Proverbs is a book of logic applied to human experiences, with particular focus on how to deal with (and not deal with) fools and evil people. Proverbs is both inspirational about what can be achieved from doing what is right, and cautionary about the failure that results from compromise with evildoers. Proverbs is particularly strong against "scoffers", observing that "Condemnation is ready for scoffers, and beating for the backs of fools." (Proverbs 19:29 ESV)
Proverbs emphasizes the unchanging nature of God, and how much better it is to adhere to his way than to fall for liberal gimmicks that may be superficially attractive.
Solomon is traditionally thought to have been the primary writer of Proverbs, but not the only one. Chapter 30 is attributed to Agur son of Jakeh and chapter 31 to King Lemuel. Proverbs 22:17 refers to the "sayings of the wise" and 24:23 mentions additional saying of the wise.
Based on authorship, most of the book would have come from the 10th century B.C. Proverbs 25:1 makes reference to copying proverbs in the time of king Hezekiah, so at least part of the book, probably the later portion, was copied or appended at a later time (between 715 to 686 B.C.)
Proverbs is generally uplifting, giving advice on how to live life. Whether one believes it was inspired by God or not, the proverbs can still be appreciated for their simple messages and keen insights.
Due to there being 31 Proverbs, it is a popular form of study for some devout religious people to read 1 Proverb a day, thereby going through the entire book in most months.