World History Homework Eight Answers - Student 1

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1. Whom do you appreciate the most from the Enlightenment, and why? Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson is the culmination of Enlightenment philosophy and by careful observation we can see his modeling of the enlightenment. Jefferson, like most of America's founders, and those of the enlightenment, was a Deist and believed in the idea of separation of Church and State. Jefferson's college, University of Virginia, was America's first non-sectarian University, and Jefferson's belief in secular ideologies is similar to other European Enlightenment counterparts including Voltaire, who also believed in religious freedom. Jefferson was a francophile, possibly because of its major role in the Enlightenment. Similar to other enlightenment figures Denis Diderot and Rene Descartes, Jefferson appreciated science tremendously as shown by his practical inventions contained in his Monticello. Jefferson's brilliant contribution to society, the Declaration of Independence, was based on Locke's social contract theory, and similar to Voltaire's books, provoked revolution Jefferson's revolution however lead to a sucessful american government whereas Voltaire inspired the french revolution which provoked only bloodshed and hatred. Jefferson's Declaration of Independence is the culmination of the ideas of the Enlightenment, and is undeniably the best product of the Enlightenment.

Superb substance (something doesn't read correctly in your penultimate sentence above). Excellent content to your answer. Well done.

2. Explain what the Scientific Revolution was. The scientific revolution was the beginning of scientific development using rational hypotheses, testing, and basically the scientific method. The scientific revolution's only significant development was in the field of Physics (Descartes's Geometry had been far outdone by Euclid and others and Harvey's explanation of the circulatory system although significant, is a mere millionth of modern biology and other developments were even more minor than these examples.) Newton's Law of Gravity and laws of physics along with Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo's rationalization of inter-planetary movement changed society's attitude toward science with negative and positive effects. In the positive sense it encouraged scientists to toss away superstition and alchemy, and seek to understand the nature of elements of the universe such as light and sound and the human body. The negative effect was when scientists took it too far and stopped believing in God, believing even he could be explained by science. Fortunately, this philosophy of our total understanding of the Universe has been discredited in the 20th century by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, but other flawed philosophies have sprung up from the uncertainty principle and Modern physics.

One of the finest answers in the entire course, by anyone!

3. Some say that Isaac Newton was the most influential person in world history after Jesus Christ. What is your view? Explain. No, Newton would certainly not believe that as he admitted he was standing on the shoulders of Giants. Although Newton discovered classical physics, his laws of motion left science with still many blanks to fill in. Newton's law of Gravity was a change from conventional beliefs to be certain and among the scientific field his principles probably had the greatest effect on society, but in comparing Newton to Alexander the Great, Adam Smith, George Washington, Augustus Caesar, Michelangelo, Sun Tzu, Shakespeare and thousands more great men, making a decision about who the greatest was becomes nearly impossible.

Very good analysis.

6. The "invisible hand" was discovered and explained by whom? Discuss, including when, why, the effect, and the name of the work. Adam Smith proposed the invisible hand in his magnum opus "The Wealth of Nations" in 1776. Smith sought to challenge traditional thought, similar to most in the Enlightenment, and proposed the Laissez Faire as he was seeking to extend upon the idea of individual freedom. Like most conservatives he realizes that the human functions best when motivated by personal advancement, and so a society will function best when individuals have the highest ability to satisfy their own interest. America's capitalist success and the success of British mercantilism have proved Smith right.


7. Write an essay about any aspect of the lecture. I chose to write about the Spanish Inquisition. Contrary to Dostoevsky's account in the Brothers Karamazov of the "Grand Inquisitor", and the Monty Python sketch, the inquisition rarely was brutal and even more rarely used torture. It was basically a Catholic response to Gnostic and Muslim corruption of Spain. It would consist mainly of discussion between accused and appointed clerical leaders. The inquisition's used torture less than other countries such as England and Germany used torture at that time. In summary the revisionist branding of the Inquisition as an exceptionally perverted "Ethnic Cleansing" observes stereotypes while disregarding facts.

Terrific answer. You should turn it into a longer essay and publish it.

9. Add 3 terms to the Study Guide (or 5 terms to earn credit for two questions). I added the Enlightenment, John Locke and Voltaire.

Good selections.

-Paul R.

Super work, perhaps the best by anyone in the entire course. Grade: 60/60.--Andy Schlafly 21:47, 9 November 2011 (EST)