The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is an intermediate federal appellate court based in the Manhattan borough of New York City. It hears appeals from federal district courts in New York, Connecticut and Vermont. Notable Second Circuit judges include Learned Hand and Guido Calabresi. Three judges from the Second Circuit have been elevated to the U.S. Supreme Court: John Marshall Harlan II, Thurgood Marshall, and Sonia Sotomayor. The Second Circuit is considered an especially important court, hearing appeals from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, which deals with most of the civil and criminal cases concerning Wall Street and the financial services industry.