Old Testament

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Bible

Sections
Old Testament
New Testament
Pentateuch
The Gospels

About
History
Canon
Exegesis
Accuracy
Criticism
Inerrancy
Literalism
Chronology
Translations
Hermeneutics

Concepts
Sabbath
Sin
Resurrection
Prophet
The Virgin Birth
Tithe

See also
Christianity

The Old Testament (Tanakh (תנ״ך) in Hebrew) is a collection of different biblical books comprising the Jewish religious scriptures. It can be divided into three general categories: Historical, Poetic, and Prophetic.[1] The Old Testament was inspired by God, giving His teachings to human beings in document form: using direct communication with Moses, communicating through the Prophets, and through works inspired by the Holy Spirit (Ruach HaKodesh), in the Sacred Writings. The human authors of some books are known, while for others the authorship remains a matter of controversy. The Hebrew names of these three sections give rise to the acronym "Tanakh": Torah (Instruction), Nevi'im (Prophets), and K'tuvim (Sacred Writings).

Christians embrace the Old Testament as part of their holy scriptures, which, together with the New Testament make up the Bible. In contrast to Jews, they see the Old Testament giving prophetic references to the coming of Jesus Christ. Versions from ancient times exist in both Hebrew and Greek including the Dead Sea Scrolls giving a very ancient snapshot dating back to the time of Jesus.

Contents

The Old Testament documents the creation of the world by God, and the tribulations and errors of human beings, in particular His chosen people the Israelites. Following the history of the Jews from their earliest patriarchs to their enslavement, freedom, becoming a nation, period of the judges, ruled by kings, splitting into two nations, and eventual conquest. It continues until about 400 B.C. when God's chosen people have once again been allowed to return to the Holy Land and have come back to the worship of the Lord God. From the writing of the earliest five books, which is traditionally ascribed to Moses, to the last, is believed to be a period of about 1,000 years. The New Testament doesn't pick up until 400 years later with the story of Jesus.

The laws set forth in the Old Testament include the Noahide laws and the Mosaic Law. The latter further includes the Ten Commandments.

Canon

Old Testament.jpg

The Canon of the Old Testament was fixed by the Jewish Anshei K'nesset HaGedolah (Men of the Great Assembly), also known as the Council of Jamina, in the 1st century A.D. Though some books have been given different names, this is the same Old Testament found in Protestant Bibles (except for ordering and naming conventions.) Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments contain different sets of additional groups referred to as the Apocrypha. Most Old Testaments go back to the earliest Hebrew translations, but the Greek Orthodox church uses the earliest Greek versions.

The twenty-four books, in the Hebrew listing, are:

I Torah

II Nevi'im/נביאים

  • 6-9: Nevi'im Rishonim/נביאים ראשונים (Early Prophets):
    • Y'hoshua/יהושע (Joshua)
    • Shoftim/שופטים (Judges)
    • Sh'mu'el I and II/שמואל (Samuel 1 and 2)
    • M'lakhim/מלכים Kings 1 and 2)
  • 10-13: Nevi'im Acharonim/נביאים אחרונים (Later Prophets):

III K'tuvim/כתובים

  • 14-16: Sifrei Emet (Books of Truth):
  • 22-24: Other Writings:


See also


  1. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t1w05otauthors.htm
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