Atheism and obesity

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Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[1] According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[2]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[3]

Gallup declared concerning the study which measured the degree to which religiosity affects health practices: "Generalized linear model analysis was used to estimate marginal scores all five reported metrics after controlling for age (in years), gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, education (number of years), log of income, and region of the country... Results are based on telephone interviews conducted as part of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index survey Jan. 2-July 28, 2010, with a random sample of 554,066 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, selected using random-digit-dial sampling."[4] The Gallup study gives some insight into the above average health habits of the very religious and not necessarily the health habits of atheists. The reason is that the Gallup organization defines a non-religious as a person where "Religion is not an important part of daily life and church/synagogue/mosque attendance occurs seldom or never. This group constitutes 29.7% of the adult population."[5] While many Western atheists are non-religious, not all non-religious people are atheists.

Gallup further declares:

Very religious Americans make healthier choices than their moderately religious and nonreligious counterparts across all four of the Healthy Behavior Index metrics, including smoking, healthy eating, and regular exercise. Smoking is one area of particular differentiation between the very religious and less religious Americans, with the nonreligious 85% more likely to be smokers than those who are very religious.[6]

Studies on religion and self-control

In the journal article Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications, psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion's beneficial influences on self-control/self-regulation.[7][8] Furthermore, a 2012 Queen's University study published in Psychological Science found that religion replenishes self-control.[9][10] Also, numerous studies indicate that those who engage in regular spiritual practices have lower mortality rates.[11] [12]

Obesity, religion/irreligion, New Atheism and some general causes of obesity

From a medical perspective, an obese person has accumulated enough body fat that it can have a negative effect on their health. If a person's weight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he/she is generally considered obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight.[13] If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese.[14] The term obese can also used in a more general way to indicate someone who is overweight.[15]

Obesity is positively associated with neuroticism, impulsiveness, and lower self-discipline.[16]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[17] The Bible declares that gluttony is a sin.[18] Furthermore, the Bible declares the physical body of Christians to be temples of the Holy Spirit.[19] Another example of strongly held religious beliefs affecting behavior in terms of the avoidance of sins and health problems is that religious upbringing and culture affects rates of homosexuality and there are a number of diseases which homosexuals have higher incidences of. For example, homosexuality is rare among Orthodox Jews and even the liberal researcher Alfred Kinsey noted the rarity of homosexuality within the Orthodox Jewish community.[20] Therefore, it is not surprising that many very religious Christians and other religious groups which incorporate healthy beliefs and practices within their religion would leave healthier lives.

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[21] In addition, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom.[22][23][24] In January of 2011, CNN reported: "People unaffiliated with organized religion, atheists and agnostics also report anger toward God either in the past, or anger focused on a hypothetical image - that is, what they imagined God might be like - said lead study author Julie Exline, Case Western Reserve University psychologist."[25] Of course, given the irrationality of atheism, it is not surprising that there are atheists who are angry at God who is morally perfect.[26] A high percentage of the founders and prominent leaders of the militant New Atheism movement have had problems with being overweight and anger may have been a causal factor in some cases (see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight). Certainly anger cannot be ruled in terms of militant atheists, such as New Atheists, having problems with obesity (see: Theories of New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).

In addition, Christians have good reasons to believe a hedonist lifestyle is a causal factor of atheism (see: Causes of atheism).[27] The Apostle Paul wrote that in the end times, men would be lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God (2 Timothy 3:1-4). In May of 2012, the World Health Organization reported that "Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980."[28] In 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. Of these, over 200 million men and approximately 300 million women were obese.[29]

Atheism and Health

The prestigious Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.[30]

See also: Atheism and health and Atheism and suicide and Atheism, intelligence and obesity

There is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism [31] (For more information, please see: Atheism and health and Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism).

The prestigious Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[32]

The Iona Institute reported:

A meta-analysis of all studies, both published and unpublished, relating to religious involvement and longevity was carried out in 2000. Forty-two studies were included, involving some 126,000 subjects. Active religious involvement increased the chance of living longer by some 29%, and participation in public religious practices, such as church attendance, increased the chance of living longer by 43%.[33][34]

Sports involvement: Religious faith vs. atheism

See also: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism and Atheist nerds

Numerous studies report athletes to be more religious than nonathletes.[35]

As noted above, two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[36] In order to perform at their best, athletes generally must be active and make good dietary choices.

The Sports Journal is a monthly refereed journal published by the United States Sports Academy. A journal article appeared in the Sports Journal entitled Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions. The article was submitted by Nathan T. Bell, Scott R. Johnson, and Jeffrey C. Petersen from Ball State University.[37]

An excerpt from the abstract of the journal article Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions declares:

Numerous studies report athletes to be more religious than nonathletes (Fischer, 1997; Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, & Storch, 2001; Storch et al., 2004)...

Viewers of sporting events can frequently observe athletes pointing to the sky, engaging in team prayer on the court or field, and glorifying God following athletic competitions.[38]

Internet atheism and obesity

See also: Internet atheism and obesity and Internet atheism

In an essay entitled How the Atheist Movement Failed Me, an atheist woman noted that participation in the atheist community is often expensive due to the cost of attending atheist conferences and even local atheist meetings in restaurants and bars challenged her modest budget.[39] As a result of the challenges that atheists commonly have in terms of socializing in person, many atheists turn to the internet in terms of communicating with other atheists.[40]

In 2009, an Australian university study was done concerning the association between leisure time internet and computer use with being overweight and/or obese and also sedentary.[41] The study concluded: "These findings suggest that, apart from nutritional and physical activity interventions, it may also be necessary to decrease time spent in sedentary behaviors, such as leisure-time Internet and computer use, in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity."[42]

Atheism, intelligence and obesity

See: Atheism, intelligence and obesity

Explosive growth of global Christianity and the health habits of Christendom

See also: Global Christianity and Atheist population and Atheism and health

Hong Kong Christians at Gateway Camp. In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western World Christians as there were Western World Christians.[43]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

Christianity is the world's largest religion and it has seen tremendous growth over its 2000 year history.[44] In the last fifty years, Christianity has recently seen explosive growth outside the Western World.[45] In 2000, there were twice as many non-Western Christians as Western Christians.[46] In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western Christians as there were Western World Christians.[47] Of course, a big reason for the explosive growth of Christianity outside the Western world was due to highly religious people propagating the Christian faith and there are now more non-Western missionaries than Western missionaries.[48] Besides non-Westerners often being less sedentary, non-Western diets are often healthier than the diets Westerners consume and there is significantly less obesity in those non-Western cultures.[49][50][51] Therefore, in recent history Christendom has seen a large influx of very religious people who live healthy lifestyles and have low levels of obesity.

At the same time, many pastors in the Western World are indicating that a large segment of Western Christendom is acting like the prosperous, first century Corinthian and Laodicean churches who were undisciplined, ungodly and had a lukewarm commitment to the Christian faith and were commanded to repent (See also: Western ungodliness, prosperity, decadence and obesity).[52] Yet, as noted above, according to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[53] The troubled Church of Corinth repented of their ungodliness after being corrected by the Apostle Paul.[54][55]

Many nations with a Christian heritage or who are increasingly adopting Christianity are prosperous due to the contributions that Christianity brings to science, technology, economics and a nation's work ethic (see: Christianity and science and Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism and Atheism and economics).[56]

Commentary by atheist and feminist Jen McCreight

Jen McCreight, is an atheist and feminist columnist and blogger who has served on the Board of Directors of the Secular Student Alliance and she was also the cofounder and three-year president of Society of Non-Theists at Purdue University.[57][58] She wrote an article on atheism and obesity in 2011 where she indicated a desire to "shed a few pounds".[59] In 2011, a video with Jen McCreight was published as part of the We are Atheism campaign. In this video, she was overweight.[60]

Despite the fact that a strong majority of Christendom lives outside the Western World and is slimmer than many atheists in the Western World, Jen McCreight wrote an article on atheism and obesity where she cherry picked some data relative to some states in the United States with higher obesity rates than other states without mentioning the underlying socioeconomic/cultural factors related to this matter.[61] Historically, the Western atheist/evolutionist community has often shown socioeconomic/racial/cultural insensitivity and also displayed hypocrisy relative to this matter (See: Western atheism and race and Social Darwinism and Evolutionary racism and Atheism and uncharitableness). Atheists within racial minority populations and within the female population often complain that there is no significant outreach to their communities within the larger atheist community (see also: Atheism and women).[62][63]

Contents


American Atheists organization

Jamila Bey

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

See also: American Atheists and obesity and Atheist hypocrisy

Madalyn Murray O'Hair was the founder of the American Atheists organization and she was overweight.[64] One of the last pictures taken of Madalyn Murray O'Hair features her standing before a cake as can be seen HERE.

As of December 28, 2010, the pictures of the members of the American Atheists organization's board of directors showed a significant portion of its members having excess body weight. Members of the American Atheists board of directors who were overweight as of December 28, 2010 included: Richard Andrews, Blair Scott, Monty Gaither, and Ann Zindler. A picture of an overweight Richard Andrews can be found HERE. Pictures of an overweight Blair Scott can be found HERE and HERE. A picture of an overweight Monty Gaither can be found HERE. A picture of an overweight Ann Zindler can be found HERE.

On August 11. 2013, a new overweight member of their board of directors was listed - namely, Jamila Bey.[65] A video of an overweight Jamila Bey can be seen HERE.

The current pictures of the American Atheists board of directors can be found HERE. New research suggests that extra pounds and large waists undermine perceptions of leadership ability.[66]

Picture of an overweight PZ Myers

PZ Myers

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

See also: Internet atheism and obesity

2009 pictures of a significantly overweight PZ Myers can be found HERE and HERE and HERE. A 2010 picture taken in Australia shows PZ Myers drinking ale/beer and he had excess weight in his abdominal area.[67] In 2010, PZ Myers had health problems related to his heart.[68] In addition, medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[69]

Given PZ Myers' biological training and the wide dissemination of the harmful health effects of being overweight in terms of cardiovascular health and brain function, it is unfortunate that preventative medicine was not used in greater measure in terms of his health.[70][71][72] PZ Myers' inattention to diligently implementing the recommendations of nutritional science, exercise science and medical science is not entirely surprising given his vehement advocacy of evolutionary pseudoscience. There have been a number of notable evolutionists who have been overweight. On June 1, 2011, Myers posted a picture of himself and others on his blog and Myers appeared to no longer have issues with being overweight.[73]

PZ Myers is a leader within the New Atheism movement. A significant amount of leaders within the New Atheism movement have problems with being overweight (see: New Atheism leadership's problems with excess weight).

Picture of PZ Myers with some of his young overweight fans

See also: Overweight atheist PZ Myers posing with some young overweight fans

In 2011, Vox Day had an individual complain about the notion that the atheist community has a problem with obesity. As a result, on May 19, 2011, Vox Day released a blog post entitled Mailvox: now, who said atheists are fat? where 80% of the people taking a picture with PZ Myers were overweight and PZ Myers was overweight in the picture as well as can be seen HERE.[74] The picture was originally posted on PZ Myer's blog Pharyngula by Myers on May 16, 2011 and an online argument quickly ensued concerning the appearance of the photograph's participants.[75]

During his visit to the Creation Museum, PZ Myers had noticeably greater difficulty than others climbing on and off a dinosaur model due to the fact that he was overweight and out of shape.VIDEO

PZ Myers' visit to the Creation Museum

In August 2009, PZ Myers led a group of over 300 atheist and agnostic students on a tour of the Creation Museum.[76] During the visit, Myers had noticeably greater difficulty than others climbing on and off a dinosaur model due to the fact that he was overweight and out of shape.VIDEO

Ironic speech at the 2010 Global Atheist Convention

At the 2010 Global atheist Convention, an overweight PZ Myers likened belief in God to a brain infection plus made the blanket statement that religion makes people stupid and/or do stupid stupid things.[77] As noted above, according to medical science, being overweight causes brain impairment.[78]

PZ Myers in Toronto

A 2008 picture of an overweight PZ Myers meeting with people associated with the Center for Inquiry in Toronto can be found HERE

Please also see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight

Picture of an overweight atheist Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Hitchens was a leader in the New Atheism movement. A picture of an overweight Christopher Hitchens can be found HERE (see also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).

Hitchen's heavy drinking and chain-smoking and esophageal cancer

Christopher Hitchens was known for having a history of heavy drinking and chain-smoking.[79][80] Christopher Hitchens was being treated for esophageal cancer likely caused by drinking and smoking up until his death on December 15, 2011.[81][82] Despite his esophageal cancer, when asked by interviewer Charlie Rose if in retrospect he would have engaged in heavy drinking and smoking knowing his present cancer condition, Hitchens said he think he would have done things the same.[83]

Hitchen's excess weight and increased risk of esophageal cancer

As noted above, Hitchens also had problems with being overweight during his life (see also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).[84] According to the National Cancer Institute, "obesity is associated with increased risks of cancers of the esophagus."[85]

Daniel Dennett - atheist philosopher

Daniel Dennett is an atheist philosopher and he is considered a leader in the New Atheism movement. A June 10, 2009 picture of an overweight Daniel Dennet can be found HERE In the late 1990s, Dennet had coronary artery bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass surgery reroutes blood around clogged arteries to enhance blood flow and oxygen to the heart).[86][87] In 2003, a a video at Ted was published featuring an overweight Daniel Dennett. In 2013, a video embedded on a The Raw Story article featured an overweight Daniel Dennett.

Also, given that being overweight causes brain impairment and that Daniel Dennet has had issues with being overweight, it is ironic that Dennet's book Consciousness Explained is beloved by those who deny God in favor of a pseudoscientific naturalist philosophy of the mind.[88]

Nate Phelps spoke at the 2009 American Atheists convention.[89] Nate is currently the Executive Director of the Center for Inquiry Canada.[90]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement), Title: Nate Phelps AAC00 (a very brave man)

Victor J. Stenger

Victor J. Stenger (born 1935) is an American physicist, author and outspoken atheist. Victor Stenger is a leader within the New Atheism movement. A picture of an overweight Victor J. Stenger can be found HERE

New Atheism's leadership and problems with being overweight

See also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight and Atheist hypocrisy

The term New Atheism which first appeared in the November 2006 edition of Wired magazine, is frequently applied to a series of six best-selling books by five authors that appeared in the period between 2004–2008. These authors include Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett, Richard Dawkins, Victor J. Stenger and Christopher Hitchens.[91] 3 out of 5 of these leaders of the New Atheism movement have had issues with being overweight as can be seen HERE and HERE and HERE. PZ Myers is also a leader within the New Atheism movement and as noted earlier, Myers has had problems with being overweight. As of August 2013, Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris have not publicly commented on the significant problems the New Atheism leadership has experienced in terms of overweight members.

The ex-atheist Richard Dawkins has publicly indicated that he is an agnostic (see: Richard Dawkins and agnosticism). Since Dawkins is an an agnostic and not an atheist, this would mean that 3 out of 4 of the atheist founders of the New Atheism movement had excess weight issues. At a 75% of individuals overweight population, this would make the atheist founders of the New Atheist movement one of the most overweight populations in world history in terms of the percentage of people overweight.[92][93]

Hippocrates was an early advocate of the health benefits of exercise and also nutrition (see also: Nutritional science).[94] On the other hand, PZ Myers and a significant amount of other New Atheists leaders, seem to have demonstrated a lack of a full appreciation of the importance of nutritional science, exercise science and the latest findings of medical science (see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight}.

There are a number of plausible explanations concerning the significant problems the New Atheism leadership has had with excess weight.

Richard Leakey

Richard Leakey is an anthropologist, evolutionist and atheist.[95] A 2008 picture of an overweight Richard Leakey can be found HERE. Other pictures of an overweight Leakey can be found HERE and HERE and HERE. In October 2010, he appeared to have a healthy weight.[96] However, a May 2012 picture of Leakey featured HERE in the USA Today had a picture of him where he was once more overweight.

Ed Brayton

Ed Brayton is an atheist blogger at freethoughtblogs.com. His blog Dispatches from the Culture Wars is a prominently featured blog at freethoughtblogs.com. He is also the co-founder and president of Michigan Citizens for Science and co-founder of the pro-evolution blog The Panda's Thumb.

Pictures of an overweight Ed Brayton can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

A video of an overweight Ed Brayton at the Kitzmiller vs. Dover Area School District trail can be HERE. A video of the overweight American atheist Ed Brayton mocking the fit Christian martial artist Chuck Norris can be found HERE. According to Chuck Norris, most obesity in America is the result of hedonism (see: Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity). Other videos of an overweight Ed Brayton can be found HERE and HERE.

Steven Novella

Steven Novella at a 2013 skeptics conference.

(photo obtained from Flickr, see: License agreement)

Steven Novella is a clinical neurologist and assistant professor at the Yale University School of Medicine. In addition, he is a medical advisor to the organization Quackwatch, serves as an associate editor of the Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, and he is the executive editor of the blog Science-Based Medicine.

Novella is a prominent atheist/skeptic who co-founded the New England Skeptical Society and he serves as their president. The organization's podcast, The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe, is popular within the skeptical movement. He also participated in the pro-evolution campaign called Project Steve and was one of the first 200 people to contribute the project as a signer.

There are several pictures posted on the internet of Novella where he exhibits possessing excess weight. For example, in 2011 at TAM9 (a global conference of skeptics), a picture was taken of Steven Novella where he is bending over a table and his excess abdominal weight appears to be hanging over his belt as can be seen HERE and HERE. Other pictures where Novella appears to have excess weight can be seen HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

Brian Dunning

Brian Dunning is an atheist/agnostic/skeptic, author, podcaster and owner of the website Skeptoid. On July 9, 2012, Dunning wrote: "However, in fairness, 6’1″ and 190 lbs does put me at the bottom end of the “Overweight” range on BMI calculators..".[97]

YouTube atheism

See also: Internet atheism

Chuck Norris endorses the Total Gym exercise system.[98]

In 2007, WorldNetDaily featured a column by the Christian Chuck Norris which declared:

Atheists are making a concerted effort to win the youth of America and the world. Hundreds of websites and blogs on the Internet seek to convince and convert adolescents, endeavoring to remove any residue of theism from their minds and hearts by packaging atheism as the choice of a new generation. While you think your kids are innocently surfing the Web, secular progressives are intentionally preying on their innocence and naivete.

What's preposterous is that atheists are now advertising and soliciting on websites particularly created for teens.

YouTube, the most popular video site on the Net for young people, is one of their primary avenues for passing off their secularist propaganda.[99]

Atheism internet outreach efforts, however, have been be very ineffective.

TheAmazingAtheist

As of August of 2012, the most popular YouTube channel run by an atheist is TheAmazingAtheist YouTube channel which has over 300,000 subscribers. TheAmazingAtheist YouTube channel is produced by an overweight atheist.[100] In one video, TheAmazingAtheist exclaimed "Why am I so fat?"[101]

On August 12, 2012, an article entitled Atheism: A religion of degenerates declared:

TheAmazingAtheists was caught on videotape doing something very perverse and unusual with chocolate syrup, coffee and a banana! The embarrassing episode was dubbed BananaGate. One of the last things TheAmazingAtheist needs in his residence is chocolate syrup given the abundant amount of flab which hangs over his belt... This is another example of atheism being a religion of foolish and depraved clowns.[102]
The article entitled Atheism: A religion of degenerates said of YouTube video creator TheAmazingAtheist and his recent scandal involving chocolate syrup, coffee and a banana: "One of the last things TheAmazingAtheist needs in his residence is chocolate syrup given the abundant amount of flab which hangs over his belt..."[103]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

HappieCabbie

As of September of 2011, the atheist who produces the YouTube channel HappieCabbie, which has over 28,000 subscribers, is also overweight.[104]

InfidelAvenger

InfidelAvenger is a YouTube atheist. A video of an overweight InfidelAvenger can be found HERE and HERE.

Greta Christina

Greta Christina is a popular atheist blogger at freethoughtblogs.com. In addition, she is a atheist speaker and author. A 2007 picture of an overweight Greta Christiana can be found HERE. She is in a same-sex marriage with a woman named Ingrid.[105]

See also: Lesbianism and obesity and Homosexuality and obesity

Bruce Gerencser

Bruce Gerencser is an atheist blogger who runs the blog The Way Forward.[106] A picture of an overweight Bruce Gerencser can be found HERE.

Video/pictures of an overweight atheist activist Michael Nugent

Michael Nugent is chairperson of the atheist group Atheist Ireland[107] A picture of an overweight Michael Nugent can be found HERE.

Stephanie Zvan

Stephanie Zvan is an atheist who has served as the Associate President for Minnesota Atheist and has written for Freethoughtblogs.com at their blog Almost Diamonds.[108] A picture of an overweight Stephanie Zvan can be found HERE.

Picture of an overweight Taslima Nasreen

The atheist Taslima Nasrin is an author who is known for her feminist and anti-Islamic views.[109][110] Ms. Nasreen has been divorced three times.[111] A picture of an overweight Taslima Nasreen can be found here: HERE

Matt Dillahunty - a host of atheist TV show

Matt Dillahunty

Stephen Fry

The atheist Stephen Fry is a English screenwriter, author, playwright, comedian, and film director.[112] A picture of an overweight Stephen Fry can be found HERE and HERE In 2009, the Mail Online reported that Stephen Fry went from being "appallingly corpulent" to having a weight where he can "at last bear to look at himself in the mirror again".[113] However, in March of 2011, Stephen Fry appeared to be once again overweight.[114]

Also, in a January 30, 2012 interview with Charlie Rose, Mr. Fry also had excess weight.[115] In his interview with Charlie Rose, Mr. Fry said that as a young man he hated exercise and sports.[116] Besides being an atheist, Mr. Fry is a homosexual.[117] Traditionally, players in male core sports teams (e.g., football, baseball, basketball,and/or soccer) are more likely to have unfavorable views of homosexuality.[118] See: Homosexuality and obesity and Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism

Picture of an overweight illusionist and comedian Penn Jillette

See also: Conservapedia's reply to atheist Penn Jillette

Penn Jillette (born 1955) is an American illusionist, comedian, juggler, musician and writer. Penn Jillette is an atheist.[119] A picture of an overweight Penn Jillette can be found HERE and HERE and HERE.

Skepchick writers who have excess weight challenges

See also: Skepchick and Skepchick writers who have excess weight challenges and Atheism and women and Atheism and health

According to Skepchick, "Skepchick is a group of women (and one deserving guy) who write about science, skepticism, feminism, atheism, secularism, and pseudoscience".[120] Yet despite medical science evidence indicating the health risks of excess weight, Skepchick has writers who are overweight (see sections below). See also: Atheist hypocrisy

Amy Davis Roth - writer at Skepchick

Amy Davis Roth is an atheist who writes for Skepchick.[121][122] Pictures of an overweight Amy Davis Roth can be found HERE and HERE.

Heina Dadabhoy - writer at Skepchick

Heina Dadabhoy is an atheist who writes for Skepchick.[123][124] Pictures of an overweight Heina Dadabhoy can be found HERE and HERE

Randy Henderson

Randy Henderson was head of Iowa Atheist and Freethinkers as of April 23, 2011.[125]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

Randy Henderson was head of Iowa Atheist and Freethinkers as of April 23, 2011.[126] A picture of an overweight Randy Henderson can be found HERE.

Tom Leykis

Tom Leykis is an atheist and American talk radio personality known for hosting the nationally syndicated The Tom Leykis Show from 1994 to 2009, and April 2012 to the present via (internet streamcast/podcast).[127] Pictures of an overweight Tom Leykis can be found HERE and HERE and HERE

Nate Phelps

Nate Phelps is an atheist.[128][129] Nate is currently the Executive Director of the Center for Inquiry Canada.[130] Pictures of an overweight Nate Phelps can be found HERE and HERE.

Maryam Nazamie

The atheist Maryam Nazamie has had issues with being overweight as can be seen HERE and HERE and HERE.

Shelly Mountjoy

As a student at George Mason University, Shelley Mountjoy founded the Secular Student Alliance at George Mason University and served as its President.[131][132] She is an atheist who won an atheist scholarship awarded by the American Atheists organization.[133]

A 2010 picture of an overweight Shelly Mountjoy can be found HERE. She also appeared in a video where she introduced PZ Myers who presented a lecture on science education.[134] In addition, the Washington Post reported that on July 4, 2010, an atheist Independence Day celebration was hosted at Shelly Mountjoy's parents' house which had a "food table, a drink table and a literature table" (Shelly Mounjoy's parents are Roman Catholic and they were not home for the party).[135]

Sarah Morehead

atheism
Portrait of Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723 - 1789) was an early advocate of atheism in Europe.

Sarah Morehead is an atheist and the Executive Director of Recovering from Religion.[136] A picture of an overweight Sarah Morehead can be found HERE.

Dan Fincke

Dr. Dan Fincke is an atheist who served as an adjunct assistant philosophy professor at Hofstra University, City College of New York (CUNY), and Hunter College (CUNY). In 2014, he ceased engaging in adjunct teaching and focused mainly on offering his own online classes and other philosophical services.[137][138] Fincke is also the main writer for the website Camels With Hammers. Pictures of an overweight Dan Fincke can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

Photo of an overweight Steve Wozniak (atheist/agnostic)

Steve Wozniak - co-founder of Apple Computer.[139] Wozniak wrote: "I am also atheist or agnostic (I don't even know the difference)."[140]

Richard Stallman

Richard Stallman is a software freedom activist and also a computer programmer. Stallman wrote that he was "an atheist".[141] Pictures of an overweight Richard Stallman can be found HERE and HERE and HERE

Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov was an American author, biochemistry professor st Boston University and an atheist . A picture of an overweight Isaac Asimov can be found HERE. Asimov had "a heart attack in 1977, and triple bypass surgery in 1983."[142] In 1992, the New York Times reported: "He died of heart and kidney failure, said his brother, Stanley."[143]

atheism
Kim Il Sung was a communist dictator and an obese atheist who died of a heart attack.[144]

(Source of photo of portrait can be found here, see: license agreement)

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong was an overweight Chinese communist leader. On September 2, 1976, he had a serious heart attack and he died on September 9, 1976 in his sleep. Mao had been in a poor health for many years previous to his death.[145]

Kim Jong-un

Kim Jong-un is an overweight atheist communist dictator. [146][147]

Kim II Sung

The North Korean communist dictator Kim Il Sung was an obese atheist who died of a heart attack.[148]

Kim Jong-il

Kim Jong-il was an overweight atheist North Korean communist dictator.[149] Kim Jong-il died of a heart attack. [150]

Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev [151][152]

Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Brezhnev was a communist dictator in the former Soviet Union and a picture of an overweight Leonid Brezhnev can be found HERE. Brezhnev had a "stroke in March 1982 and died of a heart attack in November".[153]

Georgy Malenkov

Georgy Malenkov - Soviet Union politician[154]

George Melly

In an article entitled George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia, the Daily Mail reported that Melly "smoked up to 60 cigarettes a day since his teens."[155]

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, Description: George Melly, singing and smoking, Date: 1978-02-00, source: Own work, User: p.g. Champion see: license agreement)

Song writer and singer George Melly was an atheist.[156] A picture of an overweight George Melly smoking a cigarette can be found HERE.

On April 17, 2007, the Daily Mail reported that George Melly was battling cancer and dementia.[157]

In addition, the Daily Mail reported:

The first hint of problems came seven years ago, when George was diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is nearly always caused by smoking - George has smoked up to 60 cigarettes a day since his teens.

The condition restricts airflow to the lungs, and the lack of oxygen in the bloodstream means there is not enough blood getting to the organs - most importantly the heart.

George ignored instructions to give up smoking but was put on a vast regime of medication, including diuretics to combat fluid build-up.[158]

Dara Ó Briain

Dara Ó Briain is an Irish comedian and he is an atheist.[159] A 2008 picture of an overweight Dara Ó Briain can be found HERE

Picture of an overweight atheist writer Carol Ann Duffy

Carol Ann Duffy, CBE,(born 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright. Carol Ann Duffy is an atheist.[160] A picture of an overweight Ms. Duffy can be found HERE

Edmund White

Edmund White is a author, literary critic, homosexual and an atheist.[161][162] Photos of an overweight Edmund White can be found HERE and HERE.

Picture of an overweight atheist economist Walter Block

Walter Block is an atheist economist. A picture of an overweight Walter Block can be found HERE.

Atheist author Sir Kingsley William Amis

Sir Kingsley William Amis, CBE (16 April 1922 – 22 October 1995) was an English writer, critic and teacher. Amis was also an atheist.[163] Kingsley Amis was a serial adulterer and drunkard.[164] Sir Kingsley Amis wrote in a memoir: "Now and then I become conscious of having the reputation of being one of the great drinkers, if not one of the great drunks, of our time".[165] A picture of an overweight Sir Kingsley Amis can be found HERE

Overweight atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin

Atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin

A picture of overweight atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin can be found HERE. A biography of Oparin declares: "Ill health dogged Oparin in his final years, and his death in 1980 was probably the result of a heart attack."[166]

Feminist and atheist Rosika Schwimmer

Rosika Schwimmer (1877–1948) was a Hungarian-born feminist and pacifist. Rosika Schwimmer was an atheist.[167] A picture of an overweight Rosika Schwimmer can be found HERE

Marquis de Sade experienced grotesque obesity during his life

The perverse and cruel atheist Marquis de Sade experienced grotesque obesity during his life.[168] The French atheist Marquis de Sade wrote sadomasochistic novels which featured rape, bestiality and necrophilia (see Atheism and bestiality).

Beth Ditto is a singer who is a lesbian and an atheist.[169][170]

See picture source and license agreement

Paul-Henri Thiry

Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723 - 1789) was an early advocate of atheism in Europe and he was overweight. Artwork of an overweight Paul-Henri Thiry can be found HERE

Beth Ditto

Beth Ditto is a singer. She is also a lesbian and an atheist.[171][172] A 2007 picture of an overweight Beth Ditto is available HERE.

Michigan State University overweight, atheist professor incident

On October 1, 2012, an overweight, atheist Michigan State University professor stripped naked except for his socks during one of his university classes, declared there was no God, screamed, shouted an obscenity, slammed his hands against the window and pressed his face to the window and then was taken away by police.[173][174] See also: Atheism and health

Atheism, homosexuality and obesity

See also: Homosexuality and obesity and Lesbianism and obesity

The Bible declares homosexuality to be a sin (see: Homosexuality and the Bible).

The journalist Peter LaBarbera wrote: "Anyone who has researched the subject of homosexuality knows that many of the most staunch advocates of homosexuality are those who hold a decidedly secular outlook."[175] The Bible is against homosexuality (see: Homosexuality and the Bible). See also: Homosexuality and Religious Liberty

Peter LaBarbera also declared:

The National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys are given to high schoolers, and the Centers for Disease Control looked at the data from 2001 to 2009 in the states of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin and the cities of Boston, Chicago, Milwaukee, New York City, San Francisco and San Diego, locales where the schools permitted questions about homosexual identity/behavior, which isn’t always the case in less “progressive” areas.

Teens who called themselves “gay, lesbian or bisexual,” or who were unsure, as well as those who didn’t use those labels but had sexual contact only with same-sex people or with both sexes, were found to be more likely than heterosexually identified students to engage in seven out of the 10 risk behavior categories. These were: 1) behaviors that contribute to violence; 2) behaviors related to attempted suicide; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol use; 5) other drug use; 6) sexual behaviors; and 7) weight management. (emphasis added)[176]

See also: Homosexuality and health and Homosexual Couples and Domestic Violence and Homosexuality and murders and Homosexuality and Illegal Drug Use and Mental Health and Homosexuality and Homosexuality and smoking and Homosexuality Statistics

Lesbianism and obesity

See also: Lesbianism and obesity and Homosexuality and obesity and Atheism and marriage

Lesbians have significantly higher rates of obesity.[177]

In 2013, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that 75% of American lesbians are obese.[178] In April of 2007, the American Journal of Public Health analyzed data from 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the data suggested that American lesbian women were 2.69 times more likely to be overweight and 2.47 times more likely to be obese than all other female sexual orientation groups. [179] The abstract for this study indicated that "lesbians are at greater risk for morbidity and mortality linked to overweight and obesity." [179]

Stephen Fry is a homosexual and an atheist.

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, see license agreement)

Chubby subculture among male homosexuals

See also: Homosexuality and obesity and Atheism and marriage

Within the male homosexuality community, there is a subculture of overweight/obese homosexuals which is called the chubby culture (an overweight male homosexual within this subculture is called a "chub").[180]

Atheism, homosexuality, sin and obesity

Since the Bible declares gluttony and homosexuality to be sins, no doubt there are obese people and/or homosexuals who reject Christianity, despite the abundant evidence for Christianity, and decide to become or remain atheists rather than repent and become Christians.

Evolutionists who have had problems with being overweight

See also: Professor PZ Myers fails his applied biology course - satire and Atheist hypocrisy

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists or agnostics.[181] Also, as far as the history of Darwinism, the agnostic Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, is believed to have influenced Charles Darwin as far as the development of his evolutionary beliefs.[182][183] As far as Erasmus Darwin's eating habits, "His love of food (particularly fruits, sugar, cream and butter) was matched by his dislike of exercise, and by the age of 46 he had grown so corpulent that a semi-circle had to be cut out of his dining table to accommodate his girth at meal times."[184]

A list of evolutionists who who have had problems with being overweight and/or obese can be found here:

Evolutionists who have had problems with being overweight and/or obese

As alluded to earlier, given the pseudoscientific nature of the evolutionary paradigm, it not surprising that overweight and obese prominent evolutionists have ignored or taken lightly the recommendations of medical science in terms of the harmful effects of being overweight (see also: Evolution, Liberalism, Atheism, and Irrationality).

Creation Ministries International points out that some evolutionists unreasonably claim that human evolution supposedly has contributed to obesity.[185]

Low Church atheists, intelligence and obesity

See also: Atheism and intelligence and Atheism, intelligence and obesity

Citing data from the General Social Survey (GSS), Vox Day writes: "..the two most common types of atheists are the High Church atheists with +2SD IQs (128+) and Low Church atheists with -2SD IQs (65-72). Note that the Low Church atheists actually outnumber the High Church atheists, 22.9 to 17.2 percent."[186] (click on the graph above to enlarge)

The General Social Survey (GSS) is the "largest project funded by the Sociology Program of the National Science Foundation. Except for the U.S. Census, the GSS is the most frequently analyzed source of information in the social sciences."[187]

Citing data from the General Social Survey, Vox Day writes about atheist intelligence quotient (IQ) scores:

"..the two most common types of atheists are the High Church atheists with +2SD IQs (128+) and Low Church atheists with -2SD IQs (65-72). Note that the Low Church atheists actually outnumber the High Church atheists, 22.9 to 17.2 percent...

Now, the statistically naive might look at this chart, note that the +2SD theists only account for 3.5 percent of the theistic population, and assume that this means there are more highly intelligent atheists than highly intelligent theists. This is not the case. As it happens, there are 11.4x more +2SD theists who either know God exists or believe God exists despite having the occasional doubt than there are +2SD atheists who don't believe God exists.[188]

In a 2010 article, Vox Day writes:

Never forget that the smarter and more knowledgeable act put on by many atheists is inevitably nothing more than that, an act, and one that has absolutely no basis in empirical reality except for a three-point average advantage in IQ which is almost surely a statistical artifact of their insignificant numbers and self-selected identification.[189]

"Low Church atheists" (low intelligence atheists), of which there are more of than "High Church atheists" (atheists with high intelligence) according to the General Social Survey data, may be more vulnerable to being obese/overweight. CBS News reports that research suggests that "men who score low on IQ tests in adolescence are more likely to be overweight in middle age".[190] Compounding this matter is the fact that medical studies indicate that excess weight impairs brain function (see also: Health effects of obesity)[191]

Obese atheists and education

See also: Religion and education and Obese atheists and academia

Religion is positively correlated to education; a scholarly study published in an academic journal titled the Review of Religious Research demonstrated that increased education is correlated with belief in God and that "education positively affects religious participation, devotional activities, and emphasizing the importance of religion in daily life."[192][193][194][195] Furthermore, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reports that higher levels of education is positively correlated with lower rates of obesity.[196] See also: Religion and education

Researchers at Bowling Green State University found that obesity/excess weight negatively affects one's ability to be accepted into graduate schools. [197]

Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism

See also: Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism and Atheism and health and Atheism and depression

As noted earlier, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom (see also: Atheism and depression).[198][199][200] In addition, obesity is positively associated with neuroticism, impulsiveness, and lower self-discipline.[201][202][203][204]

The Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health and mental outcomes.[205]

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, see: license agreement)

Concerning atheism and mental and physical health, as noted earlier, there is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism.

As noted previously, the Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[206]

In December of 2003, the University of Warwick reported:

Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier.[207]
Atheists have higher rates of suicide than the general population. Please see: Atheism and suicide

Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.[208] The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health is based in the Center for Aging at Duke and gives opportunities for scholarly trans-disciplinary conversation and the development of collaborative research projects.[209] In respect to the atheism and mental and physical health, the center offers many studies which suggest that theism is more beneficial than atheism.[210]

Atheism, obesity and self-esteem

See also: Atheism and self-esteem and Atheism, obesity and self-esteem and Atheism and depression and Atheism and suicide and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression

There are preliminary studies indicating that individuals who reject Christianity in Western cultures have lower self-esteem than the Christian population.[211][212] In addition, obese individuals can have lower self-esteem related to their obesity.[213] In the United States, obese people are often stereotyped as being "lazy, lacking self-discipline and being mentally slow".[214] In March of 2011, USA News and World Report declared that an Arizona State University study suggests that fat stigma has gone global.[215] In addition, parts of the world that once viewed being overweight favorably now hold negative views concerning having extra pounds and also hold negative views concerning overweight individuals.[216] Poor self-esteem has been linked to an increase in suicide attempts and atheists have higher rates of suicide than the general population.[217][218][219] Obese atheists likely have higher rates of suicide than the general public.

Atheism, obesity and hypocrisy

See also: Atheist hypocrisy

Atheist often champion mainstream medicine and disparage osteopathy, integrative medicine, chiropractic healthcare and other alternative medicine approaches.[220][221] Yet despite medical science having an vast amount of evidence pointing out the many health risks of excess weight and medical science, exercise science, and nutritional science having many effective measures to lose weight, there are a significant number of Western World atheists who are obese or have excess weight.

For more information on atheist hypocrisy, please see: Atheist hypocrisy

In the United States, studies indicate significantly more women find atheism unappealing and that the marriage rate for the atheist population is significantly lower than the general population.[222][223][224] In addition, leading atheist websites in the English speaking world receive significantly less web traffic from women according to major web traffic tracking companies.[225]

Atheism, gender, obesity and marriageability

See also: Atheism and marriage and Atheism and women and Atheism, marriage and suicide

Atheism and rates of marriage in the United States

Christian apologist Michael Caputo wrote:

Recently the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life has published its mammoth study on Religion in America based on 35,000 interviews. According to the Pew Forum a whopping 37% of atheists never marry as opposed to 19% of the American population, 17% of Protestants and 17% of Catholics.[226]

Vox Day declared that according to the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) "more than half of all atheists and agnostics don’t get married."[227]

Obese atheists and marriageability

See also: Atheism and marriage and Atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women and Obese atheists and marriageability

According to the abstract for a paper presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the American Sociological Association: "Obese individuals have fewer dating opportunities, marry later and marry less desirable partners."[228]

Studies indicate that atheists are a minority in the population. Studies also indicate that people tend to marry people with similar values or who resemble their parents or themselves.[229][230] In addition, the Bible teaches Christians not to marry a non-Christian (The Bible also teaches a believer to stay married to a non-believer if you are already married).[231] Also, interfaith marriages often have greater marital friction and interfaith marriages historically have had higher rates of divorce.[232] Therefore, it would not be surprising if obese atheists find it more difficult to find marriage partners and if atheist/theist marriages also have increased marital friction and higher rates of divorce since these two worldviews are so different.

Obese male atheists and marriageability

See also: Atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women and Atheism and marriage and Atheism and social outcasts

Survey data and website tracking data of prominent atheists' websites indicate that in the Western World, atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women.[233][234][235] Studies also indicate that atheists are a minority in the population.

In September 26, 2008, The Telegraph reported concerning the English population:

The proportion of adults in England who are an unhealthy size has soared over the past 15 years with one in four now seriously overweight.

There have always been more obese women than men but the gap between the genders has now been cancelled out.

In addition, the number of overweight women has fallen in recent years while the number of morbidly obese men is rising sharply.[236]

Given that atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women, obesity reduces one's marriageability, atheists are a minority in the population and that people tend to marry people with similar values or who resemble their parents or themselves as noted above; this would suggest that obese male atheists may find it more difficult to find prospective female partners for marriage. And of course, militant atheism might make matters even more difficult.

Obese atheists in theistic societies and social censure

In many theistic societies, atheists are held in low esteem (see: Views on atheists and Atheism and social outcasts). For example, Dr. Sam Harris, a founder of the New Atheism movement, is well aware of the stigma surrounding atheism and has advocated that atheists no longer call themselves atheists.[237] In fact, Dr. Harris has said concerning the label of atheist, "It's right next to child molester as a designation."[238]

In addition to facing social ostracism for being an atheist, obese atheists often face the added social censure related to their obesity. For example, the Journal of Health Psychology reported in a study entitled A daily diary assessment of female weight stigmatization that overweight women experience an average of three fat-shaming moments every day.[239]

Global obesity epidemic and irreligiosity

See also: Global decline of atheism

Since the world is becoming more religious at an increasing rate and there is data pointing to irreligiousity being a causal factor for obesity, this may help reduce the rate of increase of the global obesity epidemic (Decline of atheism and Global atheism).

Vox Day on atheism, obesity and prosperity

See also: Causes of atheism and Global decline of atheism and Western ungodliness, prosperity, decadence and obesity

On June 3, 2014, Vox Day wrote in an article entitled The inevitable decline of atheism which declared:

A more important factor is that times of wealth and peace have always been a counter-indicator of religious belief. The rich and fat seldom believe they have any need for God, and they deeply resent any divinely inspired restrictions on their descent into decadence. At the end of the longest period of peace and economic expansion in the history of the West, it should be no surprise at all that we have an obese, decadent, depraved, diseased population that fears no God.

They will learn better soon enough. Both history and the Bible are very clear concerning the eventual fate of such societies.[240]

See also: Atheism and economics

Physical and mental health related problems associated with obesity

See also: Atheism and health and Physical and mental health related problems associated with obesity

Some of the medical conditions associated with obesity include: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and triglycerides, coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, arthritis, cancer, sleep apnea, reproductive problems in women and varicose veins.[241] According to the National Cancer Institute, "obesity is associated with increased risks of cancers of the esophagus, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium (the lining of the uterus), colon and rectum, kidney, pancreas, thyroid, gallbladder, and possibly other cancer types."[242] In addition, medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[243]

Medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[244]

According to the Mayo Clinic some of the symptoms associated with obesity can include:

  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Snoring
  • Sleep apnea
  • Pain in your back or joints
  • Excessive sweating
  • Always feeling hot
  • Rashes or infection in folds of your skin
  • Feeling out of breath with minor exertion
  • Daytime sleepiness or fatigue

Other problems associated with obesity include:

  • Feet/ankles problems: According to Stuart D. Miller, M.D.: "It is important for the public to know that obesity isn't just an aesthetic issue, but a contributing cause of musculoskeletal health problems, specifically with the feet and ankles."[249]
  • Lower levels of balance recovery and increased risk of falls: In her thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, entitled A modeling investigation of obesity and balance recovery, Sara Louise Matrangola writes in the abstract: "Obesity is associated with an increased risk of falls and subsequent injury. Previous studies have shown weight loss and strength training to be beneficial to balance, but knowing which is more beneficial will allow researchers to design interventions to maximize the benefits in terms of balance and reducing risk of falls."[250]

Obesity and Alzheimer's disease

A PET scan of the brain of an individual with Alzheimer's disease reveals a loss of function in the temporal lobe.

See also: Obesity and Alzheimer's disease

In 2005, WebMD published:

People with diabetes are at particularly high risk of Alzheimer's disease. But now there's strong evidence that people with high insulin levels -- long before they get diabetes -- already are on the road to Alzheimer's disease.

As the body becomes more and more overweight, it becomes more and more resistant to the blood-sugar-lowering effects of insulin. To counter this insulin resistance, the body keeps making more insulin...

Insulin Triggers Amyloid Buildup

High insulin levels are known to cause blood vessels to become inflamed....

One dangerous effect of this insulin-caused brain inflammation is increased brain levels of beta-amyloid. Beta-amyloid is the twisted protein that's the main ingredient in the sticky plaques that clog the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease.

"What was striking was the magnitude of the effect," Craft tells WebMD. "Inflammation can be a result of amyloid elevations but can also create an environment in which amyloid is made more readily. Inflammation can be both the result and cause of amyloid production."[251]

A 2009 health report on a medical study indicated:

They compared the brain scan of 94 people in their 70s who were obese & overweight. They found that the obese had lost tissue in the frontal & temporal lobes areas critical for planning & memory. Declines were also seen in areas used for attention & executive functions, long term memory & movement

A neurologist Professor Paul Thompson said, “That's a big loss of tissue and it depletes your cognitive reserves, putting you at much greater risk of Alzheimer's and other diseases that attack the brain. But you can greatly reduce your risk for Alzheimer's if you can eat healthily and keep your weight under control.”M[252]

Health effects of Alzheimer's disease

See also: Effects of Alzheimer's disease on the brain

Odds of Developing Alzheimer's.png

Alzheimer's disease is "characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe, and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.[253] Some of the primary symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are: memory problems, mood swings, emotional outbursts, brain stem damage which impairs function in the heart, lungs plus causes disruption of various other bodily processes.[254]

An abstract of the medical study entitled Measures to Assess the Noncognitive Symptoms of Dementia in the Primary Care Setting by Brent P. Forester, M.D. and Thomas E. Oxman, M.D. inidcated "Noncognitive symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias include psychosis, mood disturbances, personality changes, agitation, aggression, pacing, wandering, altered sexual behavior, changed sleep patterns, and appetite disturbances. These noncognitive symptoms of dementia are common, disabling to both the patient and the caregiver, and costly."[255]

According to the Center for Neuro Skills:

Kolb & Wishaw (1990) have identified eight principle symptoms of temporal lobe damage: 1) disturbance of auditory sensation and perception, 2) disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input, 3) disorders of visual perception, 4) impaired organization and categorization of verbal material, 5) disturbance of language comprehension, 6) impaired long-term memory, 7) altered personality and affective behavior, 8) altered sexual behavior.[256]

Obesity, dementia, Alzheimer's disease and prevention

For more information please see: Alzheimer's disease and prevention

Weili Xu, a researcher at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, declared: "Our results contribute to the growing evidence that controlling body weight or losing weight in middle age could reduce your risk of dementia".[257]

For more information see: Alzheimer's disease and prevention

Irreligion and undisciplined pseudoscientific thinking

The Wall Street Journal reported: "A comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows ...that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians."[258]

For more information please see: Irreligion and superstition and Atheism and morality and Atheist hypocrisy

Science through the disciplines of nutritional science, exercise science and medical science provides a wealth of information on how to avoid obesity and how to achieve a healthy weight. Also, as noted earlier, obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[259] Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom.[260][261][262] In addition, no doubt some godless people have difficulty resisting the sins/temptations of gluttony and sloth. As far as prevailing over temptation, the Bible teaches that one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit is self-control (Galatians 5: 23).

In September of 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported:

The reality is that the New Atheist campaign, by discouraging religion, won't create a new group of intelligent, skeptical, enlightened beings. Far from it: It might actually encourage new levels of mass superstition. And that's not a conclusion to take on faith -- it's what the empirical data tell us.

"What Americans Really Believe," a comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows that traditional Christian religion greatly decreases belief in everything from the efficacy of palm readers to the usefulness of astrology. It also shows that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians....

This is not a new finding. In his 1983 book "The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener," skeptic and science writer Martin Gardner cited the decline of traditional religious belief among the better educated as one of the causes for an increase in pseudoscience, cults and superstition. He referenced a 1980 study published in the magazine Skeptical Inquirer that showed irreligious college students to be by far the most likely to embrace paranormal beliefs, while born-again Christian college students were the least likely.[263]

The notions of extraterrestrial life and UFOlogy are fast growing pseudoscientific religions perpetuated and/or aided by evolutionists, atheists, liberals and other promoters of quackery.[264][265] However, the ideologies of UFOlogy, extraterrestrial life, exobiology, evolution and abiogenesis are anti-biblical ideas which are not supported by sound science. [266][267] Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists.[268]

The agnostic and liberal Carl Sagan, an avid smoker of marijuana who claimed that marijuana gave him scientific insights, was a prominent peddler of extraterrestial life, evolution and other pseudoscientific nonsense.

No doubt pseudoscientific and superstitious thinking in many cases is partly due to a lack of self-discipline as rigorous scientific and logical thinking requires disciplined thought..[269]

Irreligious/atheistic France and the Soviet Union and UFOlogy

Astronomer Dr. Hugh Ross states that ninety-nine percent of what people have told him were UFOs, experienced astronomers can identify as a star, cluster, or other object in the night sky. The 1 percent of sightings, which he calls residual UFOs, have attracted his attention. [270] According to Dr. Ross very few astronomers have seen "residual UFOs".[270]

The following Toledo Blade newspaper excerpt[270] summarizes Dr. Ross's findings:

In 1969, however, Dr. Ross met two astronomers who were having regular UFO encounters. Both also happened to be involved in occult activity.

Upon investigation, Dr. Ross consistently found a connection between occult involvement and residual UFO encounters. For example, he said, countries with a high degree of occult activity such as Russia during the Soviet era, France, and certain parts of Brazil also had high percentages of UFO encounters. During Russia's Soviet period when every expression of religion except occult activity had been outlawed, he said, “Russians were seeing UFOs at five to eight times the rate Americans were.

Christian and Library of Congress researcher's explanations of reports of UFOs

Christian apologists who reject naturalistic explanations of life such as the theory of evolution argue that difficult to explain UFOs are spiritual in nature and not amenable to naturalistic explanation.[271] Gary Bates of Creation Ministries International wrote a book entitled Alien Intrusion which gives a biblical Christian perspective on the unscientific notions of extraterrestial life and UFUlogy.[272]

Lynn Cato, senior bibliographer for the library of Congress, created a 1600 entry on UFO bibliography for the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research. After a two year investigation, in which she reviewed thousands of documents, Catoe stated:

A large part of the available UFO literature...deals with subjects like mental telepathy, automatic writing and invisible entities...poltergeist manifestations and 'possession'....Many of the UFO reports now being published in the popular press recount alleged incidents that are strikingly similar to demonic possession and psychic phenomenon which have long been known to theologians and parapsychologists.[273][274]

Prominent UFO researcher John Keel concurred. After surveying the literature on demonology Keel declared:[274]

The manifestations and occurrences described in this imposing literature are similar if not entirely identical to the UFO phenomenon itself.

Implications of explosive growth of global Christianity plus health benefits of religious practice

see also: Atheist population and Atheism and health

In 2011, the American Spectator citing research published in the International Bulletin of Missionary Research reported that atheism is on the decline as a whole in terms of adherents.[275]

The American Spectator declared:

The report estimates about 80,000 new Christians every day, 79,000 new Muslims every day, and 300 fewer atheists every day. These atheists are presumably disproportionately represented in the West, while religion is thriving in the Global South, where charismatic Christianity is exploding."[276]

For more information please see: Atheism and health

The Apostle Paul on the sin of gluttony

"One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, 'Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.'" - Apostle Paul, (Titus 1:12 NASB)

"Whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things." - Apostle Paul, (Philippians 3:19 KJV)

Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity

See also: Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity

Chuck Norris signing a T-shirt for a soldier in the United States Marine Corps. [277]

In April of 2011, the conservative Christian Chuck Norris wrote:

"The problems with being overweight and obese go far beyond looks. They affect our mentality, mobility and can lead to a number of physical diseases and ailments...

It's true that genetics, environment, socio-economic status, metabolism and behavior can be contributors to these ailments. But the fact is most Americans are overweight and obese because they eat poorly and don't exercise. Most of our foods are super high in fats, sugars and salt. And, compared to other countries, we eat much larger portions. We live to eat – most other cultures eat to live.

The primary reason obesity statistics and these subsequent illnesses are so high is that our culture is entrenched in hedonism, which means we are all about pleasure. We go where we feel like going. We do what we feel like doing. We watch what we feel like watching. And we eat what we feel like eating. And God help the soul who tells us to do otherwise...

... We think doing what we feel like doing is power and freedom, when really it's just carrying out what our flesh craves. True freedom is being able to look straight in the eye of what you feel like doing (even if it's wrong) and possessing the power to say no. Eating what we want isn't liberty – that's tyranny. Eating what is right is freedom – that's victory over oppression. And triumph over the tummy should be our next battle. Fighting for a better America includes fighting for a healthier, fitter, combat-ready you. (That is why my new cultural warrior book, "Black Belt Patriotism," contains an entire chapter on helping you win the consumption war and not just the culture wars. Get a free chapter here.)"[278]

Overcoming obesity with the aid of Christian faith

See also: Overcoming obesity with the aid of Christian faith and Ex-homosexuals and Atheism and morality

Although effective diets, exercise, or medical interventions can rid a person of excess weight, often merely having effective methods available to lose weight is not enough - very frequently, it takes self-discipline as well.

Besetting sins such as gluttony, sloth, homosexuality and drug addiction can certainly be more effectively conquered with the assistance of Christian faith and self-discipline. And of course, in the area of weight loss, through diet and exercise well. Peter LaBarbera is the President of Americans for Truth which is an organization which counters the homosexual agenda. Peter LaBarbera declared concerning Christian ex-homosexuals who reported being transformed by the power of God:

Another factor from my experience as a close observer of the “ex-gay” phenomenon is that many former homosexuals do not linger in “reparative therapy” programs, or participate in them at all. They attribute their dramatic and (relatively) rapid transformation to the power of God, and likely would not show up in a study of this kind. In fact, these “unstudied” overcomers would appear to be the most successful ex-homosexuals because they’ve moved on with their lives — as “reborn” Christians move on after overcoming any besetting sin.[279]
Homosexuality is rare in Orthodox Jews.[280]

In 1980 a study was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry and eleven men participated in a study about men overcoming homosexuality. The American Journal of Psychiatry stated that eleven homosexual men became heterosexuals "without explicit treatment and/or long-term psychotherapy" through their participation in a Pentecostal church.[281]

See also

Obese atheists and overweight atheists comedy and satire

See also

Articles related the health sciences, health related information and medical history:

Other related articles:

Replies to specific atheists:

Penn Jilltette:

Penn Jillette, comedy/satire

Penn Jillette, video:

PZ Myers:

PZ Myers, comedy/satire

External links

Weight loss resources and tips:

Strength training and cardio exercise:

How much exercise is needed to lose weight and importance of one day of rest per week:

Documentary on weight loss:

Notes

  1. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=causes
  2. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  3. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  4. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  5. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  6. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  7. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19210054
  9. [Religion Replenishes Self-Control, Psychological Science, June 2012 vol. 23 no. 6 635-642, Kevin Rounding, Albert Lee, Jill A. Jacobson and Li-Jun Ji at Queen’s University]
  10. Study finds religion helps us gain self-control
  11. Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C., Health Psychol. 2000 May;19(3):211-22.
  12. The role of spirituality in health care, roc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 October; 14(4): 352–357.
  13. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/obesity/
  14. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/obesity?show=0&t=1293887890
  15. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=causes
  16. http://www.gotquestions.org/gluttony-sin.html
  17. http://carm.org/christianity/sermons/1-corinthians-619-20-your-body-his-temple
  18. http://www.mygenes.co.nz/PDFs/Ch6.pdf
  19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21174323
  20. http://www.obesitypsychiatry.com/id2.html
  21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17262813
  22. http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/01/anger-at-god-common-even-among-atheists/
  23. http://www.godisforus.com/information/worldview/god/perfection.htm
  24. Why do atheists hate God?
  25. World Health Organization - obesity fact sheet
  26. World Health Organization - obesity fact sheet
  27. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  28. McCullogh ME, Larson DB, Hoyt WT. et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychology. 19, 3. 211-222
  29. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  30. The psycho-social benefits of religious practice by Iona Institute
  31. McCullogh ME, Larson DB, Hoyt WT. et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychology. 19, 3. 211-222
  32. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
  33. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=causes
  34. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
  35. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
  36. How the Atheist Movement Failed Me – Part 1: Cost
  37. How to outlaw Christianity by Chuck Norris
  38. http://www.jmir.org/2009/3/e28/
  39. http://www.jmir.org/2009/3/e28/
  40. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  41. 2000 YEARS OF CHRISTIAN INCREASE
  42. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  43. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  44. http://www.wnd.com/?pageId=30077
  45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21167850
  46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16539965
  47. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21139122
  48. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  49. 1 Corinthians: The Troubled Church
  50. 2 Corinthians: Introduction, Argument, and Outline
  51. The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China
  52. About Jen McCreight
  53. Women in Secularism
  54. Those fatty McFatFat atheists! by Jen McCreight
  55. Jen McCreight - We Are Atheism
  56. Why Atheists Have a Serious Problem With Women
  57. Are Women Afraid Of Atheism?
  58. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alan-light/229583104/
  59. American Atheists Board of Directors
  60. Want to Be CEO? What's Your BMI?
  61. http://www.flickr.com/photos/reuvenim/4426093513/
  62. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2010/08/thats_not_a_heart_its_a_flaili.php?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+scienceblogs%2Fpharyngula+%28Pharyngula%29&utm_content=Google+Reader
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  66. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2011/06/the_final_tally_on_the_camp_qu.php
  67. MailVox: Who said atheists are fat?.
  68. At least you can see a hint of what you missed
  69. "Creation Museum: Is This How World Began?" (ABC News)
  70. PZ Myers - Global Atheist Convention 2010
  71. http://www.counterpunch.org/mccarthy02212003.html
  72. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  73. http://ac360.blogs.cnn.com/2010/08/07/video-extended-interview-hitchens-on-cancer-and-atheism/
  74. Why did Hitchens continue to smoke & drink during treatment? -CTV News
  75. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  76. Picture of an overweight Christopher Hitchens smoking a cigarette
  77. National Institute of Health - Obesity and Cancer Risk
  78. http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/dennett06/dennett06_index.html
  79. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4484
  80. http://lifewithoutfaith.com/?p=183
  81. Huffington Post, May 2012
  82. http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/vstenger/battle.html
  83. Fattest Countries in the World
  84. The History Of Obesity Timeline
  85. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/pe/exs190web/exs190history.htm
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  87. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_Leakey.jpg
  88. Skeptoid’s Conservapedia Page
  89. http://www.totalgymdirect.com/
  90. http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=55789
  91. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2WLulSQvYU
  92. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2WLulSQvYU
  93. Atheism: A religion of degenerates
  94. Atheism: A religion of degenerates
  95. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y3_hrijrHY
  96. http://gretachristina.com/personal.html
  97. Klout profile - Bruce Gerencser
  98. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcNmqGo4jg8
  99. Improving the image of atheist - YouTube video
  100. http://taslimanasrin.com/
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  102. http://www.drishtikone.com/node/9364
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  104. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1194024/STEPHEN-FRY-How-I-lost-stones-just-months.html
  105. http://www.edp24.co.uk/news/stephen_fry_backs_tiny_norfolk_theatre_1_842092
  106. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  107. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  108. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  109. Please Note: There is a difference between disliking the perverse practice of homosexuality and fearing it. A distinction which liberal academics pretend doesn't exist - Exploring the relationship between homophobia and participation in core sports for high school students Osborne, D ; Wagner, W, 2007
  110. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5015557
  111. About Skepchick
  112. Amy Davis Roth articles on Skepchick
  113. Amy Davis Roth
  114. Heina Dadabhoy articles at Skepchick
  115. Heina Dadabhoy
  116. Randy Henderson - Flickr
  117. Randy Henderson - Flickr
  118. Tom Leykis - Atheist of the week
  119. http://lifewithoutfaith.com/?p=183
  120. http://www.flickr.com/photos/martystone/3435459032
  121. Huffington Post, May 2012
  122. Shelly Mountjoy
  123. SSA Summit Day One: Service, Collaboration, and Lessons from Queers, April 28, 2010
  124. Shelley Mountjoy Wins American Atheists Scholarship
  125. PZ Myers - Science Education: Caught in the Middle in the War Between Science and Religion
  126. Atheists gather for a holiday they can believe in: Independence Day
  127. Sarah Morehead - Executive Director of Recovering from Religion
  128. Dan Fincke - classes
  129. Dan Fincke - My deconversion
  130. http://www.axleration.com/apple-co-founder-praises-android/
  131. http://www.woz.org/letters/general/72.html
  132. http://oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/stallman.html
  133. http://www.accuracyproject.org/cbe-Asimov,Isaac.html
  134. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/04/07/books/isaac-asimov-whose-thoughts-and-books-traveled-the-universe-is-dead-at-72.html?scp=7&sq=Asimov+Isaac&st=cse
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  136. http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/mao-zedong-56.php
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  143. http://www.startribune.com/world/17103526.html
  144. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1883.html
  145. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Malenkow.jpg
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  147. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-19211298.html
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  149. George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia
  150. http://postednotes.blogspot.com/2006/07/dara-obriain-atheist-catholic.html
  151. http://www.literaryconnections.co.uk/resources/duffy.html
  152. http://newhumanist.org.uk/920/line-of-beauty-laurie-taylor-interviews-edmund-white
  153. http://www.enotes.com/edmund-white-salem/edmund-white
  154. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/andrewbrown/2009/jan/11/religion-amis-hates-god
  155. http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Kingsley_Amis
  156. http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Kingsley_Amis
  157. http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/famous-scientists/chemists/alexander-ivanovich-oparin-info.htm
  158. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Hungarian-Atheists-George-Koestler-Schwimmer/dp/1155532643
  159. http://www.neilschaeffer.com/sade/bibliography/quills.htm
  160. http://www.reference.com/browse/bloody-noun
  161. http://articles.cnn.com/2006-11-24/entertainment/tbr.ditto_1_fat-people-beth-ditto-voice?_s=PM:SHOWBIZ
  162. The Sunday Times (London), February 4, 2007, Features; Style; Pg. 10
  163. http://articles.cnn.com/2006-11-24/entertainment/tbr.ditto_1_fat-people-beth-ditto-voice?_s=PM:SHOWBIZ
  164. Michigan State University Professor Strips Naked In Class, Police Arrive To Escort Him To Hospital
  165. The intellectual atheist
  166. http://americansfortruth.com/news/homosexuality-and-atheism.html
  167. http://americansfortruth.com/2011/06/24/wrong-diagnosis-wrong-cure-harvey-assails-cdcs-pro-gay-youth-spin/#more-9505
  168. http://bible.org/article/homosexuality-christian-perspective
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  171. http://www.chacha.com/question/what-is-a-chub
  172. Darwinism: it was all in the family
  173. Darwin and religion
  174. Darwinism: it was all in the family
  175. http://creation.com/smithsonian-evolution-top-10-consequences
  176. Mailvox: The distribution of atheist intelligence
  177. About the General Social Survey
  178. Mailvox: The distribution of atheist intelligence
  179. Always call their bluff
  180. Low intelligence causes obesity? What research shows
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  182. Jim Kavanagh (11 August 2011). Study: More educated tend to be more religious, by some measures. CNN. ““With more years of education, you aren’t relatively more likely to say, ‘I don’t believe in God,’” he said. “But you are relatively more likely to say, ‘I believe in a higher power.’””
  183. The more education people receive, the more religious they become?. Daily Mail (12 August 2011). “By analyzing data from a large national survey, sociologist Philip Schwadel of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln found that people tend to become more religious - by certain definitions - as they further their education. The survey also qualified what concept of God or a 'higher power' individuals held, as well as whether they had any doubts. Mr Schwadel said that: 'With more years of education, you aren’t relatively more likely to say, "I don’t believe in God," but you are relatively more likely to say, "I believe in a higher power."'”
  184. More is More When it Comes to Education and Religion, Study Says. Christian Post (13 August 2011). “Sociologist Philip Schwadel from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) studied this phenomenon. He discovered that people today tend to become more religious as they further their education.”
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  186. Grad School Admissions Negatively Affected By High BMI, Study Finds
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  201. http://atheistwatch.blogspot.com/2010/10/atheists-and-self-esteem-part-2.html
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  210. Freethoughtblogs.com - A million gods - tags: medicine, quackery
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  212. http://www.livescience.com/culture/090227-religion-men-women.html
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  214. http://conservapedia.com/Atheism_appears_to_be_significantly_less_appealing_to_women#Prominent_general_atheist_websites_appear_to_receive_significantly_less_traffic_from_women
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  220. http://www.gotquestions.org/household-salvation.html
  221. http://blogs.chron.com/believeitornot/2010/06/interfaith_marriages_more_like_1.html
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  225. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/3085436/Men-set-to-overtake-women-in-obesity-stakes-official-figures-show.html
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  227. Interview with an atheist
  228. Journal of Health Psychology, A daily diary assessment of female weight stigmatization
  229. The inevitable decline of atheism
  230. National Cancer Institute - Obesity and Cancer risk
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  232. How obesity is linked to infertility
  233. Why are the years 2012 and 2020 key years for Christian creationists and pro-lifers?
  234. Globally the worldviews of atheism and non-religious (agnostic) are declining while global Christianity is exploding in adherents
  235. Survey Suggests Obesity May Cause Foot Problems
  236. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, entitled A modeling investigation of obesity and balance recoveryby Sara Louise Matrangola
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