Rape jihad

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Rape jihad (Arabic: تحرش جنسي, taharrush jinsi; sexual harassment) refers to the organized abduction, rape and/or enslavement of non-Muslim women or children[1] by Islamic extremists. The term was used as early as 2004 in descriptions of Darfur and Beslan,[2] and has since been applied to more recent incidents.[3][4][5][6][7] The largest case of rape jihad in Europe was at New Years Evening 2015 in Cologne, Germany.

Justification

It has been claimed that disparaging attitudes toward non-Muslim women and girls are promoted in some mosques[8] and that sexual predation of them is supported in religious text[9] as a form of sexual slavery sanctioned in Quranic scriptures, such as suras 4:24 and 33:50, in which sex is permitted with "Ma malakat aymanukum" (captive women).[10]

In its digital magazine, Dabiq, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) explicitly claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women (see section following). Specifically, ISIL argued that the Yazidi were idol worshipers and appealed to the shariah practice of spoils of war.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] ISIL asserts that certain Hadith and Quranic verses support their right to enslave and rape captive non-Muslim women.[14][18][19] ISIL appealed to apocalyptic beliefs and "claimed justification by a Hadith that they interpret as portraying the revival of slavery as a precursor to the end of the world."[20] According to Dabiq, "enslaving the families of the kuffar and taking their women as concubines is a firmly established aspect of the Sharia’s that if one were to deny or mock, he would be denying or mocking the verses of the Qur'an and the narration of the Prophet … and thereby apostatizing from Islam."[18][21] In late 2014 ISIL released a pamphlet that focused on the treatment of female slaves.[22][23][24] It says fighters are allowed to have sex with adolescent girls and to beat slaves as discipline. The pamphlet's guidelines also allow fighters to trade slaves, including for sex, as long as they have not been impregnated by their owner.[22][23][24]

Rape in war

For more detailed treatments, see Jihadism and Wartime sexual violence.

History

For a more detailed treatment, see History of rape.
Rape has accompanied warfare in virtually every known historical era.[25] Mass rape of both women or youths regardless of gender was among the punitive measures that might be taken against captured towns by Greek, Persian, or Roman troops.[26] Female slavery and war rapes were also common during the medieval Arab slave trade, where prisoners of war captured in battle from non-Arab lands often ended up as concubine slaves (who are considered free when their master dies).[27] During the Islamic Golden Age, some Muslim jurists writing on military jurisprudence advocated severe penalties for rebels who use "stealth attacks" and practise abductions, poisoning of water wells, arson, attacks against wayfarers and travellers, assaults under the cover of night and rape.[28]

The Lieber Code of 1863 codified the protection of civilians and stated that "all rape...[is] prohibited under the penalty of death"[29] and subsequent laws of war and humanitarian law have made maltreatment of civilians criminal.[30] Slavery was formally abolished in nearly all countries by the mid 20th century,[31][32] though in the 21st century some Muslim scholars[33] have expressed concern at a "worrying trend" of conservative Salafi Islamic scholars "reopening" the issue of slavery after its "closing" earlier in the 20th century when Muslim countries banned slavery and "most Muslim scholars" found the practice "inconsistent with Qur'anic morality."[34][35]

Siege of Vienna

During the Siege of Vienna of 1683 historical accounts report men were slaughtered by Turkish Muslims and women raped.[36]

ISIL

See: Iraq insurgency

In 2014, the ISIL raided Yazidi settlements in Iraq, massacring the men and selling the women into sexual slavery.[37]

Boko Haram

For a more detailed treatment, see Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping.
In April 2014, during a raid on Chibok, Boko Haram, an Islamic Jihadist and terrorist organization based in northeast Nigeria, took prisoner several hundred Christian schoolgirls, who, after efforts to secure their release were ineffective, were sold in slave auctions to prospective husbands and forcibly converted to Islam.[38][39][40] In May, a video in which Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau claimed responsibility for the kidnappings emerged; he claimed, "Allah instructed me to sell them...I will carry out his instructions."[41] and "Slavery is allowed in my religion, and I shall capture people and make them slaves."[42] He said the girls should not have been in school and instead should have been married since girls as young as nine are suitable for marriage.[41][42]

Darfur

For a more detailed treatment, see Rape during the Darfur genocide.
Throughout the ongoing genocide in the Darfur war in Sudan, there has been a systematic campaign of rape,[2] which has been used as a weapon of war, in the ethnic cleansing of black Africans from the region.Template:SfnTemplate:SfnTemplate:Sfn The majority of rapes have been carried out by the Sudanese government forces and the Janjaweed ("evil men on horseback")Template:Sfn paramilitary groups.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn The actions of the Janjaweed have been described as genocidal rape, with not just women, but children also being raped, as well as babies being bludgeoned to death and the sexual mutilation of victims being commonplace.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn

Child sexual exploitation

For a more detailed treatment, see Child sex trade.

UK grooming cases

Widespread organized child sexual abuse took place in many places throughout England, dating from 1997,[1][10][43][44][45] in which it was conservatively estimated that 1,400 children had been sexually abused in the city, predominantly by gangs of British-Pakistani men. Abuses described included abduction, rape, torture and sex trafficking of children.[44][46][47][48][49][50]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kern, Soeren (11 July 2013). Britain: "Rape Jihad" Against Children. Gatestone Institute. Retrieved on 13 December 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 [[Robert Spencer (author)|Spencer, Robert]] (24 September 2004). The Rape Jihad. FrontPageMagazine.com. Retrieved on 13 December 2014.
  3. Salifu, Uyo (2 October 2013). Sexual terrorism in Africa: a case of two crimes in one. Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved on 16 December 2014.
  4. "After love jihad, now rape jihad", Afternoon Voice, 17 October 2014. Retrieved on 16 December 2014. 
  5. Greenfield, Daniel (28 August 2014). Rape Jihad: Inside ISIS’ Harem for Captured Non-Muslim Women. FrontPageMag.com. Retrieved on 16 December 2014.
  6. Dean T. Olson (2009). Perfect Enemy: The Law Enforcement Manual of Islamist Terrorism. Charles C Thomas Publisher LTD. ISBN 978-0-398-07885-0. Retrieved on 4 April 2015. 
  7. Ronald K. Pierce (2014). Islamic Violence in America's Streets. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-49173-681-4. Retrieved on 4 April 2015. 
  8. ‘Imams promote grooming rings’, Muslim leader claims. The Daily Telegraph (16 May 2013). Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
  9. "Easy Meat": Multiculturalism, Islam and Child Sex Slavery 222–258. Law and Freedom Foundation (March 2014). Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
  10. 10.0 10.1 McCarthy, Andrew (3 November 2014). ISIS and the Rape Jihad. National Review Online. Retrieved on 16 December 2014.
  11. "Islamic State Seeks to Justify Enslaving Yazidi Women and Girls in Iraq", Newsweek, 13 October 2014. Retrieved on 3 November 2014. 
  12. Athena Yenko, "Judgment Day Justifies Sex Slavery Of Women – ISIS Out With Its 4th Edition Of Dabiq Magazine" International Business Times-Australia, October 13, 2014[Dead link]
  13. Allen McDuffee, "ISIS Is Now Bragging About Enslaving Women and Children," The Atlantic, Oct 13 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 Abdelaziz, Salma. "ISIS states its justification for the enslavement of women", CNN, 13 October 2014. Retrieved on 1 January 2015. 
  15. Spencer, Richard. "Thousands of Yazidi women sold as sex slaves 'for theological reasons', says Isil", The Telegraph, 13 October 2014. Retrieved on 3 November 2014. 
  16. "To have and to hold: Jihadists boast of selling captive women as concubines," The Economist, Oct 18th 2014
  17. By AFP, "ISIS jihadists boast of enslaving Yazidi women," Al Arabiya, October 13, 2014
  18. 18.0 18.1 Kumar, Anugrah. "ISIS Claims Islam Justifies Making 'Infidel' Women Sex Slaves", The Christian Post, 13 October 2014. Retrieved on 1 January 2015. 
  19. Sypher, Ford. "Rape and Sexual Slavery Inside an ISIS Prison", The Daily Beast, 28 August 2014. Retrieved on 5 January 2015. 
  20. Nour Malas, "Ancient Prophecies Motivate Islamic State Militants: Battlefield Strategies Driven by 1,400-year-old Apocalyptic Ideas," The Wall Street Journal, November 18, 2014 (accessed November 22, 2014)Template:Subscription required
  21. "ISIL seeks to justify enslaving Yazidi women and girls in Iraq", Today's Zaman, 14 October 2014. Retrieved on 2 January 2014. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Amelia Smith, "ISIS Publish Pamphlet On How to Treat Female Slaves," Newsweek, 12/9/2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 Abul Taher. "Our faith condones raping underage slaves: ISIS publishes shocking guidebook telling fighters how to buy, sell and abuse captured women", Daily Mail, 13 December 2014. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 Katharine Lackey, "Pamphlet provides Islamic State guidelines for sex slaves," USA Today, December 13, 2014
  25. Levinson, Bernard M (2004). Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East. ISBN 978-0-567-08098-1. 
  26. On ancient Rome, see Sara Elise Phang, Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 244, 253–254, 267–268 et passim. See also Sex in the Roman military.
  27. Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2014-04-30.
  28. Abou El Fadl, Khaled. [Commentary: Terrorism Is at Odds With Islamic Tradition]. Muslim Lawyers
  29. Template:Harvp
  30. Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, page 5.
  31. Murray Gordon. 'Slavery in the Arab World', New York: New Amsterdam, 1989, p. 234.
  32. "Slavery: Mauritania's best kept secret", BBC News, December 13, 2004. Retrieved on May 5, 2010. 
  33. Khaled Abou El Fadl and William Clarence-Smith
  34. Abou el Fadl, Great Theft, HarperSanFrancisco, c2005.
  35. "Islam and Slavery", William G. Clarence-Smith
  36. https://www.catholic.com/magazine/online-edition/under-marys-holy-name-victory-in-vienna-september-12-1683
  37. Greenfield, Daniel. "Rape Jihad: Inside ISIS’ Harem for Captured Non-Muslim Women", Jewish Voice, 3 September 2014. Retrieved on 27 February 2015. 
  38. Howard LaFranchi. "What role for US in efforts to rescue Nigeria's kidnapped girls?", CSMonitor, 5 May 2014. Retrieved on 9 May 2014. 
  39. "Boko Haram kidnapped the 230 school girls as wives for its insurgents", The Rainbow, 29 April 2014. Retrieved on 6 May 2014. [Dead link]
  40. Heaton, Laura. "Nigeria: kidnapped schoolgirls 'sold as wives to Islamist fighters'", The Daily Telegraph, 30 April 2014. Retrieved on 2 May 2014. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Boko Haram admits abducting Nigeria girls from Chibok. BBC News (5 May 2014). Retrieved on 5 May 2014.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Lister, Tim. "Boko Haram: The essence of terror", 6 May 2014. Retrieved on 13 May 2014. 
  43. Britain's "Rape Jihad" Crisis. RealClearWorld (13 July 2013). Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Rotherham (1997 - 2013). Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council. Retrieved on 26 August 2014.
  45. "Alexis Jay will lead child abuse failings probe at Rotherham", BBC News, 1 November 2013. Retrieved on 26 August 2014. 
  46. Saul, Heather. "Rotherham child abuse report finds 1,400 children subjected to 'appalling' sexual exploitation within 16-year period", The Independent, 26 August 2014. Retrieved on 26 August 2014. 
  47. "Rotherham child abuse scandal: 1,400 children exploited, report finds", BBC News, 26 August 2014. Retrieved on 26 August 2014. 
  48. Dutt, Vijay (27 September 2014). MYSTERY OF LOVE JIHAD. Uday India. Retrieved on 14 December 2014.
  49. Smith, Mark. "English Defence League exploiting sex-grooming fears, says report", The Guardian, 13 March 2013. Retrieved on 16 December 2014. 
  50. Easton, Mark. "Uncomfortable truths of child exploitation in Britain", BBC.com, BBC, 14 May 2013. Retrieved on 16 December 2014. 

External links