Maurycy Gottlieb (Drohobych 1856 - Kraków 1879) was a Polish-Jewish painter. He was born in Drohobych (at that time Austria-Hungary). Gottlieb studied in Lvov, Vienna, Munich and Kraków. At the age of twenty, Gottlieb won a gold medal from a Munich art competition for Shylock and Jessica.
As a Polish-Jewish artist, Gottlieb is unique. As a Polish painter, he is considered to be the best of his generation. 
The painting "Day of Atonement" is one of three masterpieces on religious themes painted by Gottlieb which reflect the personal conflict of the artist as to his identity as a Jew, a Polish citizen or a man of the Enlightenment... The painting is based on the artist's memories of the synagogue in his childhood home of Drohowicz.  ("Yom Kippur" or "Day of Atonement" is the most important holiday of the Jewish year.)
Gottlieb was extremely prolific, painting more than 300 works (some unfinished).