Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt (listing)

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The following is a King List of known Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt from Dynasties 0 to 30, plus the Ptolemaic period. Dates are approximate before the 26th Dynasty.


Chronological list of the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
Protodynastic Period (prior to 3050 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
"Scorpion I" Evidence found in the Thinis tombs (U-j) of the royal cemetery of Abydos by Prof. John Darnell of Yale University indicating a 5,000 year-old date for this king. Awaiting identity
"Scorpion II" Only evidence of his existence is a ceremonial macehead discovered at Hierakonpolis, Egypt in 1897, and currently on display at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, England. Named by archaeologists for the figure of a scorpion in front of the king's image; his actual Egyptian name is unknown. Awaiting identity
First Dynasty (3050-2890 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Menes (=Narmer?) Semi-legendary founder/unifier of Egypt Awaiting identity
Hor-Aha unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt? c. 3050 BC
Djer 41 years
Merneith Regent for Den
Djet 23 years
Den 14 to 20.1 years
Anedjib 10 years
Semerkhet 9 years
Qa'a 2916 BC?–2890 BC
Second Dynasty (2890-2686 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Hotepsekhemwy 2890 BC–?
Raneb 39 years
Nynetjer 40 years
Wneg 8 years
Senedj 20 years
Seth-Peribsen 17 years
Sekhemib-Perenmaat
Khasekhemwy  ?–2686 BC 17 to 18 years
Old Kingdom
Third Dynasty (2686-2613 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Sanakhte 2686-2668
Djoser Commissioned the first pyramid, the Step Pyramid 2668–2649
Sekhemkhet 2649–2643
Khaba 2643–2637
Huni 2637–2613
Fourth Dynasty (2613-2498 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Sneferu Builder of the Bent Pyramid, the Red Pyramid (the first true pyramid), and the so-called False Pyramid at Maidum. 2613–2589
Khufu Built the Great Pyramid on the Giza Plateau; also known by the Greek name Cheops. 2589–2566
Djedefra 2566–2558
Khafra Built the second great pyramid at Giza; also known by the Greek name Chephren. 2558–2532
Bikheris Inserted here, following Manetho
Menkaura Built the smallest pyramid at Giza; also known by the Greek name Mycerinus 2532–2503
Shepseskaf 2503–2498
Thampthis Inserted here, following Manetho
Fifth Dynasty (2498-2345 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Userkaf 2498–2491
Sahure 2487–2477
Neferirkare Kakai 2477–2467
Shepseskare Isi 2467–2460
Neferefre 2460–2453
Nyuserre Ini 2453–2422
Menkauhor Kaiu 2422–2414
Djedkare Isesi 2414–2375
Unas 2375–2345
Sixth Dynasty (2345-2181 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Teti 2345–2333
Userkare 2333–2332
Pepi I Meryre 2332–2283
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I 2283–2278
Pepi II Neferkare Possibly reigned until 2224 which would explain the following 4 pharaohs. 2278–2184
Neferka Only mentioned in the redford. Co-reigned with Pepi II? 2200–2199
Nefer Reign of 2 years, 1 month and a day (Turin Canon) 2197–2193
Aba Reign of 4 years, 2 months (Does not follow Turin Canon). 2293–2176
Unknown King
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Kingship uncertain. 2184
Nitiqret Female ruler? 2184–2181
First Intermediate Period
Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (2181-2160 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Neferkara I
Netjerkare
Menkare
Neferkare II
Neferkare Nebi
Djedkare Shemai
Neferkare Khendu
Merenhor
Neferkamin Seneferka
Nikare
Neferkare Tereru
Neferkahor
Neferkare Pepiseneb
Neferkamin Anu
Qakare Ibi
Neferkaure II
Neferkauhor Khuwihap
Neferirkare
Ninth Dynasty (2160-2130 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160– ?
Meribre Khety II -  ?
Neferkare III -  ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) -  ?
Setut -  ?
Wakhare Khety I -  ?
Merykare -  ?
Wankhare Khety II -  ?
Menethoupe I -  ?
Wankhare Khety III -  ?
Khety II -  ?
Khety II's daughter -  ?
Merikare's daughter -  ? –2130
Tenth Dynasty (2130-2040 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Meryhathor 2130– ?
Neferkare IV  ?
Wankare (Acthoes III)  ?
Merykare  ?
 ? –2040
Eleventh Dynasty (2034-1991 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Intef I 2134–2117
Intef II 2117–2069
Intef III 2069–2060
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I Succeeded in controlling all of Egypt by 2040; considered beginning of Middle Kingdom. 2060–2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep II 2010–1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III 1997–1991
Mentuhotep IV Co-reignal? 7 years
Middle Kingdom
Twelfth Dynasty (1991-1802 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Amenemhat I 1991–1962
Senusret I (Sesostris I) 1971–1926
Amenemhat II 1929–1895
Senusret II (Sesostris II) 1897–1878
Senusret III (Sesostris III) Most powerful Middle Kingdom pharaoh. 1878–1860
Amenemhat III 1860–1815
Amenemhat IV Co-regency of at least 1 year with Amenemhat III (based on a Konosso inscription). 1815–1807
Sobekneferu Female ruler. 1807–1803
Second Intermediate Period
Thirteenth Dynasty (1802-1649 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep (or Wegaf) Founder of the 13th Dynasty. 1803–1799
Amenemhat Senebef (Sekhemkare) Reigned 3 years 1798—1795
Amenemhat 1795–1792
Sehetepre  ? –1790
Iufni  ?
Seankhibre  ?
Semenkare  ?
Sehetepre  ?
Sewadjkare  ?
Nedjemibre Reigned 7 months  ?
Sobekhotep I  ?
Renseneb 4 months c. 1775
Awybre Hor I(?) c. 1775(?)
Sedjefakare Became well-known through the writings on many documents and stele. c. 5 to 7 yrs.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep c. 1767
Khendjer Reigned 4 yrs, 3 months, possibly longer. c. 1765
Imyremeshaw  ?
Antef V  ?
Sobekhotep III Reigned 4 years, 2 months c. 1755
Neferhotep I Reigned 11 years 1751–1740
Sobekhotep IV Reigned 10-11 years 1740–1730
Sobekhotep V c. 1730
Wahibre Ibiau Reigned 10 years, 8 months c. 1725–1714
Merneferre Ai Reigned 23 years, 8 months c. 1714–1691
Merhetepre Ini Reigned 2 years, 2 months  ?
Seankhenre Sewadtjew  ?
Mersekhemre Ined  ?
Sewadjkare Hori  ?
Dudimose I Position uncertain in conventional chronology; David Rohl claims him as pharaoh of the Exodus in his chronology; Josephus gives his name as "Tutimaos" (Antiquities of the Jews) c. 1654
Dudimose II Position uncertain  ?
Senebmiu Position uncertain  ?
Mentuhotep V Position uncertain  ?
Senaayeb Position uncertain  ?
Fourteenth Dynasty (ruled from the eastern Delta at Avaris, c. 1705-1690 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre -  ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre -  ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare -  ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre -  ?
unknown -  ?
Djefare -  ?
Webenre - c. 1690
Fifteenth Dynasty (origins in the Hyksos people, ruled c. 1674-1535 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Sheshi Reigned 1 or 3 years 1674- ?
Yakubher -  ?
Khyan - 30-40 Years
Apepi I - Reigned 40 + years
Khamudy -  ? -1535
Sixteenth Dynasty (ruled from the north Sinai Penninsula, c. 1663-1555 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
- name of the first king is lost due to fragmentary nature of the Turin King List. -
Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy) Reigned 3 years
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy) Reigned 16 years
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) Reigned 1 year
Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra) Reigned 1 year
Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra) Reigned 26 years
Nebiryraw II Reigned 3 months (?)
Semenra Reigned 1 year (?)
Bebiankh (Sewoserenra) Reigned 12 years
Sekhemreshedwaset Reigned 3 months (?)
- the names of the following five to twelve kings are lost due to fragmentary nature of the Turin King List -
Seventeenth Dynasty (ruled from Upper Egypt, c. 1650-1550 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw - 1650- ?
Intef V the Elder - Reigned 3 years
Antef VI Sekhemrewepmaat -  ?
Antef VII Nubkheperre -
Intef VIII Sekhemreherhermaat - -
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhaw - -
Thuty - Reigned 1 year
Mentuhotep VI - Reigned 1 year
Nebiryerawet I - Reigned 6 years
Nebiryerawet II -  ?
Semenmedjatre -  ?
Seuserenre - Reigned 12 years
Shedwast -  ?
Intef VII - Reigned 3 + years
Tao I the Elder (Senakhtenre) - c. 1558
Tao II the Brave (Seqenenre) - c. 1558-1554
Kamose - 1554-1549
New Kingdom
Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1295 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Ahmose I Founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. 1550-1525
Amenhotep I - 1525-1504
Thutmose I - 1504-1492
Thutmose II - 1492-1479
Thutmose III Co-reigned with Hatshepsut; expanded Egyptian Empire into the Levant. Claimed as the pharaoh of the oppression according to the early date theory. 1479-1425
Hatshepsut Only female to have claimed the title of pharaoh in her lifetime. Claimed by some Biblical scholars to have been the princess who drew Moses from the water (Exodus 2:5-10) 1473-1458
Amenhotep II Claimed as pharaoh of the Exodus according to the early date theory. 1425-1400
Thutmose IV - 1400-1388
Amenhotep III - 1388-1352
Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) Founder of the brief Amarna Period, a monotheistic religion based upon the sun disk (Aten). 1352-1334
Smenkhkare Possible coregent with Akhenaten. 1334-1333
Neferneferuaten - 1335-1333
Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun Son or grandson of Akhenaten; left fabulous treasure to be found by archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922. 1333-1324
Kheperkheprure Ay - 1324-1320
Horemheb Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun. Obliterated images of the Amarna Period, and set the conditions for the Nineteenth Dynasty. 1320-1292
Ninteenth Dynasty (1295-1186 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Ramesses I - 1292-1290
Seti I Conqueror of Libyans and other nations/Grand work projects. Claimed as the pharaoh of the oppression according to the late date theory. 1290-1279
Ramesses II The pharaoh of the Exodus, according to the late date theory. Claimed as the biblical pharoah Shishak by David Rohl. Fought the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC. 1279-1213
Merneptah His stele contains the first known reference to the Israelites. Considered by some to be the pharaoh of the Exodus 1213-1203
Amenemses - 1202–1199 (?)
Seti II - 1203-1197
Merneptah Siptah - 1197 (?)-1191
Tausret Female ruler. 1191-1190
Twentieth Dynasty (1185-1070 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Setnakhte - 1186-1183
Ramesses III Fought an invasion of the Sea Peoples 1183-1152
Ramesses IV - 1152-1146
Ramesses V - 1146-1142
Ramesses VI - 1142-1134
Ramesses VII - 1134-1126
Ramesses VIII - 1126-1124
Ramesses IX - 1124-1106
Ramesses X - 1106-1102
Ramesses XI - 1102-1069
Third Intermediate Period
Twenty-First Dynasty (ruled from Tanis; claimed all of Egypt but rule was weak. 1069-945 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Nesbanebdjed I (or Smendes I) - 1069-1043
Amenemnisu - 1043-1039
Psusennes I - 1039-991
Amenemope - 993-984
Osorkon the Elder (or Osochor) - Osochor 984-978
Siamun - 978-959
Psusennes II - 959-945
Twenty-Second Dynasty (Libyans, ruling 945-720 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Shoshenq I Claimed to be the Biblical Shishak 945-924
Osorkon I - 924-889
Shoshenq II - 890-890/889
Takelot I - 889-874
Harsiese - 875-862
Osorkon II - 874-834
Shoshenq III - 834-795
Shoshenq IV - 795-782
Pami - 782-776
Shoshenq V - 776-740
Osorkon IV - 740-720
Twenty-Third Dynasty (Libyans, ruling from Leontopolis, 836-720 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Takelot II Founder of the 23rd Dynasty 837-813
Pedubast Seized Thebes during a rebellion against Takelot II 826-801
Iuput I - 812-811
Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801-795
Osorkon III Son of Takelot II; proclaimed king after recovering Thebes 795-767
Takelot III - 773-765
Rudamun - 765-762
Iuput II - 762-728
Twenty-Fourth Dynasty (Rival dynasty, ruling from the Delta, 732-720 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Tefnakhte - 732-725
Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 725-720
Late Period
Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (Nubians, ruling 732-656 B.C.)
Name Comments Dates
Piye King of Nubia for 20 years prior to conquering Egypt, where he ruled for four additional years 752-721
Shabaka - 721-707
Shebitku - 707-690
Taharqa - 690-664
Tantamani - 664-653
Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (Native Egyptians (Saites), ruling 672-525 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Necho I - 672-664
Psamtik I - 664-610
Necho II Fought against Babylon and King Josiah of Judah, who was killed in Battle of Megiddo (2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:20-24) 610-595
Psamtik II - 595-589
Wahibre - 589-570
Ahmose II - 570-526
Psammetichus III - 526-525 BC
Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (Persians who conquered Egypt and absorbed it into their empire, ruling 525-404 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Cambyses II - 525-521
Smerdis - 522-521
Darius I the Great - 521-486 BC
Xerxes I the Great - 486-465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465-464 BC
Artaxerxes I - 464-424
Xerxes II claimant to the throne 424-423 BC
Sogdianus claimant to the throne 424-423 BC
Darius II - 424-404 BC
Twenty-Eighth Dynasty (Six-year rule by a single pharaoh, 525-404 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of Twenty-Sixth Dynasty Saite pharaohs; led a successful revolt against the Persians 404-398 BC
Twenty-Ninth Dynasty (398-380 B.C.)
Name Comments Dates
Nefaarud I Also known as Nepherites 398393 BC
Psammuthes - 393 BC
Hakor (Achoris) - 393-380
Nefaarud II - 380 BC
Thirtieth Dynasty (Last native Egyptian rule, 380-343 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Nectanebo I (Nekhtnebef) - 380-362 BC
Teos - 362-360 BC
Nectanebo II - 360-343 BC
Thirty-First Dynasty (Restored Persian rule, 380-343 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Artaxerxes III Re-conquered Egypt for the Persian Empire 343-338
Artaxerxes IV Arses Ruled from Lower Egypt only 338-336 BC
Khababash Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt 338-335 BC
Darius III Codomannus Queled revolt in Upper Egypt and returned it Persian control, 335 BC 336-332 BC
Argead Dynasty (Conquest by Macedonian Greeks; 332-309 B.C.)
King Details Dates
Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great) Conquered the Persian Empire; ushured in the Hellenistic Age 332-323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III 323-317 BC
Alexander IV Son of Alexander III and Roxana 317-309 BC
Ptolemaic Dynasty (Second Greek dynasty, 305-30 B.C.)
Pharaoh Details Dates
Ptolemy I Soter One of Alexander III's generals; Abdicated in 285 BC 305-285 BC
Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I  ?-285 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 288-246 BC
Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284-274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277-270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246-222 BC
Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244-222
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222-204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220-204 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes - 204-180
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193-176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor - 180-164 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI 173-164
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II (169 to 164) 171-163
Ptolemy VI Philometor Second rule; restored Egypt from Ptolemy VIII in 163 BC 163-145
Cleopatra II Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against her husband in 131 BC; became sole ruler of Egypt. 163-127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 144-144
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Second rule 145-131
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142-131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed king by Cleopatra II; killed by Ptolemy VIII 131
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Second rule 127-116
Cleopatra III Second rule; restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127-107 BC
Cleopatra II Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124-116
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116-110
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, removed by Cleopatra III 116-115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110-109 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Second rule 109-107 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Second rule 107-88 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Second rule 88-81 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered 19 days later on his orders 81-80
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Set on throne by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being hung by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80-58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV  ?-57 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII  ?-58 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII 58-55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Second rule; reigned briefly with daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55-51
Cleopatra VII The Cleopatra of legend; last ruler of Egypt before Roman conquest 51-30
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51-47 BC
Arsinoe IV Opposed Cleopatra VII 48-47
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47-44 BC
Ptolemy XV Caesarion Young son of Cleopatra VII by Julius Caesar; killed on orders of Octavian (future Roman emperor Augustus) 44-30
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