Past participle

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A past participle is used to indicate the past or a completed action or time. it is formed by adding "-d" or "-ed", to the base form of regular verbs, but can be formed in other ways for irregular verbs.

For example, in the sentence 'I have swallowed a button', swallowed is a past participle of the regular verb "swallow".

Examples of how the past participle is formed for irregular verbs are as follows:

Base form Past participle
know known
eat eaten
become become
fly flown

There are no hard-and-fast rules for the past participle of irregular verbs, unfortunately, which means that their various forms have to be memorised.

The past participle can be used as follows:

  • Participial phrases
Based on the results of the examination, Mark changed his plans.
  • Participial adjectives
The teacher was determined to finish the chapter.
  • Using the perfect tenses
I have stayed there many times before.
The shop was closed by the time we arrived.
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