A thermometer is a device for measuring temperature. The two simplest ways to do this both rely on the principle that hot things expand and cold things contract. A liquid such as colored alcohol or mercury can be placed in an evacuated glass tube. The expansion and contraction of the liquid indicates the temperature, which can be read from a scale next to the expanded liquid. A helical spring can also be used, as in the common refrigerator thermometer. In such a refrigerator, the thermometer points at a scale.
The first useful thermometer was invented in 1714 by Gabriel Fahrenheit, who used mercury in a glass tube graduated with 180 degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water (32 °F and 212 °F). Modern scientists use the Celsius scale, graduated with 100 degrees between freezing and boiling (0 °C to 100 °C).