Personality disorder

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"A personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment". (American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.)

Examples are as follows:

• Paranoid personality disorder is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others' motives are interpreted as malevolent.
• Schizoid personality disorder is a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression.
• Schizotypal personality disorder is a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior.
• Antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others.
• Borderline personality disorder is a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity.
• Histrionic personality disorder is a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking.
• Narcissistic personality disorder is a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy.
• Avoidant personality disorder is a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation.
• Dependent personality disorder is a pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive need to be taken care of.
• Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control." [ibid.]