The Middle Kingdom refers to Egypt from 2030 to 1640 BC. It followed a time of unrest and anarchy known as the First Intermediate Period, which ended with the rise of the Eleventh Dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs. The Middle Kingdom ran until the middle of the Thirteenth Dynasty. This time period was notable for its art, literature, and ideas. It fell due to civil wars and invasion by the Hyksos, initiating the Second Intermediate Period.