World History Homework Eight Answers - Student 4

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1. I appreciate the philosophical ideas of John Locke, an Englishman who described the social contract theory. The theory is that an individual and society have a contract between them, a contract that allows individuals to enter into a political society and agree to follow common rules. The individual agrees to abide by all the rules and help the others in the society in exchange for the protection provided by the society. This theory is what laid the groundwork for America’s Declaration of Independence. Locke influenced other great thinkers such as Voltaire and America’s Founding Fathers.


2. The Scientific Revolution was the time from Copernicus to Newton. During this time, several advances in science were made, starting with Copernicus’ theory that the earth revolved around the sun, not the other way around. This shook the religious and scientific world, with acceptance of the theory by Catholics, and rejection of it by Protestants. This eventually led to a struggle between the Protestants and the Catholics. The next scientific breakthrough was the discovery of the planets orbiting the sun in ellipses, discovered by Johannes Kepler. Galileo was another scientist; though not so brilliant himself, he did publish Copernicus’ theory, which had been banned from being taught as fact throughout the Church.

Sir Isaac Newton was the most influential man of the Scientific Revolution. He discovered the laws of gravity and calculus, though some say that the German scientist Leibniz discovered it first. These innovations changed the world significantly.

Excellent, one of the best answers in the class.

5. The nation-states were the leading countries during the time of the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution. The governments of these nation-states grew in power by expanding their central authority, leading to the rise of absolutist rulers. These rulers controlled all the facets of government, and some believed they had the “divine right” to rule. In Russia, absolutist rulers came to power, known as “czars” or “Tsars”. The first czar was Ivan IV “The Terrible”, who had an oppressive reign, and was followed by his equally terrible son Feodor. Feodor brought Russia into a “Time of Troubles”. Out of this time emerged the Romanov family, who would rule Russia in a long line of czars. It began with Mikhail, who took the throne from the previous emperor. The line ended with Czar Nicholas II, who abdicated after a revolution of the people in 1917.


6. The “Invisible Hand” was discovered by Adam Smith of Scotland. The concept of the invisible hand is that if government allows free enterprise to grow on its own, then the “invisible hand” will use the power of self-interest to contribute to the overall good of society. An example of the invisible hand working is that of a store owner who decides to leave his store open a little later. He leaves it open later because he would like to make a little more money for himself. Because he leaves it open later, many consumers benefit from the later time because of schedules, etc. The store owner unknowingly helped lots of people by acting in his own self-interest. Adam Smith published the concept of the invisible hand in his book “the Wealth of Nations”, published in 1776. This influential concept led to Capitalism, the prevalent economic theory in Britain, making Britain the leading world power.

Very good answer.

-Lucia N.

Grade: 40/40, including some of the best answers in the class!--Andy Schlafly 21:53, 9 November 2011 (EST)
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