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Partition is the process of division of a whole into two or more parts; in historical terms it refers to the division of a previously unified state or region into two or more separate entities.

It is used particularly to describe the Partition of Ireland in 1922, when the island of Ireland was divided into Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State at the conclusion of the Irish War of Independence; and the Partition of India in 1947, when, at the conclusion of the British Raj, India was divided into two new states: India and Pakistan.