Operation Anfal (also known as al-Anfal Campaign) was the genocide of approximately 180,000 Iraqi minority Kurds, planned and executed by Saddam Hussein and his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid. From 1986 to 1988, Kurds were systematically murdered mainly with the help of Sunni Arab forces in the Iraqi Army. Measures employed by Saddam's Iraq included gassing, disappearances, massacres, forced resettlement and destruction of villages. Apart from the killing of civilians, over 4,000 villages, 1,754 schools, 270 hospitals, 2,450 mosques and 27 churches were destroyed.
- Iraq to hang 'Chemical Ali' Associated Press, June 25, 2007
- Stuart Notholt (2008). Fields of Fire: An Atlas of Ethnic Conflict. Troubador Publishing Ltd, p4.10. ISBN 1906510474.
- Jonathan Fox (2005). Religion, Civilization, and Civil War. Lexington Books, p261. ISBN 0739112775.
- Michael Rubin, Are Kurds a pariah minority? Social Research, Spring, 2003
- List of the churches been demolished by Saddam Hussein’s regime