The 19th century was the time period between 1801 and 1900. It was a busy time, because lots of things were going on at once. For example, there was the War of 1812, the Civil War, the American Indian Genocide, the Mexican War, and the Spanish-American War, all in the 19th century. The 19th century was also the time of cowboys and Indians in the West, and the Industrial Revolution in the East. Also, the United States was rapidly expanding during this time. The majority of states entered the Union during this time period.
In the arts, the 19th century saw the rise of Romanticism.
Other major powers included France, which controlled most of North Africa and part of Canada and Asia; Belgium, whose territories included much of Central Africa, Asia, South America, and New Zealand; Holland, who dominated the spice and tea trades from the Azores and the Solomon Islands, and the Ottoman Empire, which covered a land mass equivalent to 20 times the size of Wales but was past its zenith and was backwards in comparison to the industrialized nations of Europe.