Saskatchewan is the middle of the three prairie provinces of Canada between Alberta and Manitoba. With one million people, it has 227,134 square miles of land and water surface (588,276 square kilometers). Saskatchewan started to grow when the Canadian Pacific Railway was built in the early 1880s; it was part of the Northwest Territories until 1905, when it became a province having equal status with the other provinces (which are similar to U.S. states).
The name "Saskatchewan" is derived from the Cree word kisiskâciwanisîpikikimasiy meaning swift-flowing river.
Saskatchewan's geography includes prairies, tree-covered plains, forests, and taiga. The climate is continental, characterized by large seasonal temperature ranges and low precipitation. It is one of two completely landlocked Canadian provinces.
Although it lacks the vast oil wealth of nearby Alberta, Saskatchewan has enjoyed prosperity in recent decades. In 2006, the provincial Gross Domestic Product was over $36 billion. Labour unions are moderately active in the cities and mining districts.
Saskatchewan is a major agricultural producer. Although fewer than 65,000 farms remain, they are large and highly mechanized, and produce two-thirds of the nation's wheat. With soaring prices on the world market, wheat has been a major money maker. Production fluctuates widely according to the weather and rainfall.
Wheat has always been the primary farm export, but many farmers are increasing production of canola, used for cooking oil. Manufacturing, mining, petroleum also make up over 20% of the economy.
Saskatchewan is the world's largest exporter of potash, a vital ingredient in fertilizer, via the state-owned PotashCorp. Mineral resources also include world-class deposits of uranium as evidenced by towns with names like Uranium City.
Saskatchewan produces 20% of Canada's oil, second only to Alberta. The main deposits are part of the vast "Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin", stretching from British Columbia to Manitoba, as well as parts of Montana and North Dakota. 
The first commercial oil was discovered in 1944. The province produces 17% of total Canadian oil production. Crude oil production in 2006 was a record 24.84 million cubic metres (156.3 million barrels). Remaining recoverable reserves at December 31, 2005 were estimated to be 187 million cubic metres (1.18 billion barrels). Production is centered in four regions: Lloydminster, Kindersley-Kerrobert, Swift Current, and Weyburn-Estevan. Most of the oil moves by pipeline to the U.S. and Ontario.
Government owned SaskTel, a Crown corporation with $3.1 billion in infrastructure in place, had $1,067.4 million in revenues in 2007, with profit of $84 million. The fastest growth came in wireless, with revenues of $301.3 million in 2007 from 452,000 cellphones. Over 85% of the population have high speed internet service available, with 206,000 users.
The population has hovered around one million in recent decades. The 2006 population of Saskatchewan was 985,000 people. Its largest city is Saskatoon at 202,000, followed by Regina, the provincial capital with 180,000 people. The cities then get much smaller with only two having more than 30,000 people; Prince Albert has 34,000 people while Moose Jaw has a population of 32,000.
The Indian ("Native" or "First Nation") population is about 10%.
The Yorkton Short Film and Video Festival is North America's longest continuously running film festival. 
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS, 1941
- Roman Catholic 305,390
- Protestant 449,195
- Christian Orthodox 14,280
- Other Christian 27,070
- Muslim 2,230
- Jewish 865
- Buddhist 3,050
- Others 6,750
- Atheist 205,865
- _______ _____
- Totals 895,992
see Canadian sports
The Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League became the 2007 Grey Cup champions.
European contact with Indian peoples occurred during the fur trade era, and increased when agricultural settlement began in the late 19th century. In the early 20th century, that settlement history produced a largely agrarian population concentrated on farms and in communities across the prairie.
National policy set by the federal government, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Hudson's Bay Company and associated land companies encouraged immigration. Exaggerated advertising campaigns promoted the benefits of prairie living. Potential immigrants read leaflets information painted Canada as a veritable garden of Eden, and downplayed the need for agricultural expertise. Ads in The Nor'-West Farmer by the Commissioner of Immigration implied that western land was blessed with water, wood, gold, silver, iron, copper, and cheap coal for fuel, all of which were readily at hand. Reality was far harsher, especially for the first arrivals who lived in sod houses. However eastern money poured in and by 1913, long term mortgage loans to Saskatchewan farmers had reached $65 million.
The dominant groups comprised British settlers from eastern Canada and Britain, who comprised about 50% of the population during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They played the leading role in establishing the basic institutions of plains society, economy and government.
Gender roles were sharply defined. Men were primarily responsible for breaking the land; planting and harvesting; building the house; buying, operating and repairing machinery; and handling finances. At first there were many single men on the prairie, or husbands whose wives were still back east, but they had a hard time. They realized the need for a wife. In 1901, there were 19,200 families, but this surged to 150,300 families only 15 years later. Wives played a central role in settlement of the prairie region. Their labor, skills, and ability to adapt to the harsh environment proved decisive in meeting the challenges. Women bore the children needed to work the farm. They prepared bannock, beans and bacon, mended clothes, raised children, cleaned, tended the garden, helped at harvest time and nursed everyone back to health. While prevailing patriarchal attitudes made farming seem like man's sphere and obscured women's contributions, the flexibility exhibited by farm women in performing productive and nonproductive labor was critical to the survival of family farms, and thus to the success of the wheat economy.
When Saskatchewan became a province in 1905, political leaders at the time proclaimed its destiny was to become Canada's most powerful province. Saskatchewan embarked on an ambitious province-building program based on its Anglo-Canadian culture and wheat production for the export market. Population quintupled from 91,000 in 1901 to 492,000 to 1911, thanks to heavy immigration of farmers from the U.S., Germany and Scandinavia. Efforts were made to assimilate the newcomers to British Canadian culture and values.
The long-term prosperity of the province depended on the world price of grain, which headed steadily upward from the 1880s to 1920, then plunged down. Wheat output was increased by new strains, such as the "Marquis" strain which matured 8 days sooner and yielded 7 more bushels per acre than the previous standard, "Red Fife". The national output of wheat soared from 8 million bushels in 1896, to 26 million in 1901, reaching 151 million by 1921.
In the 1905 provincial elections, Liberals won 16 of 25 seats in Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan government bought out Bell Telephone Company in 1909, with the government owning the long-distance lines and left local service to small companies organized at the municipal level. Premier Walter Scott preferred government assistance to outright ownership because he thought enterprises worked better if citizens had a stake in running them; he set up the Saskatchewan Cooperative Elevator Company in 1911. Despite pressure from farm groups for direct government involvement in the grain handling business, the Scott government opted to loan money to a farmer-owned elevator company. Saskatchewan in 1909 provided bond guarantees to railway companies for the construction of branch lines, alleviating the concerns of farmers who had trouble getting their wheat to market by wagon.
Urban reform movements in Regina in the years just prior to the start of the First World War in 1914 depended on support from business and professional groups. City planning, reform of local government, and municipal ownership of utilities were more widely supported by these two groups, often through such organizations as the Board of Trade. Protestant church-related and other altruistic organizations generally supported social welfare and housing reforms, but they were usually less successful in getting their reforms enacted.
The province responded to the First World War in 1914 with patriotic enthusiasm and enjoyed the resultant economic boom. The price of wheat tripled and acreage seeded doubled. The wartime spirit of sacrifice intensified social reform movements that had predated the war and now came to fruition. Saskatchewan gave women the right to vote in 1916 and at the end 1916 passed a referendum to prohibit the sale of alcohol.
The economic crash after the war created an angry agrarian protest movement. Prairie farmers had long considered themselves the victims of powerful corporations--grain companies, banks, and railways -- all based in Toronto and Montreal. Attacks on industrialists and financiers blamed high tariffs designed to protect manufacturers at the expense of farmers. During the war farmers felt doubly betrayed. The federal government first promised to exempt their sons from compulsory military service, then canceled the exemption. It imposed a ceiling on wheat prices when they were high, but removed the floor when they were low. The farmers' pent-up frustration led to the formation of the Progressive Party in several provinces; it sent 64 to Ottawa in the 1921 general election.
Eager to control the price of wheat, 46,000 farmers joined together in 1923-4 to set up the Saskatchewan Co-operative Wheat Producers, a "wheat pool" that bought the wheat and held it in elevators for the best price. The pool collapsed financially in 1931 and the federal government had to cover the losses; the coop cntinued as a network of elevators owned by the farmers. It advanced the reform agenda for agricultural development, with full-time district representatives, or fieldmen, who promoted education, demonstrations of farm equipment, community picnics and rallies, and cooperative insurance, among other programs. It continues in operation as Viterra, having taken over Agricore United (based in Manitoba) in 2007. With soaring wheat prices, Viterra's revenues in the first quarter (three months) of 2008 reached $1.3 billion, triple the total the year before.
The Saskatchewan Grain Growers' Association worked with the provincial Liberals and kept them in office until 1929, when a Conservative-led coalition was elected for a term. As wheat prices recovered the late 1920s were golden years. By 1927 Saskatchewan ranked first among the provinces in the production of wheat, oats, rye, and flax, and in sundry other areas. Most important, it ranked first in per capita wealth. With a population of 922,000 in 1931 ranked third in size, behind only Ontario and Quebec.
The Great Depression hit the prairies hard. The world market for wheat collapsed and per capita money income fell 75%. Relief expenditures in the province in 1937 exceeded $40 million, dwarfing the entire 1939 provincial budget of $23 million. The hard-pressed government imposed a new 2% sales tax to cover the promissory notes that had been given to teachers in lieu of salaries.
In 1930 Saskatoon initiated a series of "work for wages" schemes designed to provide the unemployed with unskilled manual jobs. Financed from municipal, provincial, and federal sources, but operated by the city, the projects kept unemployment to manageable levels at first. Before 1932, most experts saw the depression as a temporary anomaly, a short-term emergency requiring no more than short-term emergency measures. By 1932 it was getting much worse with no end in sight. By spring 1932, the federal and provincial governments abandoned expensive public works in favor of the cheaper, more efficient direct relief of giving out cash and foot baskets.
As late as 1940, the province was heavily rural, dotted with many small service villages and towns. Two thirds of the people lived on farms. A tenth lived in towns or villages of more than 1,000 population. Another 15% lived in four small cities: Regina, the capital, with a population of 58,000; Moose Jaw, forty miles west of Regina, with 20,000; Saskatoon, the home of the university, with 43,000; and Prince Albert, in the north, with 13,000. The cities were merely larger versions of the country towns; they are primarily trading centers serving rural areas. Railroads, wholesale trade and retail trade employ most of the urban workers. Little economic decision-making power was concentrated in the cities. The small urban upper middle class was composed of professionals and branch managers of national banks and corporations or heads of small local manufacturing or trading organizations. The banks were mostly branch offices with headquarters far to the east; the leading stores were branches of national chains, especially Eaton's, Simpson's, the Hudson's Bay Company. To the farmer and urbanite alike, the names symbolize the world of eastern business that controls their fate, and became the target of political fears.
A pervasive social and economic equality characterized the rural areas. Sharp variations existed between the rich south and the poor north. Farmers in districts of good soil were generally wealthier; large farms of 640 acres to 1200 acres dominated the rich Regina plains and in the Rosetown district west of Saskatoon; small farms of 160 to 320 acres typified the poor-soil regions of the north with small outputs even in years with good weather. Within the province the average assessment per acre of land varied from an index of 9 for the poorest rural municipality to 76 for the wealthiest. Within any one rural community, however, variations in the value of land are small, for the great majority of farms have the same conditions of soil and rainfall. Differences in income did exist within individual rural communities, but they were not large enough to result in the emergence of distinct social classes. There were few hired hands, and tenant farmers were mostly men under age forty who expected to eventually buy or inherit land.
Tommy Douglas and CCF
A new political movement emerged, the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF); its 1933 manifesto promised to eradicate capitalism and put in place a "full program of socialized planning which will lead to the establishment in Canada of the Co-operative Commonwealth." Tommy Douglas (1904-86), a Baptist minister from working class origins, led the CCF to power from 1944-61. Douglas headed the first socialist government elected in Canada, and is recognized as the father of socialized medicine and the leader who put democratic socialism in the mainstream of Canadian politics.
The CCF won in June 1944 with a "Pocket Platform" calling for home ownership and debt reduction; increased old age pensions, mother's allowances, and disability care; medical, dental, and hospital services; equal education; free speech and religion; collective bargaining; and the encouragement of economic cooperatives. The CCF, while rhetorically socialist, did not nationalize banking or industry; it sought a mixed economy, including public, private, and cooperative sectors, with a strong role for private ownership in innovation and competition. In its first term the CCF passed a farm security act, and introduced the most pro-labour trade union act in North America. Saskatchewan became the first province to allow civil servants to organize unions (1944), the first to enshrine a bill of rights prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, colour, or creed (1947), the first to implement compulsory government automobile insurance (1946), and the first to institute a hospital insurance plan (1947).
The CCF was committed to efficiency-oriented planning. Douglas set up an Economic Advisory and Planning Board (EAPB), a cabinet committee with a supporting secretariat, charged with planning economic development strategies for the province and evaluating overall policies and programs. The EAPB evolved into two new agencies: the Budget Bureau and the Government Finance Office. The former was the secretariat for the Treasury Board, the committee of cabinet in charge of allocating budgetary expenditures. In addition, the Budget Bureau had an Organization and Methods unit, which surveyed the operations of various government departments and made recommendations on how they could be managed more effectively. Budgeting became more than the mechanical exercise of allocating money; it became the meeting point of the decision-making process, where all the Douglas government's diverse priorities were integrated.
The CCF set up eleven small Crown corporations including power and telephone utilities bus and airline companies, and ventures into sodium sulfate mining, a woolen mill, and a shoe factory. By 1949 the eleven corporations employed 3,000 workers and had annual revenues of $25 million.
Prosperity returned after 1945, and the population increased gradually. More dramatic was the movement from farms to towns and cities as farming became more mechanized and capital intensive. Increased production of oil, gas, and uranium, and the beginnings of a potash industry helped diversify the economy beyond just wheat.
Douglas brought First Nations delegates together in 1946 to form a single organization to represent Indian interests. Three existing organizations merged into the Union of Saskatchewan Indians, which later became the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN). Douglas's EAPB prepared an in-depth analysis of the demographic, social, and economic challenges facing the First Nation population. In the 21st century the FSIN is a strong policy-making and program-delivery organization, arguably one of the most effective of its kind in Canada. CCF initiatives included encouraging northern aboriginals to trade their semi-nomadic lifestyles for lives in urban settings. The establishment of Kinoosao on Reindeer Lake provides an example of how CCF planners established new villages; community development processes excluded local people. Yet, in spite of considerable resistance, various incentives and coercive measures resulted in the movement of nearly all northerners to permanent settlements.
In 1959, Douglas promised universal medical care insurance, based on pre-payment, quality service and government administration, and through a scheme acceptable to both doctors and patients. The election of 1960 was fought on this issue; the doctors campaigning against it, but the CCF won.
The CCF comprised two contradictory traditions - a group aligned with a rational, bureaucratic, statist approach to government and a faction dedicated to the populist ideals of democratic participation. The struggle between these two sometimes overlapping factions ended, at least temporarily, with the resignation of Douglas and the succession of Woodrow S. Lloyd (1913-72) as premier in November 1961. Lloyd's statist approach to government dominated the CCF and its policies during the critical period of the introduction of a province-wide system of state-sponsored medical insurance. No referendum or local control through community clinics was permitted in the implementation of the medical insurance plan. The plan was presented to the public not for its approval but for its acceptance. The CCF did consider community involvement necessary. After twenty years in office, a centrist-bureaucratic ideology dominated the party and the anti-statist decentralist in the Saskatchewan CCF was in retreat.
The Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Bill became law in November 1961, and the medical society announced doctors would refuse to participate, complaining that it would bring regimentation and would interfere with the doctor-patient relationship. The doctors did strike for a few weeks in July, 1962, but returned when new legislation allowed them to practise outside the system. Eventually the Saskatchewan plan was so popular that in 1968 the federal government extended it nationwide.
Douglas, who led the federal New Democratic Party, a formal alliance between the CCF and organized labour, was defeated in the federal election of 1962, due to the backlash against the CCF's medical care program. In 1964 the Liberal party swept to victory behind Ross Thatcher (1917-71 ) , ending 20 years of CCF government. The Liberals had launched a strong party membership drive and engaged in vigorous campaigning on a platform demanding more private enterprise and industrial development; it promised substantial tax cuts. The CCF's internal factionalism, together with lingering reaction to the medical care crisis of 1962 and the separate school issue, contributed to the CCF defeat.
The impact of the Douglas government on the rest of the country was profound, both in public policy and the bureaucratic machinery devised to implement it. After the defeat in 1964, the former administration's influence continued to ripple out from Regina, as senior civil servants left the province and became influential elsewhere.
Thatcher and his Liberals were reelected in 1967, but were defeated in a landslide by Allan E. Blakeney (1925- ) and the NDP in 1971. The NDP was reelected in 1975, as the long-dormant Progressive Conservative party made a comeback. The NDP decided to nationalize the potash industry in 1976-78 by buying out 45% of the mining interests. By 1979 the Crown Investments Corporation, the holding company for the crowns, had assets of $3.5 billion and revenues of over $1 billion. Nationalization was the central issue in the 1978 elections; the NDP held its own but the Liberals were wiped out and the Progressive Conservative party grew. Prosperity was at hand, with good prices for wheat and expansion of oil and uranium. The NDP spent resource revenues to build on the social welfare legacy of the CCF. It introduced a guaranteed income supplement for senior citizens, a family income plan for the working poor, a children's dental service, and a prescription drug plan. Saskatchewan joined Alberta against Ottawa in the fight for control of natural resources.
Voters went to the polls in 1982 as the economy started slipping, with falling prices for wheat, oil, potash and uranium. The NDP was routed after a dozen years in power, dropping from 45 seats to 9 while the the Progressive Conservative party took all the other 55 seats. The new premier was 37-year-old economist Grant Devine (1944- ), who won with a simple populist message: the people should share in the wealth of the province rather than watch it contribute to the expansion of the 24 Crown corporations. The new government ended the 20% tax on gasoline and lower interest rates on mortgages. It was reelected in 1986 and began selling off crown corporations. The government said the companies would operate more profitably as private businesses. The opposition NDP warned that the sales would result in loss of control over the province's key economic sectors.
After taking over balanced books in 1982, the Progressive Conservatives spent liberally on a number of voter-friendly initiatives, including tax rebates and mortgage subsidies, as well as investing millions in several money-losing megaprojects. The provincial deficit peaked at $1.2 billion in 1986-87, and the accumulated debt rose from $3.5 billion to $15 billion. The Progressive Conservatives, based in rural areas and small towns, lost many rural voters after pushing through the unpopular U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement in 1989. As a result, the NDP was returned to power in 1991.
Scandals involving top officials ruined the Progressive Conservative party, which suspended operations in 1997; conservative voters moved to the new Saskatchewan party at the provincial level, and to the Reform party at the national level. The NDP won reelection in 1995 and 1999, and (in coalition with the Liberals) again in 2003. Lerne Calvert (1952- ), an ordained minister, served as NDP premier 2001-2007.
Brad Wall (1965- ) became premier as his centre-right Saskatchewan Party took over from the NDP after a landslide victory in the November 2007 election.
Social and economic trends
In 2005 two-thirds of the province's population lived in urban areas, there was a diverse economic base, and citizens enjoyed a rich cultural life. The economic future based on high-priced oil and wheat looks bright. Saskatchewan is the ninth biggest supplier of oil to the U.S., shipping them more than Kuwait. The province has 1.2 billion barrels of recoverable conventional oil and an estimated 1.5 billion barrels of potential oil sands reserves (which create troublesome high carbon emissions).
The rural towns have evolved from a very large number of widely dispersed grain delivery points in 1900, through a period of expansion over the first thirty years of 20th century, to a pattern of relatively concentrated population and businesses in an urban-based economy by 2000. Mechanization, especially the rapid replacement of horses by tractors after 1945, meant one family could operate a much larger farm, so some farmers bought out their neighbors, who then moved to town along with the surplus children. The rural economy diversified far beyond its exclusively agricultural base, with service employment in education and medicine important, as well as small-scale factories. Better highways, along with cell phones and internet coverage encouraged a concentration in fewer, larger centers, which drew customers and clients from a wide radius. Most rural communities declined continuously over the second half of the 20th century, but some grew in population, expanded their economic base, and experienced an increase in their market areas for a limited range of goods and services. These communities also became centers of employment for their own and surrounding (farm and nonfarm) population.
Surveys and reference
- The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan: A Living Legacy. U. of Regina Canadian Plains Research Center, 2005. online 1071pp in print edition
- The Canadian Encyclopedia (2008) a very good starting point
- The Dictionary of Canadian Biography(1966-2006), scholarly biographies of every important person who died by 1930
- Archer, John H. Saskatchewan: A History (1980), a standard survey
- Barnhart, Gordon L., ed. Saskatchewan Premiers of the Twentieth Century. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 2004. 418 pp.
- Bocking, D.H. Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan History (1979)
- Boswell, Randy. Province with a Heart: Celebrating 100 Years in Saskatchewan (2005) 224pp, popular excerpts and text search
- Friesen, Gerald. The Canadian Prairies: A History (2nd ed. 1987)
- Pitsula, James M. "Disparate Duo" Beaver 2005 85(4): 14-24, a comparison with Alberta, Fulltext in EBSCO
- Richards, J. Howard and K.I. Fung, eds. Atlas of Saskatchewan (1969)
- Waiser, Bill, and John Perret. Saskatchewan: A New History (2005), 563 pp. the major scholarly survey
- Barnhart, Gordon L. Peace, Progress and Prosperity: A Biography of Saskatchewan's First Premier, T. Walter Scott (2000) excerpt and text search
- Biggs, L. and Stobbe, M., ed. Devine Rule in Saskatchewan: A Decade of Hope and Hardship. Saskatoon: Fifth House, 1991. 342 pp
- Eisler, Dale. Rumours of Glory: Saskatchewan and the Thatcher Years (1987). covers 1964-71 using 134 interviews with prominent figures
- Gruending, Dennis. Promises to Keep: A Political Biography of Allan Blakeney. (1990). 288 pp.
- Harding, Jim, ed. Social Policy and Social Justice: The NDP Government in Saskatchewan during the Blakeney Years. (1995). 484 pp.
- Johnson, A. W. Dream No Little Dreams: A Biography of the Douglas Government of Saskatchewan, 1944-1961. (2004). 370 pp. excerpts and text search
- Lipset, Seymour Martin. Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan, a Study in Political Sociology (1950) online edition, b\y a leading conservative scholar
- Laycock, David. Populism and Democratic Thought in the Canadian Prairies, 1910 to 1945. (1990). 369 pp.
- Leeson, Howard, ed. Saskatchewan Politics: Into the Twenty-First Century. Regina: Canadian Plains Researcg Center, 2001. 425 pp.
- Pitsula, James M. and Ken Rasmussen. Privatizing a Province: The New Right in Saskatchewan. (1990), an attack from the left
- Rea, J. E. "The Wheat Board & the Western Farmer." Beaver 1997 77(1): 14-23. Issn: 0005-7517 Fulltext: Ebsco
- Smith, David E. Prairie Liberalism: The Liberal Party in Saskatchewan, 1905-71 (1975) 352 pages
- Spencer, Dick. Singing the Blues: The Conservatives in Saskatchewan. (2007) 259 pp.
- Stewart, Walter. The Life and Political Times of Tommy Douglas. (2003)
- Wardhaugh, Robert A. Mackenzie King and the Prairie West. (2000). 328 pp.
- Warnock, John W. Saskatchewan: The Roots of Discontent and Protest (2004) 256 pages excerpts and text search
- Weir, Erin. Saskatchewan at a Crossroads: Fiscal Policy and Social Democratic Politics (2004) excerpts and text search
- Young, Walter D. The Anatomy of a Party: The National CCF, 1932-1961, (1969) 328 pages
Social, economic, cultural themes
- Bennett, John W. and Seena B. Kohl. Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890-1915: Pioneer Adaptation and Community Building. An Anthropological History. (1995). 311 pp. online edition
- Bliss, Jacqueline. "Seamless Lives: Pioneer Women of Saskatoon 1883-1903." Saskatchewan History 1991 43(3): 84-100
- Bowen, Dawn Suzanne. "'Forward to a Farm': The Back-to-the-Land Movement as a Relief Initiative in Saskatchewan during the Great Depression." PhD dissertation Queen's U., 1998. 279 pp. DAI 1999 59(7): 2660-A. DANQ27817 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Calder, Alison and Wardhaugh, Robert, ed. History, Literature, and the Writing of the Canadian Prairies.U. of Manitoba Press, 2005. 310 pp.
- Cottrell, Michael. "The Irish in Saskatchewan, 1850-1930: a Study of Intergenerational Ethnicity." Prairie Forum 1999 24(2): 185-209. Counting both Catholics and Protestants Irish comprised 10% of the population
- Dale-Burnett, Lisa, ed. Saskatchewan Agriculture: Lives Past and Present. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, (2006) 205 pp. short biographies
- Danysk, Cecilia. Hired Hands: Labour and the Development of Prairie Agriculture, 1880-1930. (1995). 231 pp.
- DeBrou, Dave and Moffatt, Aileen, eds. "Other" Voices: Historical Essays on Saskatchewan Women. (1995). 166 pp.
- DeClercy, Cristine. "Women and the Public Sphere in Saskatchewan, 1905-2005." Prairie Forum 2007 32(2): 357-382. Issn: 0317-6282
- Dick, Lyle. Farmers "Making Good": The Development of Abernethy District, Saskatchewan 1880-1920 (1989),
- Emery, George. The Methodist Church on the Prairies, 1896-1914. (2001). 259 pp.
- Fairbanks, C. and S.B. Sundberg. Farm Women on the Prairie Frontier. (1983)
- Friesen, Victor Carl. Where the Rivers Run: Stories of the Saskatchewan and the People Drawn to Its Shores. (2001.) 480 pp.
- Hayden, Michael. Seeking a Balance: The University of Saskatchewan, 1907-1982 (1983) online edition
- Hewitt, Steve. Riding to the Rescue: The Transformation of the RCMP in Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1914-1939. (2006). 205 pp. excerpt and text search
- Hodgson, Heather, ed. Saskatchewan Writers: Lives Past and Present. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, 2004. 247 pp. short biographies
- Jones, David C. Empire of Dust: Settling and Abandoning the Prairie Dry Belt. (1987) 316 pp.
- Jones, Harlo L. O Little Town: Remembering Life in a Prairie Village. (1995). 236 pp. memoir of the town of Dinsmore
- Keahey, Deborah. Making It Home: Place in Canadian Prairie Literature. (1998). 178 pp.
- Lalone, Meika and LaClare, Elton. Discover Saskatchewan: A Guide to Historic Sites. (1998). 206 pp.
- Langford, N. "Childbirth on the Canadian Prairies 1880-1930." Journal of Historical Sociology, 1995. Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 278-302.
- Langford, Nanci Louise. "First Generation and Lasting Impressions: The Gendered Identities of Prairie Homestead Women." PhD dissertation U. of Alberta 1994. 229 pp. DAI 1995 56(4): 1544-A. DANN95214 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Love, Ronald S. Sasktel: The Biography of a Crown Corporation and the Development of Telecommunications in Saskatchewan (2003)
- Moffatt, Aileen Catherine. "Experiencing Identity: British-Canadian Women in Rural Saskatchewan, 1880-1950." PhD dissertation U. of Manitoba 1996. 324 pp. DAI 1997 58(4): 1411-A. DANN16212 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Palmer, Howard. The Settlement of the West (1977) online edition
- McCourt, Edward. Saskatchewan (1968) travel
- Millions, Erin. "Breaking the Mould: a Historiographical Review of Saskatchewan Women's History, 1880-1930." Saskatchewan History 2002 54(2): 31-49.
- Olfert, M. Rose and Jack C. Stabler, "Rural Communities of the Saskatchewan Prairie Landscape." Prairie Forum 2000 25(1): 123-138. Issn: 0317-6282
- Parson, Edna Tyson. Land I Can Own: A Biography of Anthony Tyson and the Pioneers Who Homesteaded with Him in Neidpath, Saskatchewan (1981)
- Pitsula, James M. "Muscular Saskatchewan: Provincial Self-identity in the 1920s." Saskatchewan History 2002 54(2): 6-17.
- Rollings-Magnusson, Sandra. "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2000 37(2): 223-238. Issn: 0008-4948 Fulltext: Ebsco
- Taylor, Georgina M. "'Ground for Common Action': Violet McNaughton's Agrarian Feminism and the Origins of the Farm Women's Movement in Canada." PhD dissertation Carleton U. 1997. 617 pp. DAI 1998 59(4): 1300-A. DANQ26870 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Thompson, Christian, ed. Saskatchewan First Nations: Lives Past and Present (2004), short biographies excerpt and text search
- Thompson, John Herd. Forging the Prairie West. (1998)
- Wardhaugh, Robert A., ed. Toward Defining the Prairies: Region, Culture, and History. (2001). 234 pp.
- Warren, Jim and Carlisle, Kathleen, eds. On the Side of the People: A History of Labour in Saskatchewan. Regina: Coteau Books, 2005. 344 pp.
- Wurtele, Susan Elizabeth. "Nation-Building from the Ground Up: Assimilation through Domestic and Community Transformation in Inter-War Saskatchewan." PhD dissertation Queen's U., 1993. 414 pp. DAI 1994 55(1): 135-A. DANN85326 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
- Hillis, Doris, ed. Plainspeaking: Interviews with Saskatchewan Writers. (1988). 304 pp.
- Kates, Jack. Don't You Know It's Forty Below? Cypress, Calif.: Seal, 2000. 451 pp. life in Sheho
- Paget, Amelia M. People of the Plains. (1909, reprint 2004). 199 pp.
- Smith, David E., ed. Building a Province: A History of Saskatchewan in Documents. Saskatoon: Fifth House, 1993. 443 pp.
- Thomas, Lewis Herbert, and T. C. Douglas. The Making of a Socialist: The Recollections of T.C. Douglas (1984) online edition
- railway map (about 1931)
- Highways, (1926)
- political map (2001)
- Geological Atlas of Saskatchewan (2007)
- ↑ Bob Russell, More with Less: Work Reorganization in the Canadian Mining Industry (1999)
- ↑ See [http://www.potashcorp.com/about_potashcorp/at_a_glance/potash/ "At a Glance" (2006)
- ↑ See [http://www.eboardoftrade.com/files/Miscellaneous/Oil_Sands_in_Sask.pdf "Oil Sands in Saskatchewan" (2006)
- ↑ See [http://www.ir.gov.sk.ca/adx/aspx/adxGetMedia.aspx?DocID=5871,5775,2936,Documents&MediaID=18882&Filename=crude.pdf "Fact Sheet: Oil in Saskatchewan" (2006)
- ↑ See [http://www.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=4a57f37e-88de-4da5-b6a8-411793a739d5 "Oil and Gas Industry"
- ↑ See [http://www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/ntn53965.htm "Oil in Saskatchewan"
- ↑ See "SaskTel Reports 2007 Net Income of $84.1 Million," April 23, 2008 and Ronald S. Love, Sasktel: The Biography of a Crown Corporation and the Development of Telecommunications in Saskatchewan (2003)
- ↑ Cheryl Binning, "Yorkton looks back, pushes forward," Playback Magazine May 22, 2007 online
- ↑ updated to 2005
- ↑ Sandra Rollings-Magnusson, "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2000 37(2): 223-238; W. T. Easterbrook, Farm Credit in Canada 1938.
- ↑ Peter Bush, Western Challenge: The Presbyterian Church in Canada's Mission on the Prairies and North, 1885-1925. (2000); Marjory Harper, "Probing the Pioneer Questionnaires: British Settlement in Saskatchewan, 1887-1914." Saskatchewan History 2000 52(2): 28-46. Issn: 0036-4908
- ↑ Sandra Rollings-Magnusson, "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2000 37(2): 223-238; E. Rowles, "Bannock, beans and bacon: An investigation of pioneer diet." Saskatchewan History, 1952. Vol. V, No 1, pp. 1-16.
- ↑ James M. Pitsula, "Disparate Duo" Beaver 2005 85(4): 14-24.
- ↑ Ronald S. Love, "'A Harebrained Plan': Saskatchewan and the Formation of a Provincial Telephone Policy, 1906-1912." Saskatchewan History 2005 57(1): 15-33.
- ↑ Girard Hengen, "A Case Study in Urban Reform: Regina Before the First World War." Saskatchewan History 1988 41(1): 19-34
- ↑ Ian Macpherson, "Missionaries of Rural Development: the Fieldmen of the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, 1925-1965." Agricultural History 1986 60(2): 73-96. Issn: 0002-1482; Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ Eric J. Strikwerda, "From Short-term Emergency to Long-term Crisis: Public Works Projects in Saskatoon, 1929-1932." Prairie Forum 2001 26(2): 169-186. Issn: 0317-6282
- ↑ Lispet, Agrarian Socialism (1971 edition) pp 49-50
- ↑ Lispet, Agrarian Socialism (1971 edition) pp. 51-2
- ↑ See Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ F. Laurie Barron, Walking in Indian Moccasins: The Native Policies of Tommy Douglas and the CCF (1997) online edition
- ↑ Keith Brownsey, "Policy, Bureaucracy and Personality: Woodrow Lloyd and the Introduction of Medicare in Saskatchewan." Prairie Forum 1998 23(2): 197-210; Brett Quiring, "The Social and Political Philosophy of Woodrow S. Lloyd." Saskatchewan History 2004 56(1): 5-20.
- ↑ See Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ Johnson, Dream No Little Dreams (2004)
- ↑ See Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ See Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ "Saskatchewan Tories in Fraud Scandal", McClean's Magazine Nov. 18, 1996
- ↑ See Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ See Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ See Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
- ↑ Luiza Ch. Savage, "Fuelling up a New Future," Maclean's Mar. 24, 2008
- ↑ M. Rose Olfert and Jack C. Stabler, "Rural Communities of the Saskatchewan Prairie Landscape." Prairie Forum 2000 25(1): 123-138. Issn: 0317-6282