Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife

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Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. (1992) contains the classic test of "injury of fact" that is an essential aspect of standing.

Under this test, to establish "injury in fact" the plaintiff must show:[1]

(1) an actual or imminent invasion of plaintiff's constitutionally cognizable interest;
(2) that this invasion is causally connected with the challenged conduct; and
(3) a harm that can be redressed by a favorable decision.


  1. 504 U.S. at 560-62