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User:AK/Objections to evolution

36 bytes added, 21:47, 1 December 2012
extending draft article
12. plastoglobule (drop of lipids)
]][[Andrew McIntosh (professor)|A.McIntosh]] as creationist however declares that the decrease in [[entropy]] is generally possible, but there are [[nanomachines]] (which he differentiates from [[natural forces]] and attributes to outcome of [[design]] thus [[intelligence]]) necessary to achieve for that effect. He even tries to demonstrate the point with examples including the [[chemical bonds]] between [[nucleotides]] in [[DNA]] requiring an extra so called [[Gibbs free energy]] to take part in the process, an this extra energy can be provided in his view only by means of these [[molecular machines]]. He argues that if, for example, [[guanine]] and [[cytosine]], i.e. [[nucleotides]] paired in DNA, would be placed in a [[Petri dish]], they would refrain from bonding together as there is no machine (such as [[Molecular tweezer]]) to provide a free energy in a specific way to enable that bond to take place. Further on he points out that after [[living organism]] dies and these machines cease working, the DNA starts falling apart even while still being exposed to extra [[energy]]. Thus, he believes [[natural selection]] has no power to create new functional structures such as [[DNA]] or information [[biopolymer]], respectively, without which fertilized eggs would not turn into babies. Likewise, he refers to [[photosynthesis]] as to process that again requires functional machine (biological mini-factory) for which he holds the leaf containing [[photosynthesis#Photosynthetic membranes and organelles|photosynthetic membranes and organelles]] as a whole capable to raise locally a [[Gibbs free energy]], thus effectively catalyzing the chemical reaction and enabling photosynthesis to happen.<ref>McIntosh, A.C.: Functional Information and Entropy in living system, pp.115-126, Design and Nature III: Comparing Design in Nature with Science and Engineering , Vol 87 of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the environment, Editor Brebbia C.A., WIT Press, 2006.</ref>
== Notes ==<references group=note/>
== References ==
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