New Model Army
The New Model Army was formed by the English Parliament during the English Civil War to provide Parliament with an effective, disciplined and reliable military force in place of the ad hoc collection of county militias, trained bands, and regiments raised and armed by individuals. The order for its establishment, in January 1645, was prompted by the financial collapse of the Eastern Association, a group of counties in eastern England who had provided around half of Parliament's military manpower. Sir Thomas Fairfax was made Captain-General (commander) of the New Model Army, and Oliver Cromwell later in 1645 became Lieutenant-General of Horse. The Army was victorious at the Battle of Naseby on 14 June 1645, effectively ending any Royalist hopes of a military victory in the war. It was known by its detractors as "The New Muddle Army."