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Leviticus 18

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''Main page [[Leviticus]]''
'''Leviticus 18''' almost entirely consists of various laws on sexual relations, primarily as concerns illicit partners. The human author of Leviticus is evidenced herein as being Moses (Lv. 1:1; 7:37-38; 14:1-2; 27:34), and it provides covenantal “statutes and judgments and laws, which the LORD made between him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai given in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses” (Lv 26:46). Such This and other such statements <ref>Ex. 24:4,27; Num. 4:37,45,49; 9:23; 33:2; Dt. 31:9,22; Josh. 8:32; 14:2; 20:2; 21:2,8; 22:9; 23:6; Jdg. 3:4; 1Ki. 2:3; 8:53,56; 2Ki. 14:6; 2Chr. 23:18; 33:8; Neh. 9:14; Mk.7:10; 10:3–5; 12:19,26; Lk. 5:14; 16:29–31; 20:28; 24:27, 44; Jn. 5:45–47; 7:19, 23; Acts 3:22; Rm. 10:5</ref> oppose the Documentary Hypothesis of authorship.<ref>The 'Documentary Source Hypothesis' [http://www.ukapologetics.net/docu.htm''The 'Documentary Source Hypothesis'']</ref> Yet as the pagan nations were judged for disobeying the moral laws contained herein, (Lv. 18:24,27,28) and as the actions and laws of God established both the superior God and standard, (Dt. 4:7,8) the moral laws are seen as being universally applyingapplicable, directly or by adaptaton.
==Overview==
Leviticus as a whole is basically divided into three basic sections. The first of which is often called the Priestly Code. (1-16,25) in which are given ordinances regarding the Aaronic priesthood and its consecration and duties, laws of sacrifices and liturgical seasons, diet, and cleanliness. The second section is usually termed The Holiness Code. (18-26) which first deals with both basic moral laws which mainly forbid idolatry and illicit sexual partners. It is in the light of such foundational laws that we most basically understand how to obey, "love thy neighbor as thyself" (Lev. 19:18) In addition, various culturally applied civil and judicial laws are given, which are based on foundational moral principles but which usually require the particular culture of Israel at that time for their full literal obedience, though laws based upon their principles are seen to be in force today.<ref>Leviticus An Economic Commentary, by Gary North http://www.entrewave.com/freebooks/docs/a_pdfs/gnlv.pdf</ref>
===Cultural factors===
Historical background is an important consideration in interpreting Scripture,<ref>Hermeneutics - A Guide To Basic Bible Interpretation, By Darryl M. Erkel; V. The Basics of Bible Interpretation http://www.theologue.org/HERMENEUTICS-DMERKEL.html</ref> and which may be observed to have affected the institution of Levitical laws in all its categories, as well as laws given elsewhere. Israel was surrounded by idolatry, and for both practical and illustrative purposes their negative examples were often invoked as an example of how not to be, and of the punishment that such iniquities incurred. Revisionist writers seek to use these aspects to negate the universal scope and transcendence of Biblical laws against homosexual intercourse.<ref>Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. pp 100-01</ref>
Noted commentator Albert Barnes states
The laws of the Jews are commonly divided into moral, ceremonial, and judicial. The moral laws are such as grow out of the nature of things, and which cannot, therefore, be changed - such as the duty of loving God and his creatures. These cannot be abolished, as it can never be made right to hate God, or to hate our fellow-men. Of this kind are the [[Ten Commandments]], and these our Saviour has neither abolished nor superseded. The ceremonial laws are such as are appointed to meet certain states of society, or to regulate the religious rites and ceremonies of a people. These can be changed when circumstances are changed, and yet the moral law must be untouched. A general in an army may command his soldiers to appear sometimes in a red coat and sometimes in blue or in yellow. This would be a ceremonial law, and might be changed as he pleased. The duty of obeying him, and of being faithful to his country, could not be changed. <ref>Albert Barnes, (Mt. 5:18)</ref>
===Judicial and civil laws===
<ref>Albert Barnes, (Mt. 5:18)</ref>
== Chapter 18 ==
Laws in this chapter are prefaced with the admonition, "After the doings [H4639] of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings [H4639] of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk in their ordinances. [H2708] " (Lv. 18:3) Also Lev 18:30: "Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, [H2708] that ye commit not any one of these abominable customs [H2708], which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God." And in Lev 20:23: "And ye shall not walk in the manners [H2708] of the nation, which I cast out before you: for they committed all these things, and therefore I abhorred them."
The word for “doings” ma‛ăśeh [H4639] here is unique to Leviticus, and refers to works, as in Ps. 106:35, and additionally Israel is forbidden to follow after pagan ordinances (chûqqâh [H2708]), these being laws or statutes, indicating both general as well as religious practices are in view, the latter being made obvious as child sacrifice to Molech (v. 21), this being contrary to foundational law prohibiting murder.
This chapter begins with “The LORD spake unto Moses”, which usually prefaces the beginning of a chapter and sometimes a subsection, as a fuller outline will show. This is not said again until Lv. 19:1. In addition, Lv. 18:24-30 closes this chapter with a uniquely repetitious series of solemn warnings, being given directly after its list of sins, stating that these “abominations” (tô‛êbah,” the “abominable” word used more often to denote violations of immutable rather than ceremonial laws) are what caused the terminal judgment upon the inhabitants whom Israel was to conquer. Though not as extensive, such warnings or statements are also seen in such texts as Lv. 18:30; 20:22,23; Dt. 9:4,5; 12:30,31; 18:12; 1Kg1&nbsp;kg. 14:24; 16:3, 2Ki. 17:34; Jer. 10:3, but which are not directly seen after laws simply regarding unclean foods and ritual uncleanness.
*18:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
*16 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife: it is thy brother's nakedness.
*17 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter, neither shalt thou take her son's daughter, or her daughter's daughter, to uncover her nakedness; for they are her near kinswomen: it is wickedness.
*18 Neither shalt thou take a wife to her sister, to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her life timelifetime.
*19 Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness.
*20 Moreover , thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's wife, to defile thyself with her.
*21 And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.
*22 Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.
*28 That the land spue not you out also, when ye defile it, as it spued out the nations that were before you.
*29 For whosoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the souls that commit them shall be cut off from among their people.
*30 Therefore , shall ye keep mine ordinance, that ye commit not any one of these abominable customs, which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God.
====Lev. 18:6-17: Incest====
The primary type of illicit sex unions was that of incest, the prohibited degrees of which are specified from the 7th to the 17th verse. It is noted that incest was used and allowed in more ancient times, as God blessed Abraham (Genesis 12:1-3) while he was married to Sarah, his half-sister. Adam Clarke comments, "i.e., his sister by his father, but by a different mother. Some suppose Sarai was the daughter of Haran, and consequently the grand-daughter of Terah: this opinion seems to be founded on Gen_11:29, where Iscah is thought to be the same with Sarai, but the supposition has not a sufficiency of probability to support it." Even if this was the case, as with Eve being “the mother of all living” (Gen. 3:20), then their immediate offspring would have married each other and had offspring. In addition, in accordance with Genesis 9:1, Noah and his three sons and their wives repopulated the entire world following the great Flood,
The most warranted explanation for this allowance during the Patriarchal age was that the effects of the Fall of man (Gn. 3) were progressive, and the deleterious genetic effects which are often a result of intermarriage between close kin were not realized until much later. In addition, the great ages of the antediluvian peoples enabled a greater age difference between offspring and longer time of marriageability, thus likely reducing other possible negative aspects of such intermarriage. All of which served to greatly increase population, and to provide greater family security. However, as generations reproduced, and solar and cosmic radiation increased after the Noahic Flood (Genesis 6-9), a realization and or increase of chemical and viral mutagens, and DNA replication errors would have resulted in manifest genetic disorders. As the laws of God, who is said to need nothing (Acts 17:25), but who loves righteousness (Ps. 45:7; Heb. 1:9) are to our benefit, then God is seen as protecting His people by enacting universal injunctions against incestuous marriages under Moses.<ref>Thompson and Major, 1987, 7[2]:7)</ref>(conservative est. 1500 years).
Keil and Deitzch comment,
====Lev. 18:18: Marriage to wife's sister====
A wife to her sister - Thou shalt not marry two sisters at the same time, as Jacob did Rachel and Leah; but there is nothing in this law that rendered it illegal to marry a sister-in-law when her sister was dead; therefore the text says, Thou shalt not take her in her life time, to vex her, alluding probably to the case of the jealousies and vexations which subsisted between Leah and Rachel, and by which the family peace was so often disturbed. Some think that the text may be so understood as also to forbid polygamy.<ref>Adam Clarke</ref>
It is to be noted that Jacob did not plan to marry RachelLeah, but in an example of poetic justice, he was the victim of a "bait and switch" plan by his cunning uncle Laban,(Gn. 29) brother to Jacob's mother, which indicates such cunning deceit ran in the family, though with Jacob it was to be weeded out.
====Lev. 18:19: sexual relations during menstruation====
"Moreover thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's wife, to defile thyself with her."
This is a basic and universally immutable moral law, which is is condemned as far back as Gn. 20.
====Lev. 18:21: Child sacrifice to false gods====
(Lev 20:13) "If a man ['îysh] also lie [shâkab] with mankind [zâkâr], as he lieth [mishkâb] with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination [tô‛êbah]: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them."
While these commands explicitly condemn homosexual intercourse between males and are presented as general commands given to all Israel, relatively recently these have become the subject of an intense attack by prohomosex polemicistspro-homosex [[polemicist]]s. While most admit that sexual moral codes are transcultural and transhistorical, attempts are made to find grammatical, categorical and cultural aspects that would disallow the injunctions which prohibit homosexual intercourse.
Most of these prohomosex writers usually first assert that the Hebrew word ''tōʻēḇā'' for ''abomination'', which describes male sex with men here, does not usually signify something inherently evil, like adultery or theft, but something which is ceremonially unclean for Jews, such as the dietary laws. (Lv. 11).<ref>Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. pp 100-01</ref> <ref>Jesus, the Bible, and Homosexuality By Jack Bartlett Rogers, p. 72.</ref><ref>Horner, David loved Jonathan, p.73,85.</ref><ref>Daniel Helminiak, What the Bible Really Says About Homosexuality, pp. 46 - 47 , http://www.reformed.org/social/index.html?mainframe=http://www.reformed.org/social/hodges_response_helminiak.html</ref> The Hebrew word “zimmâh” (Lv. 19:29) is instead sometimes suggested as the word which would be have been used if the prohibitions , of Lv. 18:22; was , were not intrinsically evil.
Such revisionists generally conclude that these Levitical injunctions against homosexual intercourse only prohibit pagan temple prostitution, or were only concerned with the waste of sperm, though even noted prohomosex author Robin Scroggs thinks the latter explanations to be conjecture which are best not to speculate about.,<ref>''The New Testament and Homosexuality'', p. 73.</ref>, rather than being universal and transcendent injunctions , such as the other laws against illicit partners are.
An attempt is also made to create a division between Lv. 18:20, which prohibits adultery, and the next verse, which forbids child sacrifice to Molech, which is supposed to render the next law (v. 22) as only forbidding homosex in the that type of idolatrous context.
Examining the first basis for their claim manifests that this argument is not substantiated by the original language, as the Hebrew word ''tōʻēḇā'' is actually not used in Leviticus for dietary violations, and is only used 2 or 3 times elsewhere to refer to such things as being abominable for Israel, (Dt. 14:3; Jer. 16:18) while it is the word most often used in denoting grave moral ''abominations'', including clearly universally sinful practices. (Dt. 7:25; 18:9-12 13, 2Kg2&nbsp;kg. 21:2-7; 2Chr. 33:2,3; Is. 1:13; 44:19; Jer. 7:10; 32:35) And which includes illicit sexual unions. (Dt. 24:2-4; 1Kg1&nbsp;kg. 14:24; 2Ki. 16:3; 21:2,11; Ezek. 16:22,58; 18:10-13; 22:11; 33:26) Collectively, it is also used for all the sins of Lv. 18 + 20. (Lv. 18:27-30) In contrast, the word most used, and only used for ceremonial violations, is “sheqets” (Leviticus 7:21; 11:10-13,20,23,41,42; Is. 66:17; Ezek. 8:10), and then “shâqats,” from which it is derived, which is only used in Leviticus for dietary violations (Leviticus 11:11,13,43; 20:25; Dt. 7:26; Prv. 22:24).
As regards zimmâh, unlike ''tōʻēḇā'', this word is not not often used for specific sexual sins, but is generally seen in reference to sexual "lewdness," (Jdg. 20:6; Jer.13:27, Eze. 16:43, 58; 22:9; 23:21,27,29,35,48-49; Eze. 24:13; Hos. 6:9). It often is another word to describe the vile nature of many clearly universally universal sins which are also categorized as tōʻēḇā, (Lv. 18:17; 19:29; Jer. 13:27; Ezek. 22:11: adultery=tōʻēḇā, incest= zimmâh ). Yet , it is not always used for all universal sexual sins, and the absence of zimmâh in relation to a sexual sin cannot necessarily negate the intrinsic evil of its nature, while sins which tōʻēḇā refers to include such.
In addition, ceremonial dietary and ritual cleansing laws overall do not target pagan cultic activity. However, there are practices which evidently are a direct expression of formal idolatry, such as temple prostitution (Dt. 23:17), versus amoral things which merely accompany idolatry activity, such as a grove of trees in worship (Dt. 16:21). The Bible makes these categories discernible, as it lists the type of sins which were ceremonial, (Gal. 4:10; Col. 16,17; Heb. 9:10) while explicitly reincorporating many basic moral commands in the Mosaic code into the New Testament code,<ref>Homosexuality and the Old Testament, P. Michael Ukleja http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/OTeSources/03-Leviticus/Text/Articles/Ukleja-Homsex-BS.htm</ref> upholding basic universal moral laws by type and often individually. <ref>Charles C. Ryrie, "The End of the Law," Bibliotheca Sacra 124 (July-September July–September 1967):246.</ref><ref>By this it is not meant that Christians are "under law" as though being saved on account of his works, in contrast to imputed righteousness by faith, (Rm. 3-5), or that we look to the letter of the law as the standard, over its intent and foundational basis, but because of faith in the Lord Jesus, Christian are mandated and rightly motivated and enabled to fulfill the righteous intent of the law (Rm. 8:4), which goes beyond the letter of it (though it is evident that this results in keeping the letter of basic universal moral laws as well)</ref> (Rm. 13:8-10; Heb. 10:28; Ja. 4:11; 1Cor. 10:7; 2Cor. 6:16,17; 1Jn. 5:21; Rv. 9:20; 13:14,15 14:11; 1Tim. 6:1; Eph. 6:1-3; 1Cor. 9:8,9) with unlawful sex between outlawed partners or outside marriage being prohibited in the N.T. (Mat. 5:32; 15:19; 19:9; Mk. 7:21; Jn. 8:41; Acts 15:20; 15:29; 21:25; Rom. 1:29; 1Co_5:1; 1Co. 6:9,13, 18; 7:2; 2Co. 12:21; Gal. 5:19; Eph. 5:3; Col. 3:5; 1Ths. 4:3; Heb. 12:16; 13:4; 1Pet. 4:3; Rev. 9:21; 14:8, 17:2, 4; 18:3; 19:2) The prohibitions against homosexual intercourse clearly fit in this category by type,<ref>"That Which is Unnatural" Homosexuality in Society, the Church, and Scripture by Joseph P. Gudel -ICR http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0108a.html</ref> and are it is only condemned where explicitly mentioned and never sanctioned wherever such is dealt with (Rm. 1:16,27) while accompaniments things such as simply where to worship or eat would only be contextually wrong. (1Cor. 8,10)
Secondly, neither the grammar nor any categorical division or cultural context warrants relegating these Levitical commands to merely being prohibitory of idolatrous temple homosex.
*Contains the marks of moral impurity. Contrary to those who dismiss these prohibitions as antiquated ritual purity law, the prohibition bears the marks of a moral purity issue. Unlike impurity of a merely ritual sort (e.g., corpse impurity, genital discharges, scale disease), moral impurities such as the prohibitions of incest, adultery, male-male intercourse, and bestiality are not (a) contagious through physical contact and (b) rectified by ritual bathing; moreover, (c) moral impurities concern only intentional acts. They also do not involve merely an exchange of fluid (as does menstrual impurity)
*Adopts a creation/nature model. The prohibition leads the hearer back to a foundational creation/nature model (cf. also the prohibition of bestiality as illicit "mixing" of creation boundaries)
*Appropriated by the New Testament. The term ''arsenokoitai '' ("men who lie with a male") in 1 Corinthians 6:9 , is formulated from the [[Septuagint ]] translation of Lev 18:22 and 20:13, which refers to not 'lying' (koite) with a 'male' (arsen). Paul's critique of homosexual relations in Romans 1:24-27 also echoes Lev 18 and 20 by using two terms that appear in Septuagint translation of these chapters: ''akatharsia '' ("uncleanness, impurity" in Romans 1:24 and Lev 18:19; 20:21, 25) and ''aschemosune '' ("indecency, indecent exposure" in Rom 1:27 and twenty-four times in Lev 18:6-19; 20:11, 17-21). <ref>Gagnon, Why the disagreement over the Biblical witness on homosexual practice? http://www.westernsem.edu/files/westernsem/gagnon_autm05_0.pdf</ref>
As regard regards the attempts to negate the universality and transcendence of v. 22 by creating a divisional break from universal laws to culturally -bound laws, beginning in v. 21 due to the culturally specific aspect of child sacrifice to Molech, this also cannot be established, as that law is not restricted to child sacrifice to only one specific idol, and cannot be relegated to merely being ceremonial. Rather, it is based upon foundational moral law (Gn. 9:5,6; Ex. 20:2; 34:15) and is literally applicable in principal and by modification to all cultures and times. In addition, consistent with the prohomosex hermeneutic behind their attempt, v.19 (intercourse during menstruation, which is more akin to ceremonial law) would disallow the intrinsic sinfulness of the next verse (adultery). While types of laws are sometimes grouped together, Biblical laws codes as a whole are not strict categories of laws, but types are more manifest by their nature and foundational principals.
Moreover, when homosex or illicit heterosexual sex as a formal part of idolatrous activity is targeted, then the context makes that evident (Dt. 23:17,18), (“with dogs” likely referring to the manner of homosex relations). The historical fact is that in Canaanite culture, homosexuality was practices as both a religious rite and a personal perversion...Israel's pagan neighbours knew both secular and sacred homosexuality." <ref>Greg Bahnsen p 45</ref> Though some argue that there is no evidence to suggest these texts refer to Canaanite cultic practices<ref>Homosexuality Revisited in Light of the Current Climate, by Calvin Smith http://www.theologicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/homosexuality_revisited.pdf</ref>
However, extensive examination reveals that zakhar/zekhur are strictly gender specific words which are primarily used to differentiate between males and females in general, as well as those in special classes of people, and that is the only special significance it provides. These word provide a distinction between genders without signifying a difference in what the Levitical injunctions proscribe. The reason for their most prevalent use being within special classes of males is simply because that is most often the subject, from sacrificed animals to Jews returning from exile.
Some prohomosex polemicists argue that Lev. 20:13 only prohibits actual male intercourse, while also not forbidding lesbian eroticism.<ref>Wrestling with God and Men, pp. 80-93; by Steven Greenberg</ref><ref>The New Testament and Homosexuality, Palestinian Judaism Scroggs</ref>
However, as v. 22 is substantially evidenced as being based upon foundational design and decree, just as the forbiddance of bestiality in the next verse is, in principle its application is not restricted to only male homosex but same gender sex as well. Male sex with another male represents an illicit partner, contrary to all Biblical marriages, just as Molech represents an illicit object of worship, contrary to all statements relative to such, and the respective injunctions against both are universal based upon inherent qualities which disallow the forbidden functions.
More psychological attempts seeking to make these Levitical laws motive or disposition dependent. However motive (love, hate, consensuality) does not play a part in determining the forbiddance of homosex,<ref>Homosexuality in the Church, Richard B. Hays, (Lev. 18:22; 20:13)</ref> nor whether sex outside marriage or with any unlawful partner is valid in either Testament, in contrast with sexual legislation which stipulates such, (Dt. 22:13; 24:3; Num. 35:20; Dt. 22:23-29). Neither the mention of such or lack of mention of it establishes a factor which may sanctify an otherwise illicit union (adultery, incest etc., and all fornications are unequivocally sinful: cf. Gn. 34).
====Lev. 18:23: Bestiality====
"Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith: neither shall any woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto: it is confusion."
"A female one, as Aben Ezra notes, as a mare, cow, or ewe, or any other beast, small or great, as Ben Gersom, or whether tame or wild, as Maimonides;<ref> Hilchot Issure Biah, c. 1. sect. 16. (c) Geograph. l. 17. p. 551. (d) De Animal. l. 7. c. 19. (e) Euterpe, sive, l. 2. c. 46. (f) Hierozoic. par. 1. l. 2. c. 53. col. 642.</ref> and even fowls are comprehended, as the same writers observe:
"'It is confusion'"; a mixing of the seed of man and beast together, a blending of different kinds of creatures, a perverting the order of nature, and introducing the utmost confusion of beings, from whence monsters in nature may arise.<ref>John Gill</ref>
Gagnon notes,
"The only form of consensual sexual behavior that was regarded by ancient Israel, early Judaism, and early Christianity as more egregious than same-sex intercourse was bestiality. It is no accident that bestiality receives even less attention in the Bible than same-sex intercourse—it is mentioned only in Exod 22:19; Lev 18:23 and 20:15-16; and Deut 27:21."<ref>http://www.robgagnon.net/ZenitInterview.htm</ref>
=====Punishments=====
Keil and Deitzch comment,
"Sins mentioned under Nos. 1 [mother], 2 [stepmom], 3 [sister; half sister], 8 [daughter-in-law], and 10 [with a woman and her daughter, or a woman and her granddaughter] were to be followed by the death or extermination of the criminals (Lev_20:11-12, Lev_20:14, Lev_20:17), on account of their being accursed crimes (Deu_23:1; Deu_27:20, Deu_27:22-23). On the other hand, the only threat held out in the case of the connection mentioned under Nos. 6 [with an aunt, the sister of either father or mother], 7 [wife of an uncle on the father's side], and 9 [sister-in-law, or brother's wife], was that those who committed such crimes should bear their iniquity, or die childless (Lev_20:19-21). The cases noticed under Nos. 4 [granddaughter, the daughter of either son or daughter] and 5 [daughter of a step-mother] are passed over in ch. 20, though they no doubt belonged to the crimes which were to be punished with death, and No. 11 [two sisters at the same time], for which no punishment was fixed, because the wrong had been already pointed out in Lev_18:18."<ref>Keil and Deitzch</ref>
Male homosex is classified as a first tier offense requiring the death penalty, which stipulates that they shall “be put to death”.
J. P. Holding notes:
<blockquote>"The punishments range from "worst to best", from death to expulsion to barrenness. This suggests that the crimes are in a "worst to best" range as well, and our verse of concern is smack in the middle - and one of those that gets the death penalty! The context, the structure of the commands, and the punishment together suggest that what we have here is a universal condemnation of all such behavior!"<ref>http://www.tektonics.org/lp/lev18.html</ref></blockquote>
The use of the term 'lie' (here and in Lev 18:22) without qualifying verbs such as 'seize and (lie)', along with equal punishment for both parties, and two motive clauses 'Both of them have committed an abomination ... their blood is upon them', further evidences the unconditional and universal nature of the ban, and not simply against forcible homosexual intercourse as the Assyrians did, or with youths (as did the Egyptians).<ref>The Old Testament Attitude to Homosexuality Gordon J Wenham http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/article_attitude_wenham.html</ref>
Keil and Delitzsch comment,
"The land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants - This is a very nervous prosopopoeia or personification; a figure by which any part of inanimate nature may be represented as possessing the passions and reason of man. Here the land is represented as an intelligent being, with a deep and refined sense of moral good and evil: information concerning the abominations of the people is brought to this personified land, with which it is so deeply affected that a nausea is produced, and it vomits out its abominable and accursed inhabitants...The land is personified as a living creature, which violently rejects food that it dislikes. "
Paradoxically, the land is metaphorically said to do the opposite in Num. 14:32, in which the the faithless spies of Israel said it was one that "eateth up the inhabitants thereof".
Lv. 18:26: "Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments..."; The word for "statutes" (''chûqqâh'''[H2708]) is also often rendered "ordinances" in the [[KJV]] and other translations, and usually refers to the general commands of God, as well as those of pagans and their ways (religion and culture being inseparably intertwined), and even the laws of the universe. (Jer. 31:35; 33:25)
Albert Barnes comments,
"And ye shall not walk in the manners of the nation which I cast out before you,.... Nation seems to be put for nations, for there were seven nations cast out for them; though the Canaanites may be intended, being a general name for the whole: some think the Amorites are meant, who were a principal nation, and notorious for their wickedness: hence we often meet with this phrase in Jewish writings, "the way of the Amorites", as being exceeding bad, and so to be avoided, and by no means to be walked in, Gen_15:16,
Lv. 18:27: "For all these abominations..."; in the original language the word use here (and in vs. 27 and 30) for abominations, ''tōʻēḇā'', collectivity referring all of the condemned practices in this chapter, is not used in Leviticus for dietary and ritual cleanness violations, and is only used 2 or 3 times elsewhere to refer to such things as abominable for Israel (see “sheqets” and “shâqats” for such), and in contrast it is the word most often used in reference to grave moral abominations. "
Henry commentsstates that,
"Sinful customs are abominable customs, and their being common and fashionable does not make them at all the less abominable nor should we the less abominate them, but the more; because the more customary they are the more dangerous they are."
Lv. 18:29-30: God has elsewhere declared His good will for them and the blessings of obedience, (Ex. 3:,16-18; 6:8; 13:1-5; 19:5,6; 33:1-3) and will do so more, (Lv. 20:24; Dt. 14:12) but here the consequences of disobedience are made clear by varied repetition. Tragically, Israel did not learn obedience for long, but learned the way of the heathen which the prophets pleaded with them not to do, and to turn from (Jer. 6:16; 10:2ff; Is. 1:5; Hos. 6:1-3; 10:12). After much Divine long suffering, they thus realized great destruction in chastisements, and were scattered into the "four corners of the earth" (Lam. Ezek. 7:1-4ff). And to await the promised regathering of Israel (Is. 11:2ff) and redemptive enlightening, (Rom. 11)<ref>http://peacebyjesus.witnesstoday.org/israel-chosenorforgotten.html</ref> though divergent positions are held on such.<ref>The Millennial Kingdom By John F. Walvoord [http://books.google.com/books?id=2aTJCiHoxfsC&pg=PP1&dq=The+Millennial+Kingdom+By+John+F.+Walvoord#PPR12,M1The Millennial Kingdom By John F. Walvoord]</ref>
== See also ==
*[[Homosexual misinterpretation]]
== References ==
{{reflist|2}}
[[Category:Old Testament]] [[Category:Homosexuality]]
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