War on Sovereignty
The War on Sovereignty is a term used to describe to the push by liberals, globalists, and Marxists to undermine and eventually do away with national sovereignty, autonomy, and self-governance, replacing it with a "global community" or "consensus" and a one-world government.
Due to rebellion against God, naive belief in the Idea of Progress, and support for big government policies, the globalist establishment of liberal elites is seeking to gradually but steadily do away with sovereignty and merge the world into a single unified political organization. In the process, they and the organizations they affiliate with either attack the notion of sovereignty or redefine it for their own purposes.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Strategy to achieving world government
- 3 Liberal distortions of sovereignty
- 4 Examples of the War on Sovereignty
- 5 Non-governmental organizations opposed to sovereignty
- 6 Conservative reaction to the War on Sovereignty
- 7 See also
- 8 References
The founding fathers and sovereignty
The founding fathers of the United States cared deeply about preserving national sovereignty, as a sovereign U.S. government would serve the American people alone and protect their unalienable rights, and let them govern themselves. In fact, they chose to declare independence because Britain was not respecting their right to self-government. In his farewell address in September 1796, George Washington warned his fellow Americans against becoming entangled in international treaties and alliances, as he knew it would end American sovereignty:
|“|| ...a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils. ...
As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils. Such an attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter.
Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests.
The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.
Conservatives and nationalists continue to support national sovereignty and autonomy for the same reasons – because they are the equivalent of limited and accountable government. They note that with national sovereignty, the government is close to the people, who themselves are sovereign, and protects their rights.
Reasons for the War on Sovereignty
Liberals and globalists understand that if a global government or "community" with many international treaties is created, as is already happening, the government is raised to a level where it is aloof from the people and it cannot be held accountable by them. This is because in an international community, the individual member-nations are members of multiple international organizations and are bound by numerous treaties that restrict their sovereignty. These international organizations and treaties have the final say on nations' domestic and foreign policies, and voters in the individual nations cannot choose or enact any policies that go against the requirements of the treaties and organizations.
Liberals, who oppose limited government, also tend to oppose and harshly criticize nationalism and sovereignty. If Congress – in the specific case of the United States – chooses to hand over its power to international organizations, the American people will be increasingly unable to control policy through elections.
Liberals also believe that – consistent with their belief in the "Idea of Progress" – since the state of humanity is improving, national sovereignty is outdated and should be replaced with a world government where all of humanity will be united and will be at peace with each other.
Destroying national identity and patriotism – along with other aspects of traditional Western culture – is a major goal of Cultural Marxism, which has been described as "the cultural branch of globalism." In his book The Authoritarian Personality, Marxist Theodor Adorno described patriotism as a "pathological phenomena" that must be done away with. The Left recognizes that destroying patriotism and national identity – essentially synonymous with national sovereignty – is a step toward establishing a Marxist world order.
Theologically conservative/orthodox Christians believe that the ultimate reason for the War on Sovereignty is rebellion against God leading up to the Antichrist – rather than submit to God and recognize that only He can unite the world and bring world peace, liberal globalists seek to create a one-world utopia themselves and glorify humanity rather than God.
Admissions of the War on Sovereignty
Liberals and globalists have publically admitted their push against national sovereignty and for a one-world government. For example, Arnold J. Toynbee, a British historian and researcher, stated in 1931 that "if we are frank with ourselves, we shall admit that we are engaged on a deliberate and sustained and concentrated effort to impose limitations upon the sovereignty and independence of the fifty or sixty local sovereign independent States which at present partition the habitable surface of the earth and divide the political allegiance of mankind." He also stated that "the local national state, invested with the attributes of sovereignty … is an abomination of desolation standing in the place where it ought not," and that he wished to transfer sovereignty to "some institution embodying our society as a whole." Furthermore, he admitted that elites lie about their support for sovereignty in order to do away with it:
|“||I will merely repeat that we are at present working, discreetly but with all our might, to wrest this mysterious political force called sovereignty out of the clutches of the local national states of our world. And all the time we are denying with our lips what we are doing with our hands...||”|
In addition, Denis Healey, a British chancellor of the exchequer speaking about the Bilderberg group meeting he attended, stated in 2001 that "to say we were striving for a one-world government is exaggerated, but not wholly unfair", and that "we felt that a single community throughout the world would be a good thing." The Bilderberg group's website itself states that "in the context of a globalised world, it is hard to think of any issue in either Europe or North America that could be tackled unilaterally." Hillary Clinton, who also attended Bilderberg meetings, stated in a 2013 speech in Brazil that "my dream is a hemispheric common market, with open trade and open borders, some time in the future."
According to Walt Rostow – a U.S. government official who served in several important positions during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations including National Security Advisor – in his 1960 book The United States in the World Arena, it is "an American interest to see an end to nationhood as it has been historically defined." After a trip to Moscow in the USSR that same year, he restated that the ultimate goal of U.S. foreign policy is "the creation of a world order which really can’t stop very short of world law and some form of world government."
In his 2002 memoir, businessman David Rockefeller, a liberal Republican who was deeply involved in the Bilderberg group, Council on Foreign Relations, and the Trilateral Commission, admitted that "some [people] even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure — one world, if you will. If that’s the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it."
Strategy to achieving world government
- See also: One-world government
While many of those who either disbelieve or deny the existence of a "War on Sovereignty" imagine it as a very speedy attempt to instantly unite the world into a global government, those who are actively pushing for a one-world government are pursuing a relatively longsuffering strategy that will slowly merge all the countries of the world into each other prior to the official establishment of any world government. They believe this strategy to be the only way it can be successfully achieved. Zbigniew Brzezinski, an Obama advisor and member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Trilateral Commission, admitted this, stating that "we cannot leap into world government in one quick step. The precondition for genuine globalization is progressive regionalization." Organizations such as the EU and NAFTA are examples of this "progressive regionalization."
Additionally, Richard N. Gardner, a former U.S. State Department official, wrote in 1974 that a world government could not be established in one step. Rather, he argued that "in short, the ‘house of world order’ will have to be built from the bottom up rather than from the top down," and that "an end run around national sovereignty, eroding it piece by piece, will accomplish much more than the old fashioned assault." Gardner's strategy has been fully adopted by globalists, and international organizations such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, Paris climate agreement, and the numerous disarmament treaties are all examples of this strategy in action – eroding sovereignty bit by bit until all the countries of the world are so integrated by the complicated web of international organizations and treaties that the official establishment of a world government can be accomplished seamlessly and would rather be a mere recognition of de facto reality.
Liberal distortions of sovereignty
Besides establishing international treaties and organizations, liberals and globalists advance their one-world agenda by distorting the meaning of national sovereignty, either through false attacks or by changing its definition to make it compatible with their globalist worldview so they can claim to support sovereignty.
Many liberals have attempted to delegitimize nationalism and sovereignty, equating it with "racism," "xenophobia," "nativism," and even "fascism." They have also equated it with "imperialism" or "white supremacism." In addition, they have attacked and criticized policies promoting sovereignty, such as low immigration levels, border walls, and putting a nation's own citizens before immigrants – but when they do this, they do so without mentioning sovereignty, instead making emotionalistic or superficial statements like "that’s not who we are," for example, or even deriding those who promote such policies. Not only are such attacks false, as nationalism and sovereignty can be mutually exclusive with racism, fascism, and even nativism sometimes, but the attacks are also hypocritical, as the Left supports fascist planned economy policies and has an intolerance for opposing viewpoints.
In addition to blatantly attacking nationalism and sovereignty, many liberals and globalists distort the definition of sovereignty to make it compatible with their globalist worldview, allowing them to claim to support sovereignty while continuing to push for global governance in reality. While national sovereignty is something that a country either has or does not have, with no middle ground – according to Professor Jeremy Rabkin of Cornell University, "a sovereign state is one that acknowledges no superior over its own government — or as the Declaration of Independence put it, with proper piety, no superior 'among the powers of the Earth.'" According to conservative John Bolton, American sovereignty's usual definition is "our collective right to govern ourselves within our Constitutional framework." However, many liberals and globalists have created their own definition of "sovereignty" that resembles a "middle ground" approach that in reality allows for globalism.
An example of this fake "sovereignty" is the Bush Administration's plans for Iraq when planning for the nation's future after the Iraq War. Not only did the Bush Administration support handing the country over to the UN, but it effectively admitted that Iraq would not be a truly sovereign nation while verbally stating otherwise. According to then-Secretary of State Colin Powell in 2004: "They will be sovereign, but I think as a result of agreements, as a result of ... [UN] resolutions that are passed, there will be some constraints on the power of this sovereignty." While stating that Iraq would be "sovereign," they effectively admitted that their newspeak definition of "sovereignty" was synonymous with one-world globalism.
Another example of the fake definition of "sovereignty" comes from Stewart Patrick of the "International Institutions and Global Governance Program" in his 2017 book The Sovereignty Wars. The thesis of his book, according to the globalist Council on Foreign Relations website is that "the United States can protect its sovereignty while advancing American interests in a global age." In reality, Stewart promotes a globalist worldview where nations must make "sovereignty bargains", twists the definition of sovereignty to mean more than autonomy and independence, and attacks the Trump Administration for actually taking steps to preserve national sovereignty such as by announcing its exit from the Paris climate agreement. In a 2017 op-ed, he made the same globalist arguments, stating that "sovereignty" also demands "fundamental responsibilities", and he used policies pursued by George W. Bush and Barack Obama – both globalist presidents who both lived in the early 21 century when globalism was the main international ideology – as examples to prove his point.
At the beginning of the Obama Administration, one notable policy proposal representing the views of liberals and globalists was titled A Plan for Action: A New Era of International Cooperation for a Changed World: 2009, 2010, and Beyond. The plan promoted what it called "responsible sovereignty," and, among other statements, stated that "Global leaders increasingly recognize that alone they are unable to protect their interests and their citizens–national security has become interdependent with global security," and that the U.S. must, therefore, submit itself to "a rule-based international system that rejects unilateralism and looks beyond military might." In other words, this plan, while claiming to support "sovereignty," in actuality promotes EU-style globalism and "global governance" that would do away with real national sovereignty.
A likely reason why liberals and globalists have adopted a new definition of "sovereignty" is because of the growth of nationalism and anti-internationalism in the world among the public. Needing to satisfy those who wish to preserve the self-governance and independence of the founding fathers, and having contempt for such people, globalists claim they support sovereignty – something which will help assure their maintaining of power so they can continue to undermine national sovereignty.
Examples of the War on Sovereignty
- International organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, Paris climate agreement, World Trade Organization, NATO, and NAFTA, which place restrictions on a nation's autonomy and independence
- The International Criminal Court, which is allowed in some areas to try American soldiers – outside of American courts
- During the European migrant crisis, caused and even promoted by the European Union and its elites, the people of Europe had little ability to change Europe's open borders policies, despite their strong disapproval of the situation. Europe's elites used the ensuing chaos to advance their globalist agenda.
- The push for globalist immigration policies such as increasingly higher immigration levels, the "Free Movement of People" as practiced in the EU, amnesty for illegal immigrants, and support for open borders and opposition to border security and border walls. Both globalist European politicians, including President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker, and American politicians including U.S. Representative Luis Gutierrez and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan, have advocated for globalist immigration policies.
- Support for free trade, which makes individual nations economically dependent on each other and thus reduces their autonomy
Numerous other examples of the War on Sovereignty exist.
Non-governmental organizations opposed to sovereignty
Essentially every international governmental organization in existence – including the United Nations, European Union, World Trade Organization, and others listed elsewhere in this article – explicitly or implicitly support the War on Sovereignty. However, numerous non-governmental organizations and lobbying groups also support doing away with national sovereignty and autonomy.
George Soros, who wrote in 1998 that "the sovereignty of states must be subordinated to international law and international institutions" and in 2009 that "sovereignty is an anachronistic concept originating in bygone times," funds several organizations that promote mass migration and undermine – and eventually seek to completely do away with – sovereignty and national borders, including the Columbia Global Policy Initiative, Global Policy Institute, International Migration Institute, and the Open Society Foundations. Other organizations also oppose and seek to undermine national sovereignty:
- Bilderberg group
- Council on Foreign Relations
- Trilateral Commission
- Bohemian Grove
Other nongovernmental organizations with similar goals and beliefs include the World Affairs Council, the Aspen Institute, Le Cercle, the Brookings Institution, the Club of Rome, the Atlantic Council, the World Economic Forum, and the World Government Summit.
Many of these organizations are part of the deep state and are able to exert an extraordinary and disproportionate amount of influence on world affairs, especially since their membership rolls include highly influential figures from various fields and professions, including those from both U.S. political parties. For example, Bilderberg group attendees have connections to essentially every major political, corporate, and media organization in the world., illustrating the massive effect the organization is, at least, potentially able to assert on world affairs. Many of the figures behind these organizations are also very influential in the world economy, and these organizations are and were funded by wealthy globalists such as Soros, the Rockefeller family, and the Rothschild family. Thus, these organizations represent powerful forces fighting against national sovereignty and for globalism and one-world government.
Conservative reaction to the War on Sovereignty
While many people who claim to be "conservative" also support globalism, open borders, and the War on Sovereignty, many consistent conservatives have also fought back against it. The election of Donald Trump as U.S. President in 2016 was a reaction against the War on Sovereignty, as seen by Trump's positions and actions as president, and it served as a setback to globalists (see also: Donald Trump and nationalism). Some organizations, such as the John Birch Society and Eagle Forum, have also fought against the War on Sovereignty. Paleoconservatives and national conservatives take the strongest stances in favor of national sovereignty.
In Europe, Euroskepticism serves as the main source of opposition to the War on Sovereignty, and Euroskeptics have been boosted by incidents such as the Eurozone Crisis and the European migrant crisis. Notable victories in Europe by Euroskeptics include the 2016 Brexit vote and the establishment of nationalist governments over Poland and Hungary. The governments in the latter two countries have fought against EU attempts at establishing greater centralization and advancing open borders policies.
In addition, despite the push for "one-world" globalism, the number of border walls has been increasing around the world, and the number being built is accelerating. By 2017, over 60 (and according to some sources, nearly or over 70) border walls existed around the world. None of the barriers currently in operation existed before 1945, and their number slowly grew until the September 11, 2001 attacks, after which the rate of wall building greatly accelerated.
- Hohmann, Leo (October 16, 2016). Is Globalism Actually Demonic? WND. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Should a Christian be opposed to globalization? GotQuestions. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Does the Bible prophesy a one-world government and a one-world currency in the end times? GotQuestions. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Groves, Steven (December 3, 2010). Why Does Sovereignty Matter to America? The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Washington's Farewell Address 1796. The Avalon Project -- Yale Law School. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Washington's Farewell Address. Government Publishing Office. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Hayward, John (June 17, 2016). Progressives’ Hatred of Nationalism Pushes US Towards the End of Sovereignty. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Warner, Gerald (February 4, 2015). For the First Time in History, ‘Conservatives’ Are at the Forefront of the Cultural Revolution. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
- What is cultural Marxism? GotQuestions. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
- Cultural Marxism is the #1 Enemy of Western Civilization. Western Mastery. March 23, 2017. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
- Salerno, Joseph T. (January 7, 2016). Cultural Marxism Explained in 7 Minutes. Mises Institute. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
- Jasper, William F. (May 17, 2004). The War on Sovereignty. The New American. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (June 4, 2014). Bilderberg: Where Big Business and Big Government Plot Globalism. The New American. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- Sanburn, Josh (June 9, 2016). What to Know About the Bilderberg Group's Secret Annual Meeting. TIME. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (June 2, 2017). Top Trump Officials Attend Globalist Bilderberg Summit. Why? The New American. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- Background -- BRIEF HISTORY. Bilderberg Meetings. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- FOIA 2008-0637-F - Bilderberg Conferences. Clinton Digital Library. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Obama, Clinton staying mum on Bilderberg globalist confab. WND. June 7, 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Multiple references:
- Wolfgang, Ben (October 8, 2016). Clinton admitted she’s for ‘open borders’ in paid, private speech: WikiLeaks. The Washington Times. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Westwood, Sarah (October 7, 2016). 'Open trade and open borders': Hacked emails contain transcripts of Clinton paid speeches. Washington Examiner. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Hahn, Julia (October 7, 2016). Leaked Hillary Clinton Speech to Foreign Bank: ‘My Dream Is a Hemispheric Common Market with Open Trade and Open Borders’. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (January 8, 2018). Deep State Behind the Deep State: CFR, Trilaterals, Bilderbergs. The New American. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Perloff, James (July 23, 2009). Council On Foreign Relations. The New American. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Multiple references:
- Perlman, Merrill (September 25, 2017). A war of words over sovereignty. Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Bolton, John R. (February 2, 2009). The Coming War on Sovereignty. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- The Sovereignty Wars. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Patrick, Stewart (September 23, 2017). Trump's Sovereignty Doctrine. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
- Multiple references:
- Newman, Alex (January 6, 2016). UN Agenda 2030: A Recipe for Global Socialism. The New American. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Jasper, William F. (October 11, 2012). The United Nations: On the Brink of Becoming a World Government. The New American. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Durden, Tyler (September 29, 2015). The UN Just Unleashed "The Global Goals" - The Elites' Blueprint For A "United World". Zero Hedge. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (August 20, 2013). The EU: Regionalization Trumps Sovereignty. The New American. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- McManus, John F. (November 22, 2017). The Truth About NATO. The New American. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Scaliger, Charles (November 28, 2017). NAFTA's Realignment of Political Power. The New American. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (March 22, 2016). Refugee Crisis: Using Chaos to Build Power. The New American. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Hale, Virginia (November 28, 2017). EU President: Without Millions of African Migrants, Europe Will Be Lost. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Binder, John (November 28, 2017). 21 Times Exiting Rep. Luis Gutierrez Touted Open-Borders. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Hahn, Julia (October 17, 2015). Paul Ryan’s Open Borders Push With Luis Gutierrez Exposed in 2013 Video. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Jalsevac, Steve (February 6, 2017). The surprising real reason for the hate against Donald Trump. LifeSiteNews. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Scarborough, Rowan (October 20, 2016). Hillary Clinton embraces George Soros’ ‘radical’ vision of open-border world. The Washington Times. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Soros, George (October 28, 2009). The People’s Sovereignty. Foreign Policy. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Multiple references:
- Jasper, William F. (August 19, 2016). Hacked Docs Expose Soros-Obama-UN Refugee Invasion Network. The New American. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Tomlinson, Chris (August 20, 2016). Soros Leaks Refer To UN Chief As ‘Elite, Behind The Scenes’ Soros Advocate. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Hallett, Nick (November 2, 2015). Soros Admits Involvement In Migrant Crisis: ‘National Borders Are The Obstacle’. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Glick, Caroline (August 26, 2016). Soros's Campaign of Global Chaos. RealClearPolitics. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- ‘George Soros seeks a one world government to serve oligarchs, not the people’ – US State Senator. RT. November 22, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (February 25, 2017). Some of Trump's Picks Have Troubling Links to Globalism, CFR. The New American. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (January 8, 2018). Deep State: Secret Societies: Skull and Bones, Bohemians, Illuminati. The New American. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- The Role of Secret Societies in the Deep State. The New American. December 21, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Adelmann, Bob (July 13, 2011). Bohemian Grove: Where the Elite Meet to Eat (and Conspire). The New American. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Deep State Behind the Deep State: Council on Foreign Relations, Bilderberg, Trilaterals. The New American. December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Lutz, Ashley (June 12, 2012). This Chart Shows The Bilderberg Group's Connection To Everything In The World. Business Insider. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Deep State Money Men: Rockefeller, Rothschild, Soros. The New American. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Vitali, Stefania; Glattfelder, James B.; Battiston, Stefano (October 26, 2011). The Network of Global Corporate Control. PLOS. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Newman, Alex (January 8, 2018). Deep State: Follow the Rothschild, Soros, and Rockefeller Money. The New American. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Byas, Steve (December 26, 2017). Poland Objects to EU Attacks on its “National Sovereignty”. The New American. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- More neighbours make more fences. The Economist. January 7, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Greaves, Simon; Faunce, Liz (March 26, 2017). Rise of the border wall shows there is more that divides us. Financial Times. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Samuel Granados, Samuel; Murphy, Zoeann; Schaul, Kevin; Faiola, Anthony (October 12, 2016). Raising Barriers: A New Age of Walls · Episode 1. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Tomlinson, Simon (August 21, 2015). World of walls: How 65 countries have erected fences on their borders – four times as many as when the Berlin Wall was toppled – as governments try to hold back the tide of migrants. Daily Mail. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Gainor, Cathy (August 26, 2017). Map: Border walls rise around the world. Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Simmons, Ann M. (January 31, 2017). Border walls aren't unheard of, but today they increasingly divide friends, not enemies. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Friedman, Uri (May 19, 2016). A World of Walls. The Atlantic. Retrieved August 26, 2017.