Rhodes v. Chapman
In Rhodes v. Chapman, 452 U.S. 337, 349 (1981), the U.S. Supreme Court held that the U.S. Constitution "does not mandate comfortable prisons" and that deference to the legislature was appropriate in the absence of infliction of needless pain or other Eighth Amendment violations.
Generally prison officials may not use excessive physical force against prisoners. See Hudson v. McMillian, 503 U.S. 1 (1992). Moreover, prison officials must ensure that inmates receive adequate food, clothing, shelter, and medical care, and must "take reasonable measures to guarantee the safety of the inmates." Hudson v. Palmer, 468 U.S. 517, 526-527 (1984).