daniel's prophesy of the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes "among the mountains in a strange land" (2 Maccabees 9:28; Daniel 11:44-45) is controverted. Daniel 11:45 does not specify which "sea". Some students of the Bible [source: "Daniel", S. Miller, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary] identify Antiochus literally with Daniel 11:21-44, which accords with the description of his policies and actions in 1 and 2 Maccabees. 1 Maccabees 6:1-16 and 2 Maccabees 9:1-16, 28 shows that Antiochus died travelling on the great east-west highway (the Silk Road) running through Persia, northeast of Judea and Mount Zion and southwest of the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, in the mountainous Zagros region of Persia between Ecbatana and Babylon. It is evident that he did not die in Palestine between Mount Zion and the Mediterranean Sea. Traditionally, "the sea" and "the great sea" in the Bible is the Mediterranean (Joshua 1:4; Joshua 9:1; Joshua 15:12 and Joshua 15:47; Joshua 23:4; Isaiah 11:11; Jeremiah 25:19-22; Ezekiel 47:19; Daniel 7:2-3; compare Joel 2:20 "eastern sea" and "western sea", and Micah 7:12 "from sea to sea"). This is the understanding of a majority of Old Testament Biblical scholars such as Choon-Leong Seow (C. L. Seow) [Daniel, 2003, Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, Kentucky, ISBN 978-0-664-25675-3], and John J. Collins, Peter W. Flint, and others [The Book of Daniel: Volume 1 Composition and Reception, 2000, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-11675-7] who hold that Daniel 11:45 refers to the mountains of Judea between Mount Zion and the Mediterranean Sea, or more specifically to Mount Zion, and conclude that the prophesy that Antiochus would die in Palestine "is totally inaccurate" since he died in Persia. Bible translations of this passage differ: some have Antiochus pitching his pavilion "between the seas", others have it "on the glorious holy mountain", while others more literally have it "between the glorious holy mountain and the sea" (see variant translations at Daniel 11:45). The conclusion of most Old Testament scholars is that the account in Daniel 11 is completely accurate through verse 44, but wrong in verse 45, and therefore it must have been completed near the end of the reign of Antiochus but before his death in December 164, or at least before news of it reached Jerusalem. But this scholarly reading of "the sea" as the Mediterranean, and those translations having Antiochus' pavilion "on/in the glorious holy mountain (Zion)" in Palestine, are simply dismissed as wrong by a literalist plain reading of the Biblical text (context) as it relates to the death of Antiochus among the mountains of Persia "in a strange land" between the Caspian Sea and Mount Zion. —Sources:
    "Mediterranean Sea", Philip Lee, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1097–1098.
    "Daniel, book of", Stephen R. Miller, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 386–388.
    "Antiochus", Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 76–77.
    New American Bible, Daniel 11:5-45 and footnote; 1 Maccabees 6:1 and footnote; 2 Maccabees 9:1-28 and footnote.
  270. "unsealed." If the Book of Daniel had not been unsealed we should know nothing of its contents to this day, according to a letterist reading of the plainly explicit meaning of Daniel 12:4 and 9, because the book is sealed "even to the time of the end", "for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end", just as the heaven-sent messenger said. KJV. According to this letterist reading, the "time of the end" had occurred, because the book was opened and its words could finally be read, even as we read the Book of Daniel today in the Bible. (2200 years later.) See Isaiah 29:11-12
    A literalist reading, in contrast to a letterist reading, is able (with caution) to see the "time of the end" as perhaps the end of the political and military dominion of the gentiles over Judah and the establishment of an independent theocratic government of the jewish high priest officially acting as the ruler of the people of God in the name of the one true God according to the Torah, until the days of Joseph and Mary. The words given to Daniel, and written and sealed up by him long before the events had taken place, have been proven true.
    A third reading (literalist) of the meaning of the words of Daniel holds that, even if they can be read, their meaning remains veiled and sealed away from our understanding, not opened to us (Luke 24:45; 2 Corinthians 3:12-16; Acts 1:7), and, according to this reading, their meaning will remain so sealed until the last day, until the parousia, until the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Literalists will not listen to people who claim to know the exact hour and day of the time of the end. Matthew 24:36; Mark 13:32-33; Luke 12:40.
    All this being said, it remains that a letterist reading of the plainly explicit words of the text places the open reading, publication and distribution of copies of the unsealed book in the historical period to which the earliest extant manuscripts can be traced, at the time of the Maccabees (which has nothing to do with when it was originally written), and therefore, on this basis alone, its "unsealed" placement chronologically belongs here in the table at that time.
    See Associates for Biblical Research: New Light on the Book of Daniel From the Dead Sea Scrolls.
    See also definition: "posthumous (example: posthumously published)".
  271. The canon of the Jewish Bible lists the Book of Daniel among the Ketuvim (Writings), not among the Nevi'im (Prophets), because the rabbinical authorities counted it as having been written after the time of Ezra. See Canons of the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Encyclopedia: Daniel, book of.
  272. See also Alcimus (newadvent.org)
  273. See Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 12:11
  274. See also Jonathan. (4.) Jonathan (Apphus). (newadvent.org)
  275. New American Bible, 1 Maccabees 10:21, footnote.
  276. Kasher, Aryeh. Jews, Idumaeans, and Ancient Arabs: Relations of the Jews in Eretz-Israel with the nations of the frontier and the desert during the Hellenistice and Roman era (332 70 CE), by Aryeh Kasher. 1988 J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), P.O. Box 2040, D-7400 Tübingen, Germany. ISBN 3161452402.
    Zabdiel, also Zabeilus (various Greek manuscripts of Josephus have the spellings Ζάβιλoς, Ζάβηλoς, Ζάβιλoς). He is also called δυνάστης, tribal head/leader. Diodorus Siculus (XXXII, 9-11) says he was murdered by two of his officers. He calls him Diocles, possibly his Greek name.
  277. 277.0 277.1 Parthian Media. See Parthian Empire (iranchamber.com), Parthian Empire (ancient.eu), Media, Persia, Parthia, and Irân (friesian.com), and Parthian kings (livius.org)
  278. See Hasmoneans: John Hyrcanus I, in article The Machabees (newadvent.com)
  279. New American Bible, The Book of Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Foreword, according to footnote 2: "Thirty-eighth...Euergetes: 132 BC. The reference is to Ptolemy VII, Physkon Euergetes II (170–163; 145, 117 B.C.)"
  280. New American Bible, 1 Maccabees 16:23-24, footnote.
  281. Saint Joseph Edition of The New American Bible, copyright 1987, 1980, 1970 by Catholic Book Publishing Co., New York, N.Y. The Book of Wisdom, prefatory notes, page 750.
  282. Saint Joseph Edition of The New American Bible, copyright 1987, 1980, 1970 by Catholic Book Publishing Co., New York, N.Y. The Book of Judith, prefatory notes, page 485.
  283. The Book of Judith is an oblique parabolic tale of the Maccabean triumph over the hostile forces of the enemies of God: Judith beheaded Holofernes and Judas Maccabeus beheaded Nicanor. "According to this view, Judith was meant to be the female counterpart of Judas Maccabeus, leader of the revolt." Book of Judith (biblical literature) – Encyclopedia Britannica
    See Judith 14:11:
    "As soon as it was dawn they hung the head of Holofernes on the wall..." (RSVCE)
    See 2 Maccabees 15:35-37:
    "...he hung Nicanor's head from the citadel, a clear and conspicuous sign to every one of the help of the Lord.... And from that time the city has been in the possession of the Hebrews." (RSVCE)
    See Judith 16:25:
    "And no one ever again spread terror among the people of Israel in the days of Judith, or for a long time after her death."
    See Hasmoneans.
  284. See also Deuterocanonical (newadvent.org) and The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  285. Aristobulus II (son of Alexander Jannaeus [who ruled 103–76 B.C.] son of John Hyrcanus). It is unlikely that the earlier Aristobulus I is indicated, who imprisoned his mother, killed his brother, and ruled less than one year 104–103 B.C. as ethnarch and high priest. Ant. 13:11:1–3 (§§301–317).
  286. Nanea. See Nanaya (behindthename.com) and The Melammu Project. The Heritage of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East: Nanaya in Syria and Mesopotamia (aakkl.helsinki.fi)
  287. Mahlon H. Smith states that Antiochus X Eusebes died fighting the Parthian Empire (which included Persian territory).
    See Antiochus X Eusebes entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith and Antiochus X Eusebes (livius.org)
  288. Some scholars (The New American Bible for example) believe that the Antiochus referred to in this text of 2 Macc. 1:14 was Antiochus IV Epiphanes: "1, 14-17: A different account of the death of Antiochus IV is given in 2 Mc 9, 1-29 and another variant account in 1 Mc 6, 1-16. The writer of this letter [2 Macc. 1:10–2:18 one copy to Aristobulus in Jerusalem, one copy to the Jews in Egypt] probably heard a distorted rumor of the king's death. This fact and other indications show that the letter was written very soon after Antiochus IV died, hence in 164 B.C. —New American Bible, 2 Maccabees 1:14–17, footnote.
    As with the text of Daniel 11:45, a literalist interpretation of 2 Maccabees rejects the scholarly view of a "distorted rumor" in favor of an "inerrant" reading that takes the narrative as an accurate report, and therefore as not referring to the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, but to the actual death of another Antiochus who was slain by Parthians in the (Syrian) region of Persia/the Parthian Empire in the temple of Nanaya. The extra-biblical evidence cited by Mahlon H. Smith and others regarding the "official" circumstances of the death of Antiochus X tends to support this literalist view, as being an ancient historical revisionist account written to cover up the truth of his humiliating and scandalous death as recorded in the Bible, as being instead the death of a king in the midst of a battle against his Parthian enemy, but this is currently a minority opinion.
  289. The Construction of Herod's Temple: Rebuilding the Second Temple (bible-history.com)
  290. The numerical value of the Hebrew letters of David DWD דוד is fourteen. Daleth ד = 4 Waw/Vau ו = 6 Daleth ד = 4 (4 + 6 + 4 = 14). Introduction to Hebrew numerics
  291. Critics of the genealogy of Jesus in Matthew point out that the numbers of the generations from David "until the carrying away into Babylon" as "14 generations", and from the "carrying away into Babylon unto Christ" as "14 generations", do not add up.
    • They do not count Mary as the thirteenth generation, and they point to the 4 generations between Manasseh, the 14th from David, and Salathiel son of Jechoniah, as omitted: Amon (son of Manasseh) 1, Josiah 2, Jehoiakim 3, Jechoniah 4. A letterist count of these generations according to the literal letter of the text as among the number of the generations from David to Jechoniah father of Salathiel gives a total of 18 generations, not 14. Also, a letterist count including these 4 unlisted generations in the lineage from Manasseh the 14th from David to Christ (and excluding Mary) gives a total of 17 generations, not 14.
    • However, the number of generations from David unto the carrying away of Manasseh son of Hezekiah into Babylon, as the first of Judah's generation to be "carried away to Babylon", is 14 generations: (after David) Solomon 1, Rehoboam 2, Abiah 3, Asa 4, Jehoshaphat 5, Joram 6, Ahaziah 7, Joash 8, Amaziah 9, Azariah 10, Jotham 11, Ahaz 12, Hezekiah 13, Manasseh 14. Then about that period of time in Israel's history, after the beginning of the "carrying away into Babylon", after Manasseh repented and returned to Jerusalem Manasseh begot Amon who begot Josiah who begot Johanan, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah and Jechoniah (Shallum), brothers, and Jehoiakim begot Jechoniah who begot Zedekiah and his brothers (and sons) "about the time they were carried away to Babylon". And after they were carried away into Babylon, Jechoniah begot Zedekiah and his brother Assir, and his sons Salathiel and Machiram and Pedaiah, Shenazar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and the sons of Pedaiah were Zerubbabel and Shimei (1 Chronicles 3). All these are "brothers" of Jechoniah in Israel of the house of David and clan of Jesse, and these are the whole generation of the "carrying away into Babylon", as represented by his name, from Amon through Jechoniah to his sons. Jechoniah is thus representative of the Exile. That entire generation from Manasseh through Jechoniah is not counted as one of the preceding or succeeding generations "from the carrying away into Babylon to the Christ.
    • The critics who fault Matthew's count of the generations after Jechoniah claim that Matthew lists only 13 generations from after the time of the carrying away into Babylon to the Christ. Apparently Mary is excluded from their reckoning of the generations because Joseph is "the husband of Mary", not her father, so they make her an uncounted member of Joseph's 12th generation from Jechoniah, and make Jesus the 13th generation to prove the text of every extant manuscript of the Gospel According to Matthew is defective. For example, the footnote to Matthew 1:17 in the New Testament of The New American Bible (NAB) 1986, page 11, says, "...the hypothesis of a slip not on the part of Matthew but of a later scribe seems likely." The "slip" of a single scribe as being responsible for misleading all of the scribes among those who reproduced and distributed to the churches the text of Matthew's Gospel during the lifetime of Matthew seems to be a highly unlikely hypothesis. (Eusebius Pamphilus, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, XXIV. The Order of the Gospels, translated C. F. Cruse, 1874, George Bell and Sons; translated Kirsopp Lake, 1926, 1949...1998, Loeb Classical Library .)
    • Matthew does not count from Manasseh the 14th generation from David to the Christ. He counts from the time of Jechoniah "when they were brought to Babylon", and he includes Mary as a whole generation younger than Joseph: (after Jechoniah) Salathiel 1, Zerubbabel 2, Abiud 3, Eliakim 4, Azor 5, Sadoc 6, Achim 7, Eliud 8, Eleazar 9, Matthan 10, Jacob 11, Joseph 12, Mary 13, Jesus the Christ 14. The numbers do add up.
  292. First sighting October 8, 12 B.C. in the eastern sky, after sunset. The observations of Halley's Comet in Chinese History, by W. S. Tsu. Harvard University, 1934. page 192
    The apparition of 12 B.C. was recorded in the Book of Han by Chinese astronomers of the Han Dynasty who tracked it from August through October. G. W. Kronk. "1P/Halley" Vol. 1, page 14. cometography.com..
  293. "po-h'sing". Mark Kidger, The Star of Bethlehem: an astronomer's view. (October 18, 1999) Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540. 300 pages. ISBN 0691058237 ISBN 978-0691058238. Chapter 4. Halley's Comet and Other Red Herrings. page 73 ff. Chapter 9. Is the Answer Written in Chinese? page 219 ff.
  294. See also The Gospel of Luke: A Commentary on the Greek Text, by I. Howard Marshall. The Birth of Jesus, page 103. (November 14, 1978) Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids/Cambridge. ISBN 0802835120 ISBN 978-0802835123.
  295. See the following articles:
  296. The hour of darkness: about 3 A.M. according to the ancient traditions of many cultures, the hour when most people die at night, when physiological human vitality temporarily ebbs, and when hostile military forces favor launching a sudden night attack. See five distinct points of view sharing similar common ground on the time of the hour of darkness:
  297. See discussion in the following three articles:
  298. Compare archaeological numberings of the reigns of the kings by conservative archaeologist Dr. Edwin R. Thiele using Historical-grammatical and Historical-critical methods which legitimately support the historical veracity of a literalist biblical chronology:
  299. Professor, senior academic staff, Department of Biblical Studies, Faculty of Humanities, Haifa
    Most ancient Hebrew biblical inscription deciphered
  300. The Old Testament in Light of the Archaeological Evidence
    "K. A. Kitchen and Minimalism" By Charles David Isbell, Director of Jewish Studies, Louisiana State University
  301. "afflatus" Latin (literally) "inspired by the" [Holy Spirit].
  302. "as plainly understood by the ordinary reader" —This is a "letterist" form of what is often called "reader-response criticism" applied to the Bible.
    See especially the following:
  303. See especially multiple translations of 2 Peter 3:16.
  304. "The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church" Text and Commentary; ed. Joseph A. Fitzmeyer; Subsidia Biblica 18; Rome: Editrice Pontificio Institutio Biblico, 1995. See esp. p. 26, "The historical-critical method is the indispensible method for the scientific study of the meaning of ancient texts." Document, Pontifical Biblical Commission
  305. Terry, Milton S. (1974), Biblical Hermeneutics: a treatise on the interpretation of the Old and New Testaments, Zondervan Pub. House, Grand Rapids, Mich. page 205.
  306. "Bible, methods of study", Robert H. Stein, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 207–211.
  307. "historical-critical". Historical-critical method of biblical interpretation: See especially
  308. "Scandal".
    See the Evangelical point of view: See the Roman Catholic point of view:
  309. The History Channel. Mysteries of the Bible Season One: "Jesus: Holy Child. 4. The Virgin Birth" A&E television production, original airdate 24 April 1994.
  310. See four articles
  311. See Literalist commentaries on Revelation 22:18 and Literalist commentaries on Deuteronomy 4:2 (biblehub.com).
  312. see also Deuteronomy 5:32; Deuteronomy 17:11 and Deuteronomy 17:20; Deuteronomy 27:26
  313. The Samaritan Pentateuch text has Mount Gerizim as the place to build the Temple of the LORD. Because the text of Deuteronomy 17:20 says "You shall not add to the word which I command you..." the Samaritans do not accept the rest of the books of the Bible as the inspired word of God, but according to their letterist reading of this text see them as the false additions of men. Their community has remained small (withered) according to the words of Jesus John 15:6.
  314. Many conservative Christians see "the words of the prophesy of this book" as referring not solely to the Book of Revelation alone but to the whole canon of the books of the Bible as the one book of the words of prophesy spoken by the Holy Spirit, God. On the basis of this interpretation the Protestant Reformers accused the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church of having added books to the Bible in the 4th century, and Catholic and Orthodox leaders accused Protestants of taking away whole books and parts of other books from the Bible of the Apostles and the Ancient Christian Church. In response to the controversy, in the Catholic Council of Trent, the Catholic Church declared an end to all debate in the Church regarding the canonical status of particular books of Scripture, by dogmatically listing the canon of the Bible "as read in the Church". See Apocrypha and Apocrypha Books - King James Bible Online.
  315. A recent example is found in the retirement of Pope Benedict XVI as the living "pope emeritus", with the subsequent election of Pope Francis while he lived.
  316. Significant numbers include 7, 49, 70, 12, 24, 72, 12,000, 144,000, 3, 4, 40, 318, 666. "Any interpretation based on gematria must be treated with care; such interpretation always remains speculative." — Source: "Number systems and number symbology", Joel F. Drinkard, Jr., Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, pp. 1199–1201.
  317. See Guide for the Perplexed, by Moses Maimonides, Friedländer tr. (1904), at sacred-texts.com.
  318. Kitchen, Kenneth (2003), On the Reliability of the Old Testament, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids and Cambridge. Preface, pp. xiii–xiv. ISBN 0-8028-4960-1.
  319. Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2.  p. 643.
  320. Ramm, Bernard (1970). Protestant Biblical Interpretation, Baker Book House, p. 45. ISBN 0-8010-7600-5.

See also

External links

—See, for example, Scofield's Introduction to Genesis



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The original conception of this article finally realized and completed Wednesday 3 December 1 week of Advent + 2014. All honor to God.