United States National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a organization of eminent scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare.
The NAS was signed into being by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, during the Civil War. As mandated in its Act of Incorporation, the NAS serves to "investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art" whenever called upon to do so by any department of the United States Government. Scientific issues would become even more contentious and complex in the years following the war. To keep up with the growing roles that science and technology play in American life, the NAS eventually expanded to include the National Research Council created in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering created in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine which was created in 1970. Collectively, the four organizations are known as the The National Academies of the United States.