Revised Standard Version

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The Revised Standard Version (RSV) of the Bible was first published in 1946 and was intended to be a revision of the American Standard Version. The New Testament of this version was widely admired at the time of its publication, however the 1952 publication of the Old Testament received such criticism as to prevent the RSVs use as a popular Bible in the United States. R. Laird Harris wrote:

It is a curious study to check the Revised Standard Version of the Bible, a monument of higher critical scholarship, and note how every important Old Testament passage purporting to predict directly the coming of Christ has been altered so as to remove this possibility ... It is almost impossible to escape the conclusion that the admittedly higher critical bias of the translators has operated in all of these places. The translations given are by no means necessary from the Hebrew and in some cases ... are in clear violation of the Hebrew." (Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible: An Historical and Exegetical Study. Contemporary Evangelical Perspectives. 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1969), p. 58.)

The most common criticism the RSV received was in respect to Isaiah 7:14 where they rendered the word almah as 'young woman' rather than 'virgin'. (In the Greek Septuagint, the Greek word is clearly virgin.)

The RSV was itself revised in 1990, forming the New Revised Standard Version, which also translates almah as 'young woman' rather than 'virgin', but with a lengthy footnote explaining its reason and reiterating that Mary was a virgin at the conception of Jesus.

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