Robert Osman was a corporal in the United States Army assigned to the Panama Canal Zone in the 1930s who provided military documents to a Soviet Militiary Intelligence (GRU) network. Osman was convicted of procuring information but won a reversal on appeal.
- Herbert Romerstein and Stanislav Levchenko, The KGB Against the “Main Enemy”, Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, (1989), pg. 17.
- John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, New Haven: Yale University Press, (1999) pgs. 167, 186.