Science and politics

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Science and politics have had a diverse and intricate relationship in the early modern era, with different philosophies of science and politics contributing to various uses of science for political purposes.

Evolution and Politics

In the 19th century, Lamarckian evolution was supported by a wide set of social reformists and [socialists], who argued that improvements to a man's condition would be passed down to his children, improving later generations. Darwinian evolution, conversely, was used as a natural proof of Laissez-Faire economics, and since Darwin upheld evolutionary racism, it has been invoked to support imperialism, racism, and the fascist policies of Nazi Germany and Italy. Evolutionary theory was the leading force behind the many eugenics movements of the 20th century, leading to the death of millions.

Rise of Big Science

Since World War II, science has increasingly come under the auspices of government, which has funded large scientific projects, such as the Manhattan Project, Space Race, and military weapons projects, with clear political purposes.