Whitmore v. Arkansas

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In Whitmore v. Arkansas, 495 U.S. 149, 154-155 (1990), the U.S. Supreme Court emphasized that "Article III, of course, gives the federal courts jurisdiction over only 'cases and controversies,' and the doctrine of standing serves to identify those disputes which are appropriately resolved through the judicial process."

This 7-2 Court denied a petition for lack of standing because the petitioner was asserting a claim as a "next friend" of a man on death row who had been convicted of killing 16 people. The Court held that mere friendship and lack of any evidence of diminished capacity by the person with the real interest was not enough to confer standing.