Madog was a son of Owain Gwynedd, a 12th century king of Gwynedd (now a county in North Wales) who had nineteen children, of which only six were legitimate. Madog (Madoc), one of the bastard sons, was born at Dolwyddelan Castle in the Lledr valley between Betws-y-Coed and Blaenau Ffestiniog. On the death of the King in December 1169, the brothers fought amongst themselves for the right to rule Gwynedd. Madog, although brave and adventurous, was also a man of peace. In 1170 he and his brother, Riryd, sailed from Aber-Kerrik-Gwynan on the North Wales Coast (now Rhos-on-Sea) in two ships, the Gorn Gwynant and the Pedr Sant. They sailed west and landed in what is now Alabama in the USA.
George CaitlinGeorge Catlin was a nineteenth-century painter who lived amongst Indian tribes, including the Mandans. He was impressed by their physical characteristics:
"A stranger in the Mandan village is first struck with the different shades of complexion, and various colors of hair which he sees in a crowd about him, and is almost disposed to exclaim that these are not Indians." The artist also noted "a most pleasing symmetry and proportion of features, with hazel, gray and blue eyes." 
Catlin stayed almost eight years living among the Mandan tribe, and made many interesting paintings of almost every aspect of their daily lives as well as written observations. He was the only white man to record their rituals and customs, some of which are quite gruesome. Catlin concluded that the Mandans were the descendents of the Madog people based upon the fact that they spoke Welsh, used a boat which was known as the Welsh Coracle and many of the Mandans had blond hair and blue eyes.
Fort Mountain, Georgia
Fort Mountain's name derives from an ancient rock wall which protects the highest point of the mountain. The wall, which extends 885 feet, is seven feet in height at its tallest point and shows evidence of being much higher when first built. It is up to 12 feet wide, with 29 pits scattered at regular intervals along its length, and no wall like it exists anywhere in the Southeastern States. Archaeology suggests that the ancient fortification long predates the Cherokees who lived there in the 1700s.
The Cherokees called the wall-builders "moon-eyed people," because they could see better at night than by day. They were said to be fair of skin, have blonde hair and blue eyes. Currently, most scholars believe that the wall originated about 1100A.D. and has a religious purpose. The state of Georgia has erected a monument at the base of the summit describing how Madog arrived in Mobile Bay around 1170 and moved north from there. The wall appears to have been built by Welsh Explorers as a fortification against hostile Indians and for ancient ceremonies. Several petroglyphs support this theory.
- There is substantial evidence for making this claim, see The Madog Claim Evidence
- George Caitlin, 1844, "Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and conditions of North American Indians,"
- . For a fuller history of the Mandan tribe see: http://freepages.family.rootsweb.com/~bowen/mandans.html
- Deacon, Richard, 1966, Madoc and the Discovery of America: Some New Light on an Old Controversy, George Braziller