Tornado

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A tornado is a violent rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. The most violent tornadoes are capable of tremendous destruction with wind speeds of up to 300 mph. They can destroy large architecture, uproot trees and hurl cars hundreds of yards. They can also drive straw into trees. Damage paths can be in excess of one mile wide to 50 miles long. In an average year, over 1000 tornadoes are reported nationwide.

Tornado Physics

Before thunderstorms develop, a change in wind direction and an increase in wind speed with increasing height creates an invisible, horizontal spinning effect in the lower atmosphere. Rising air within the updraft tilts the rotating air from horizontal to vertical. An area of rotation, 2–6 miles wide, now extends through much of the storm. Most strong and violent tornadoes form within this area of strong rotation.

Enhanced Fujita (EF) tornado scale
Category Maximum Wind Speed (mph) Damage
EF-0 65-85 Light damage to signs, chimneys; pushing-over of shallow-rooted trees and the breaking of tree branches, more severe damage to mobil homes, possibly including complete destruction, may occur.
EF-1 86-110 Moderate damage; autos pushed from roads, trees snapped or uprooted, mobile homes pushed from foundations or destroyed.
EF-2 111-135 Considerable damage. Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished; boxcars pushed over; light-object missiles generated.
EF-3 136-165 Severe damage. Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees uprooted; vehicles lifted off ground and thrown and large missiles generated from debris.
EF-4 166-200 Devastating damage. Well-constructed houses leveled; structure with weak foundation blown off some distance; all vehicles thrown.
EF-5 >200 Catastrophic damage. Strong-frame houses completely destroyed with debris scattered downwind, leaving an exposed foundation; automobile-sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 yards; small towns within the damage path are leveled.

Occurrence

Tornadoes can happen at any time of the year and at any time of the day. In the southern states, peak tornado season is from April through June. Peak times for tornadoes in the northern states are during the summer. A few southern states have a second peak time for tornado outbreaks in the fall. Tornadoes are most likely to occur between 1 p.m. and 7 p.m.