Difference between revisions of "Alger Hiss"

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In 1941, during the [[Nazi-Soviet pact]], the [[House Committee on Un-American Activities|Dies committee]] obtained the membership list of the [[Washington Committee for Democratic Action]], which would be confirmed as a Communist front the following year by Roosevelt's Attorney General [[Francis Biddle]].<ref>M. Stanton Evans, ''Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies'' (New York: Crown Forum, 2007) ISBN 978-1-4000-8105-9, p. 55, n. 6 (p. 610)</ref> Included on the roster was the name of Priscilla Hiss,<ref>Allen Weinstein, ''Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case'' (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 329</ref><ref>G. Edward White, ''Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 48</ref> with the notation appended, "Husband with State Department."<ref>[http://ultra-secret.info/PDFs/splitfiles/splitprocessed/Silvermaster082_Folder/Silvermaster082_page120.pdf FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)]</ref> As mandated by the [[Hatch Act]], the FBI subsequently conducted an investigation of Hiss, in the course of which one of Hiss' former colleagues at the AAA told investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.<ref>FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)</ref> Hiss denied everything, although he said he thought his wife might have been a member of the [[League of Women Shoppers]], a [[Popular Front]] group<ref>Michael Denning, ''The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century'' (New York: Verso, 1998) ISBN 1859841708, p. 410</ref> identified as a Communist front by the committee in 1939.<ref>Meg Jacobs, ''Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-century America'' (Princeton University Press, 2005) ISBN 0691086648, p. 171</ref> In 1942, the FBI sent a report of this investigation to the Secretary of State,<ref>FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)</ref> the first of what would become a veritable avalanche of FBI memos and reports on Hiss disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and White House over the ensuing five years.
 
In 1941, during the [[Nazi-Soviet pact]], the [[House Committee on Un-American Activities|Dies committee]] obtained the membership list of the [[Washington Committee for Democratic Action]], which would be confirmed as a Communist front the following year by Roosevelt's Attorney General [[Francis Biddle]].<ref>M. Stanton Evans, ''Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies'' (New York: Crown Forum, 2007) ISBN 978-1-4000-8105-9, p. 55, n. 6 (p. 610)</ref> Included on the roster was the name of Priscilla Hiss,<ref>Allen Weinstein, ''Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case'' (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 329</ref><ref>G. Edward White, ''Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 48</ref> with the notation appended, "Husband with State Department."<ref>[http://ultra-secret.info/PDFs/splitfiles/splitprocessed/Silvermaster082_Folder/Silvermaster082_page120.pdf FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)]</ref> As mandated by the [[Hatch Act]], the FBI subsequently conducted an investigation of Hiss, in the course of which one of Hiss' former colleagues at the AAA told investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.<ref>FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)</ref> Hiss denied everything, although he said he thought his wife might have been a member of the [[League of Women Shoppers]], a [[Popular Front]] group<ref>Michael Denning, ''The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century'' (New York: Verso, 1998) ISBN 1859841708, p. 410</ref> identified as a Communist front by the committee in 1939.<ref>Meg Jacobs, ''Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-century America'' (Princeton University Press, 2005) ISBN 0691086648, p. 171</ref> In 1942, the FBI sent a report of this investigation to the Secretary of State,<ref>FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)</ref> the first of what would become a veritable avalanche of FBI memos and reports on Hiss disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and White House over the ensuing five years.
  
After [[Ludwig Lore]] identified Chambers as a former GRU man, the Bureau interviewed him for the first time in 1942.<ref>Allen Weinstein, ''Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case'' (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 340</ref><ref>Douglas Linder, [http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hisschronology.html The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology], Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)</ref> He repeated his identification of Hiss, among others, as a Communist. In 1943, the FBI obtained the notes Berle had taken during his dinner four years earlier with Chambers and Levine.<ref>John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 92</ref> That year, an encrypted cable (decrypted in the Venona project and released in 1995) from Pavel B. Mikhailov (code-named "Mol'er"), who (under cover as Soviet Vice Consul in New York) was controller of military intelligence for the [[NKVD]],<ref>G. Edward White, ''Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 224</ref> to [[NKVD]] chief of foreign intelligence [[Pavel Fitin]] (code-named "Viktor")<ref>[http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/9feb_atomic_energy.pdf Venona 195 New York to Moscow 9th February 1944]</ref> in Moscow, identifying the real names and code names of several agents in the U.S., said the [[GRU]] (code-named "Neighbors") reported someone "from the State Department by the name of Hiss."<ref>[http://www.nsa.gov/venona/releases/28_Sept_1943_R4_m1_p1.gif Venona 1579 New York to Moscow, 28 September 1943]</ref>
+
After [[Ludwig Lore]] identified Chambers as a former GRU man, the Bureau interviewed him for the first time in 1942.<ref>Allen Weinstein, ''Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case'' (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 340</ref><ref>Douglas Linder, [http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hisschronology.html The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology], Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)</ref> He repeated his identification of Hiss, among others, as a Communist. In 1943, the FBI obtained the notes Berle had taken during his dinner four years earlier with Chambers and Levine.<ref>John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 92</ref> That year, an encrypted cable (decrypted in the Venona project and released in 1995) from Pavel B. Mikhailov (code-named "Mol'er"), who (under cover as Soviet Vice Consul in New York) was controller of military intelligence for the [[NKVD]],<ref>G. Edward White, ''Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 224</ref> to [[NKVD]] chief of foreign intelligence [[Pavel Fitin]] (code-named "Viktor")<ref>[http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/9feb_atomic_energy.pdf Venona 195 New York to Moscow 9th February 1944]</ref> in Moscow, identifying the real names and code names of several agents in the U.S., said the [[GRU]] (code-named "Neighbors") reported someone "from the State Department by the name of Hiss."<ref>[http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1943/28sep_gru_sources.pdf Venona 1579 New York to Moscow, 28 September 1943]</ref>
  
 
The following year, Hiss was promoted to become deputy director of the State Department's [[Office of Special Political Affairs]], a policy-making office for postwar planning and international organization.<ref>Gregor Dallas, ''1945: The War that Never Ended'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) ISBN 0300109806), p. 412</ref> In August 1944, he organized the [[Dumbarton Oaks Conference]],<ref>Douglas O. Linder, [http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hissaccount.html The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Commentary], Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)</ref> where he served as executive secretary,<ref>Robert G. Whalen, "[http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/03/09/reviews/chambers-strange.html Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men]," ''The New York Times'', December 12, 1948</ref><ref>"[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811892.html The Case of Alger Hiss]," ''Time'', February 13, 1950</ref> presiding over the drafting of the proposed [[United Nations]] Charter.<ref>[http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/history/dumbarton.shtml Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta], History of the Charter of the United Nations (UN.org)</ref>
 
The following year, Hiss was promoted to become deputy director of the State Department's [[Office of Special Political Affairs]], a policy-making office for postwar planning and international organization.<ref>Gregor Dallas, ''1945: The War that Never Ended'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) ISBN 0300109806), p. 412</ref> In August 1944, he organized the [[Dumbarton Oaks Conference]],<ref>Douglas O. Linder, [http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hissaccount.html The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Commentary], Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)</ref> where he served as executive secretary,<ref>Robert G. Whalen, "[http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/03/09/reviews/chambers-strange.html Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men]," ''The New York Times'', December 12, 1948</ref><ref>"[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811892.html The Case of Alger Hiss]," ''Time'', February 13, 1950</ref> presiding over the drafting of the proposed [[United Nations]] Charter.<ref>[http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/history/dumbarton.shtml Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta], History of the Charter of the United Nations (UN.org)</ref>

Revision as of 13:41, 5 March 2009

Alger Hiss.
Photo courtesy U.S. Bureau of Prisons

Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a high-ranking[1] U.S. State Department official and Secretary General of the founding conference of the United Nations, who was convicted of perjury in 1950, after denying that he had been a Soviet agent.

"Belief in the guilt or innocence of Alger Hiss became a defining issue in American intellectual life," wrote Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D.-N.Y.), who was instrumental in securing the release of FBI and Venona project files on the case, which had been classified for half a century. Concluded the liberal[2] Democrat in 1998: "Parts of the American government had conclusive evidence of his guilt, but they never told."[3]

Early life

Alger Hiss was born in Baltimore, Maryland, November 11, 1904,[4] to a financially comfortable upper-middle-class[5] WASP family.[6] When Alger was two years old, his father, an executive with a dry goods firm,[7] committed suicide by slashing his throat with his own razor.[8] When Hiss was 25, his sister Mary Ann also committed suicide, by drinking a bottle of Lysol.[9] Alger's older brother Bosley had died two and a half years before from Bright’s disease, a kidney disorder aggravated by his excessive alcohol consumption.[10][11]

Johns Hopkins University

As a result of his father's death, Alger inherited $10,000,[12] the equivalent of more than $200,000 today.[13] After graduation from Baltimore City College and a year at Powder Point Academy (a private prep school in Duxbury, Massachusetts) and the Maryland Institute of Art, Hiss attended Baltimore's Johns Hopkins University.[14] As an undergraduate, Hiss' favorite instructors included Broadus Mitchell, whom Hiss would later describe as a "gifted" economics professor with "mildly socialistic" views.[15] But Mitchell, according to the personal site of Hiss' son, Tony,[16] was a well-known Socialist.[17] He had been candidate for Governor of Maryland for the Socialist Party[18] (U.S. supporter of the Comintern),[19] and distinguished socialism from communism as differing only in "strategy and procedure," not "essential theory."[20] Another favorite was José Robles,[21] a committed Stalinist.[22] Hiss apparently knew Robles well enough to spend time at his home.[23] Robles would go on to serve in the Spanish Civil War as a Colonel in the Red Army and interpreter for General Jānis Bērziņš, head of Soviet military intelligence.[24] Robles was never seen again[25] after Bērziņš was recalled to Moscow[26] and shot in Stalin's Great Terror[27] in 1938.[28] Robles had apparently been executed by a Communist "special section," according to John Dos Passos, because he "knew too much about the relations between the Spanish war ministry and the Kremlin."[29] Hiss would later say he too considered going to Spain to fight for the Soviet-backed Loyalist cause.[30]

Harvard Law School

After graduating in 1926, Hiss went on to Harvard Law School, where he resumed his friendship with boyhood friend Henry Collins,[31] who was attending Harvard Business School. Collins would later be identified as a Soviet agent by chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S. Anatoly Gorsky[32] and by another friend at Harvard, State Department official Laurence Duggan[33] (himself identified by Comintern courier Whittaker Chambers,[34] OGPU recruiter Hede Massing,[35] and Venona decrypts).[36] Hiss served on the Harvard Law Review under editor Lee Pressman,[37] who would eventually testify that he had been a member of an underground group of Communists in the Federal government.[38] Hiss became the protégé of one instructor, future Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter—who, said former U.S. President William Howard Taft, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, "seems to be closely in touch with every Bolshevist, Communist movement in this country."[39] Frankfurter was at the time the leading champion of the convicted murderers Sacco and Vanzetti,[40][41] revolutionary terrorists who became a Communist[42] cause célèbre,[43] and whom Alger Hiss would later emulate.[44]

Early Career

When Hiss graduated from law school in 1929, Frankfurter got him the coveted[45] job of law clerk to Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes.[46] The same year, Hiss married the former Mrs. Priscilla Fansler Hobson (a supporter of perennial Socialist Party presidential nominee Norman Thomas),[47] whom he had met on a transatlantic cruise when he was nineteen.[48]

Hiss went on to prestigious[49] law firms in Boston and New York where, by 1932, his wife Priscilla had registered as a member of the Socialist Party.[50][51][52] By then, Priscilla Hiss was an active member of American Labor Associates, and Hiss was becoming "radicalized,"[53] joining the International Juridical Association (IJA) (which "consistently followed the Communist Party line")[54] along with Pressman.[55]

During this period, Hiss' letters to his wife reflected his increasing radicalism. In 1930, he made a coy reference to the terrorist[56][57] Industrial Workers of the World, writing to Priscilla, "[D]id thee call thyself a Wobbly with an I.W.W. tongue in thy socialistic (I couldn't bring myself to write 'Communistic') cheek." Suggesting that an article questioning the legitimacy of the existing “capitalist order”[58] did not go far enough, Hiss wrote to Priscilla in 1932, “Has thee seen Archibald MacLeish's[59] article on capitalism in last week's Saturday Review? Felix [Frankfurter] says it is soft thinking after Wilson.”[60]

New Deal

Agricultural Adjustment Administration

In 1933, Frankfurter sent Hiss a telegram[61] urging him to join President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal as assistant general counsel to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA).[62] At the peak of Stalin's Terror Famine[63] (during which the Soviets starved some three million Ukrainians to death through collectivization of agriculture),[64] the AAA restricted U.S. farm production[65] in order to drive up food prices[66] in the depths of the Great Depression.[67] The agency was the brainchild of FDR's Secretary of Agriculture (and future Vice President),[68] so-called "farm dictator"[69] Henry Wallace—who would run for President on the Communist-inspired[70] Progressive Party ticket in 1948, finally recanting his support for the Soviet Union[71] in 1952.[72]

In response to a query about candidates for employment at AAA, Pressman, already at the agency, wrote, "I have talked to Alger Hiss and Nat Witt who are considering" taking posts at AAA (Hiss would later deny under oath that he had discussed the position with Pressman).[73] At AAA, Hiss reunited with IJA colleagues Pressman and Witt as well as Collins, and became acquainted with the Communist[74] Harold Ware.[75] Even before the FBI would learn of Whittaker Chambers' charges, one of Hiss' colleagues at the AAA would tip off FBI investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.[76] Hiss' superior at AAA, Jerome Frank, believing Hiss to be closely linked to a coterie of Communist lawyers at the agency, would later refuse to appear as a character witness for him.[77] Collins would refuse to testify on grounds of potential self-incrimination,[78] but another AAA official, Nathaniel Weyl, would later testify that he attended Communist cell meetings with Hiss and saw him pay his party dues,[79][80][81] testimony he would reaffirm in his 2004 autobiography.[82]

A former GRU station chief in London and New York reported that during the early and middle 1930s Hiss was a source of agent information for a Soviet spy ring in Washington, the Silvermaster group, according to Pavel Sudoplatov, former deputy director of Foreign Intelligence for the USSR.[83]

Nye Committee

In 1934, again with an assist from Pressman (according to Gardner Jackson),[84] Hiss became General Counsel for the U.S. Senate's Nye committee,[85] which investigated people Chairman Gerald P. Nye (R.-N.D.) called Wall Street's "merchants of death,"[86] whom he accused of conspiracy to lead the U.S. into war with Germany. One scholar has dubbed this a "witch-hunt" for "subversive capitalists," in which Hiss was to Nye what Roy Cohn would later be to Senator Joe McCarthy (R.-Wisc.)[87] The Soviets took great interest in the work of the committee for its propaganda value[88] as well as its access to classified documents on U.S. armaments and foreign policy.[89] Moscow had at least one source on the staff of the committee, who provided valuable documents to the Kremlin in 1935,[90] the same year an agent code-named "Ales" (pronounced "Alles") began working for Soviet military intelligence.[91] Nye would tell FBI investigators that he believed Hiss was a Communist at the time,[92] and would later say he believed Hiss used his position on the committee for espionage.[93]

Barely a month after joining the committee staff,[94] Hiss met Whittaker Chambers.[95] According to Chambers, they were introduced by Communist underground boss[96] J. Peters;[97] Hiss would claim that Chambers had wandered into his office without introduction, as a free-lance writer looking for a story.[98]

Chambers' version would be corroborated by the radical[99] novelist Josephine Herbst, whose then-husband, John Herrmann, was an AAA official, a member of the Ware group and a courier for the Communist underground subordinate to Chambers.[100] Hiss would later claim that he did not even know Herrmann—a "lie," according to Herbst's biographer.[101]

Justice Department

In 1935, Hiss transferred into the Justice Department as special assistant to the Solictor General, where he unsuccessfully defended the Agricultural Adjustment Act before the United States Supreme Court[102] (which ruled the AAA unconstitutional in 1936).[103]

In the summer of 1936, J. Peters arranged a dummy transaction, according to Chambers, in which Hiss donated his 1929 Ford to the Communist Party.[104] Hiss would deny this, testifying instead that he had given the car to Chambers[105] in June 1935, after buying a new car. But Hiss did not buy a new car until some three months after this, and he continued to pay insurance on the Ford for a year after he claimed to have gotten rid of it.[106]

Chambers' version would be corroborated by the car's certificate of title, which showed that Hiss actually transferred the car on July 23, 1936, to the Cherner Motor Company, which sold it the same day to the Communist[107] William Rosen for $25.[108] The company made no record of the transaction.[109] Rosen would refuse to answer questions about his role in the transfer or the Communist Party on grounds of potential self-incrimination.[110] Hiss' attorney, Edward McLean, wrote that Rosen's lawyer, Emmanuel Bloch, told him:

…that Rosen did lend himself to a dummy transaction concerning the Ford car.... [A]t some later date, a man came to see Rosen and told him that the title certificate to the Ford was in Rosen's name and asked Rosen to sign an assignment of it to some other person. Rosen did this. The man who came to see Rosen was a very high Communist. His name would be a sensation in this case. The man who ultimately got the car is also a Communist. Bloch implied that Rosen was a Communist too but did not say so expressly.[111][112]

The title transfer bore a signature Hiss acknowledged to be his own, notarized by Hiss' Justice Department colleague W. Marvin Smith. In 1948 Smith would tell HUAC that he had notarized Hiss' signature on the transfer, but before he could so testify in the Hiss trial, Smith would plunge down a five-story Justice Department stairwell to his death; there would be no witnesses.[113]

At a 1935 dinner at the home of State Department official (and Soviet intelligence source)[114] Noel Field, Hiss argued with OGPU recruiter Hede Massing that Field should work with Hiss' GRU group, rather than Massing's OGPU group, according to Massing.[115]

Field would defect in 1948 to Communist Czechoslovakia, where he would tell the secret police that he was fleeing to avoid testifying in the trial of Alger Hiss, whom he identified as a fellow Communist underground agent in the State Department during the mid-thirties, according to official records published in 1990 by Karel Kaplan, former archivist of the Central Committee of the Czech Communist Party.[116] A 1955 Czechoslovak secret police reinvestigation (obtained in 2000 by Czech human rights activist Karel Skrabek) states, "Noel Field said that … Hiss worked for the USSR as a spy."[117] Field would end up in Communist Hungary, where in 1954 he would tell Hungarian secret police that he and Hiss "mutually realized we were Communists. Around the summer of 1935 Alger Hiss tried to induce me to do service for the Soviets."[118][119][120]

The transcripts also record Field saying that he turned over State Department documents to Hede Massing in the 1930s. In other statements Field twice said that although Hiss knew that Field “was a Communist,” he strongly supported Field at the State Department and even tried to help him obtain a job as a State Department adviser in the Philippines in 1940.[121] The dossier likewise records a statement by Field that he briefly visited Hiss in 1939 in America, where they agreed that if either's cover was ever blown, he would communicate to the other indirectly.[122][123][124]

In a 1936 memorandum, found in the NKVD archives by former KGB agent Alexander Vassiliev, Massing complains to Moscow about Hiss (using his real name) talking to Field (whom she refers to by his code name "Ernst"): "Alger told him that he was a Communist," complains Massing, a serious breach of discipline.[125] As a result, noted Boris Bazarov, OGPU "illegal" station chief for the United States, Field "and Hiss [Bazarov also used Hiss's real name] have been openly identified" as Soviet agents.[126][127][128][129]

According to Massing, Hiss also asked Field to use his connections to help Hiss get into the State Department.[130][131]

State Department

In 1936, Hiss joined the State Department as special assistant to Assistant Secretary of State for Trade Agreements Francis B. Sayre, son-in-law of Woodrow Wilson.[132] Two years later, Alger's younger brother Donald, who had followed him to Johns Hopkins, Harvard Law, and a clerkship for Justice Holmes, would join him there, rising to the position of assistant to future Secretary of State Dean Acheson.[133]

In a cable of the era found in the NKVD archives by Vassiliev, NKVD illegal Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov reports to Moscow that J. Peters (code-named "Storm")[134][135][136][137][138] told him that "Hiss [Akhmerov used his real name] used to be a member of bratskiy organization [CPUSA underground][139] who had been implanted into "Surrogate" [cover name for the State Department][140] and sent to the Neighbors [GRU][141]...."[142][143]

The year before, at the funeral of Marshal Jozsef Pilsudski in Warsaw, U.S. Ambassador to Moscow William C. Bullitt had confidentially assured the Polish government that the United States would stand by Poland in the event of a Nazi invasion. But after Bullitt reported back to Washington that he had done so, someone at the State Department passed this information to Moscow, which in turn transmitted it to German intelligence (with which Soviet intelligence had maintained liaison since the time of Lenin).[144] Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels exploited this information to portray the United States as a warmonger. According to reporter Ralph de Toledano, who covered the Hiss trial for Newsweek, the State Department source who passed this information to the Kremlin was Alger Hiss.[145]

Just before Christmas 1936, Colonel Boris Bykov, head of Soviet military intelligence in the U.S., gave Chambers money to buy four Bokhara rugs for Hiss, Harry Dexter White, George Silverman, and Julian Wadleigh, according to Chambers; Hiss would later claim that Chambers had given him his rug in 1935 in partial payment for rent. Chambers' version was corroborated by Marxist[146] Columbia University art historian Meyer Schapiro, who confirmed that he arranged the purchase (and produced the canceled check dated December 23, 1936); by the Massachusetts Importing Company of Manhattan, which confirmed selling him the rugs (and produced the Bill of Sale); by White's widow and Silverman (who confirmed that they had received their rugs sometime between late 1936 and the fall of 1938); and by Wadleigh, who confessed to having been a member of Chambers' apparatus and delivering documents to him,[147] confirmed that he had received his rug for New Year's 1937,[148] and conceded that he understood the rug to be a gift from the Soviets.[149]

By 1937, the peak of Stalin's Great Terror[150] (whose victims would number over ten million),[151] Hiss was delivering packets of documents to Whittaker Chambers at intervals of a week or ten days, according to Oleg Gordievsky, the KGB London station chief who defected in 1985.[152]

That year, French Premier Édouard Daladier informed Bullitt that two brothers named Hiss, both in the U.S. government, were Soviet agents.[153][154][155] Bullitt “laughed it off as a tall tale, never having heard their names.”[156]

Also in 1937, Akhmerov cabled Moscow that Michael Straight (code-named "Nigel"), an American member of the NKVD's Cambridge spy ring[157] (and future FDR speech writer[158] and publisher of The New Republic),[159] then working at the State Department, mentioned Hiss (using his real name) as someone with "progressive" views "who occupied a responsible position."[160] Akhmerov worried that Straight "might guess that Hiss [Akhmerov again used Hiss' real name] belongs to our family" or "find out Hiss's nature" as a GRU agent.[161]

On November 23, 1937, Whittaker Chambers bought a car, using $400 he said Alger Hiss loaned him.[162][163] Hiss would deny making the loan,[164] but records showed that the Hisses withdrew $400 in cash from their savings four days before Chambers bought the car.[165] At first the Hisses claimed that they had used the money to buy furniture for a new house,[166] but they had not signed a lease at the time,[167] and could not produce receipts for any purchases, nor explain why they had used cash from savings rather than the checking and charge accounts they otherwise used for such purchases.[168]

In 1938, Whittaker Chambers made his final break with the Communists.[169] Wary after the murder of Ignace Reiss[170] and disappearance of Juliet Poyntz,[171] Chambers asked his wife's nephew[172] to hide what he called his "life preserver"—a packet of copies of documents, hand-written memos and microfilm of documents.[173][174] On the advice of Herbert Solow, former press agent for the Communist League of America,[175] Chambers made it known to various contacts, including the ex-Communist[176] Ludwig Lore, that the documents would be made public in the event anything were to happen to him.[177]

In 1939, Sayre became United States High Commissioner to the Philippines, and Hiss transferred to become personal aide to Stanley Hornbeck, political advisor to the State Department's Far Eastern Division. As his replacement, Hiss urged Sayre to hire Soviet Intelligence source[178] Noel Field, despite his lack of experience.[179] Due to the fact that Field had been identified to the State Department as a member of various Red front groups starting in 1926, and as a Communist Party member the previous year,[180] he did not get the appointment. After his defection behind the Iron Curtain, Field would confirm to East bloc authorities that Hiss knew he was a Communist when he recommended Field as his replacement.[181]

When in the wake of the Hitler-Stalin pact the Communist Party organ The Daily Worker came under suspicion for reversing its anti-Nazi posturing, Communist Party official Roy Hudson discussed what to do about it with Soviet agent[182] Robert Minor, according to Daily Worker editor Louis Budenz. Someone mentioned that Nathan Witt and Lee Pressman could not be of much help as they, too, were under suspicion at the time. According to Budenz, Alger Hiss was then mentioned as a good Comrade who would be helpful.[183]

The year before, in Paris, defecting former GRU chief in Europe Walter Krivitsky[184] had identified Hiss as an agent of Soviet military intelligence, according to Alexander Barmine, former Charge d'Affairs at the Soviet Embassy in Athens, who had defected in 1937.[185] When news of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (which Krivitsky had predicted)[186] broke on August 23, 1939, Krivitsky warned his Saturday Evening Post ghostwriter, Isaac Don Levine, "Everything that went on in the [U.S.] embassy [in Moscow], especially the major communications between Washington and Bullitt, were quickly relayed to the Soviet secret police."[187] (Krivitsky would be found shot dead in his Washington hotel room in 1941.[188] Although he had warned his friends that if he were to be found dead, then he had been murdered,[189] his death was ruled a suicide.[190] Krivitsky had been liquidated by one of the NKVD's Mobile Groups for Special Tasks, according to former Soviet espionage official Alexander Orlov.[191] Orlov's account is corroborated by the Nicolaevsky and Honeyman collections in the archives of the Hoover Institution.)[192]

Chambers' meeting with Berle

In 1938, Whittaker Chambers confessed to Levine that he had been a courier for the Communist underground. As the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland[193] was gearing up, Levine sought to get Chambers an appointment with President Roosevelt, but was diverted by the White House to Assistant Secretary of State for Security Adolf Berle.[194] On September 2, 1939, Chambers told Berle of an underground apparatus of the Communist Party for employees of the Federal government in Washington, D.C. Its organizer, said Chambers, was Harold Ware, its treasurer Henry Collins;[195] among its members he identified Lee Pressman, Nathan Witt, and the brothers Alger and Donald Hiss.[196]

While Chambers talked, Berle took notes. Under the heading “Underground Espionage Agent,” he listed several names, including “Alger Hiss,” with the notation, “Ass’t. to Sayre—CP—1937,” and “Member of the Underground Com.—Active.”[197] In Berle's diary, the first entry after his visit with Levine and Chambers reads:

Saturday night ... Isaac Don Levine ... brought a Mr. X around to my house ... Through a long evening, I slowly manipulated Mr. X to a point where he had told some of the ramifications hereabout; and it becomes necessary to take a few simple measures. I expect more of this kind of thing, later. A good deal of the Russian espionage was carried on by Jews; we know now that they are exchanging information with Berlin; and the Jewish units are furious to find out they are, in substance, working for the Gestapo...[198]

After Berle relayed this information to President Franklin Roosevelt, Levine asked Berle how FDR responded. In his 1973 memoir, Levine wrote, “To the best of my recollection, the President dismissed the matter rather brusquely with an expletive remark on this order: ‘Oh, forget it, Adolf.’”[199]

In 1940, after Levine informed Bullitt of what Chambers had told him about Hiss, Bullitt relayed to Stanley Hornbeck what Daladier had told him. Bullitt advised Alice Roosevelt Longworth and de Toledano that he also took this information directly to FDR.[200]

Levine also told David Dubinsky, president of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union, about Chambers' revelations. Dubinsky, wrote Levine, "took up the Chambers matter with the President at the first opportunity and was brushed off with an amiable slap on the back." Levine wrote that he also told fellow journalist Walter Winchell of "a ring of six Soviet agents operating within the State Department alone. In his broadcast of December 12, Winchell announced that he had carried my information to President Roosevelt. Still there was no action."[201] Winchell's posthumously published memoir confirms Levine's story.[202]

That September, the Nazi and Soviet armies staged a joint victory parade through the streets of occupied Brest-Litovsk, Poland.[203] Hiss was at this time among a handful of the Soviets' most important agents, who were run individually and not through spy networks, according to Oleg Gordievsky. Hiss' wartime controller, wrote Gordievsky, was Akhmerov, the leading NKVD illegal in the United States,[204] who, in a lecture before a KGB audience, identified Hiss as a Soviet agent during World War II.[205]

In 1941, during the Nazi-Soviet pact, the Dies committee obtained the membership list of the Washington Committee for Democratic Action, which would be confirmed as a Communist front the following year by Roosevelt's Attorney General Francis Biddle.[206] Included on the roster was the name of Priscilla Hiss,[207][208] with the notation appended, "Husband with State Department."[209] As mandated by the Hatch Act, the FBI subsequently conducted an investigation of Hiss, in the course of which one of Hiss' former colleagues at the AAA told investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.[210] Hiss denied everything, although he said he thought his wife might have been a member of the League of Women Shoppers, a Popular Front group[211] identified as a Communist front by the committee in 1939.[212] In 1942, the FBI sent a report of this investigation to the Secretary of State,[213] the first of what would become a veritable avalanche of FBI memos and reports on Hiss disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and White House over the ensuing five years.

After Ludwig Lore identified Chambers as a former GRU man, the Bureau interviewed him for the first time in 1942.[214][215] He repeated his identification of Hiss, among others, as a Communist. In 1943, the FBI obtained the notes Berle had taken during his dinner four years earlier with Chambers and Levine.[216] That year, an encrypted cable (decrypted in the Venona project and released in 1995) from Pavel B. Mikhailov (code-named "Mol'er"), who (under cover as Soviet Vice Consul in New York) was controller of military intelligence for the NKVD,[217] to NKVD chief of foreign intelligence Pavel Fitin (code-named "Viktor")[218] in Moscow, identifying the real names and code names of several agents in the U.S., said the GRU (code-named "Neighbors") reported someone "from the State Department by the name of Hiss."[219]

The following year, Hiss was promoted to become deputy director of the State Department's Office of Special Political Affairs, a policy-making office for postwar planning and international organization.[220] In August 1944, he organized the Dumbarton Oaks Conference,[221] where he served as executive secretary,[222][223] presiding over the drafting of the proposed United Nations Charter.[224]

By 1948 Berle, ousted from the State Department, would be serving as chairman of New York's Liberal Party. That year, the New York bureau of the Christian Science Monitor would send a teletype to the home office in Boston, relating a background interview with the party's publicity director, Arnold Beichman:

From a thoroughly reliable contact: According to this informant Berle has said privately that classified material which Hiss was handling was reaching the Russians. It was coded stuff. Berle took the handling out of Hiss' hands and the leaks stopped.[225]

But in the wake of Dumbarton Oaks, Berle was ousted as Assistant Secretary of State in charge of security, defeated by the State Department's pro-Soviet faction, Hiss prominent among them. As Berle put it:

[I]n the fall of 1944 there was a difference of opinion in the State Department. I felt the Russians were not going to be sympathetic and cooperative.... I was pressing for a pretty clean-cut showdown then while our position was strongest. The opposite group... in the State Department was largely... Mr. Acheson’s group, with Mr. Hiss his principal assistant in the matter.... I got trimmed in that fight, and, as a result, went to Brazil, and that ended my diplomatic career.[226]

Yalta

President Truman at the rostrum of the United Nations Charter Meeting with Secretary General of the Conference Alger Hiss seated second from Truman's left.

A State Department internal security probe of Hiss (made public in 1993)[227] ordered by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes[228] revealed that in February 1945, Hiss requested top-secret files from the Office of Strategic Services (precursor of the CIA) on British, Soviet, French and Chinese internal security policies, as well as Far East policy;[229] FBI surveillance at this time found that Hiss also developed "a keen interest in atomic energy," and other matters relating to military intelligence,[230][231]—all of which was well outside the purview of his office.[232]

Also in February 1945, Hiss was selected to accompany FDR to his meeting with Stalin and Churchill at Yalta, as aide to Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, Jr.[233]

According to Sudoplatov, "One of the officials [at Yalta] we had established confidential relations with was Alger Hiss," who was "highly sympathetic to the interests of the Soviet Union."[234] He added:

In conversation, Hiss disclosed to Oumansky, and then Litvinov, official U.S. attitudes and plans; he was also very close to our sources who were cooperating with Soviet intelligence and to our active intelligence operators in the United States. Within this framework of exchange of confidential information were references to Hiss as the source who told us the Americans were prepared to make a deal in Europe.[235]

At the conference, the U.S. ceded hegemony over Eastern Europe to Stalin and made a secret agreement giving the Soviet Union three votes in the UN to one for the U.S.[236] According to confidential GRU sources, during the conference, Hiss gave daily briefings to General Mikhail Abramovich Milshtein, a military adviser to Stalin and the deputy director of the GRU, revealing not only the American negotiating strategy but insights into the attitudes of the American negotiators.[237]

After the conference, Hiss went on to Moscow, where he was decorated with the Order of the Red Star[238] by Foreign Minister V.M. Molotov.[239] On April 25, 1945, Pavel Fitin, head of NKVD foreign intelligence, reported to NKVD Chief Vsevolod Merkulov that Harold Glasser, a Soviet agent in the U.S. Treasury code-named "Ruble," learned of the award from his friend, "Ales," a Soviet military intelligence agent:

According to data from Vadim the group of agents of the "military" neighbors whose part Ruble was earlier, recently was decorated with orders of the USSR. Ruble learned about this fact from his friend Ales, who is the head of the mentioned group."[240][241]

This memo apparently refers to Venona decrypt 1822, dated March 30, 1945, in which "Vadim" (Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S.)[242] reports,[243] following up on a conversation with "Ales," that "Ales has been continuously working with the neighbors since 1935;" that for "a few years now he has been the director of a small group of probationers [agents][244] of the neighbors [GRU],[245] for the most part drawn from his relatives;" that they were "working on obtaining only military information," since Soviet military intelligence "allegedly are not very interested" in "materials about the Bank [United States Department of State]";[246] that recently, "Ales and his whole group were awarded Soviet medals"; and that after "the Yalta conference, back in Moscow, one very high-ranking Soviet worker allegedly had contact with Ales (Ales implied that it was Comrade Vyshinskii) and at the request of the military neighbors he conveyed to him their thanks, etc."[247] Regarding "Ales," one FBI memo reports:

It would appear likely that this individual is Alger Hiss in view of the fact that he was in the State Department and the information from Chambers indicated that his wife, Priscilla, was active in Soviet espionage and he also had a brother, Donald, in the State Department. It also is to be noted that Hiss did attend the Yalta conference as a special adviser to President Roosevelt, and he would, of course, have conferred with high officials of other nations attending the conference.[248][249]

In its unanimous final report in 1997, the bipartisan Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy agreed regarding Ales, "This could only be Alger Hiss"[250] Analysts at the National Security Agency have also gone on record that Ales could only have been Alger Hiss.[251] John R. Schindler, professor of strategy at the Naval War College and himself a former NSA analyst, concurs, calling this identification "exceptionally solid" and the evidence "compelling."[252]

Also in 1945, after State Department liaison Lt. Andrew Roth of the Office of Naval Intelligence was arrested in the Amerasia spy case, Communist Party General Secretary Eugene Dennis told Communist Party National Committee member Jack Stachel that Roth suggested that Alger Hiss might be used to quash the case, according to former CPUSA Politburo member Louis Budenz.[253]

In March 1945, State Department security officer Raymond Murphy interviewed Chambers. Murphy's notes record that Chambers reiterated his identification of Hiss as a member of the Communist Party underground apparatus, but added that he was also the leader of a cell and not merely a Communist but, said Chambers, an espionage agent who disclosed "much confidential material," as well as an agent of influence who sought to shape U.S. policy "in keeping with the desires of the Communist Party."[254]

On March 24, FBI agent E.A. Tamm, assistant to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, alerted Robert Lynch, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, to Chambers' allegations that Hiss had been a member of the underground organization of the Communist Party, and to Hiss' links to Nathan Witt and Lee Pressman. After interviewing Hiss the next day,[255] FBI official D.M. Ladd furnished Frederick B. Lyon, Chief of the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation of the Department of State, a summary memorandum outlining this information.[256] On March 26, State Department security officer Robert Bannerman sent Donald Russell, Assistant Secretary of State for Administration, a comprehensive secret report on Chambers' allegations regarding Hiss, recommending "that immediate action be taken to terminate Mr. Hiss's services with the Department."[257]

United Nations

That month, Hiss was promoted to become Director of the State Department Office of Special Political Affairs. Vassiliev's notes on a cable[258] he discovered in the Soviet archives report that "Vadim" (Anatoly Gorsky,[259] then chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S.) wanted to meet with "Ales" at the upcoming founding conference of the United Nations. It also notes that "Ales" had worked with "Ruble" (Harold Glasser)[260][261] as a member of a group run by "Karl" (Whittaker Chambers).[262] According to Vassiliev's notes, the cable adds that "'Ruble' gives 'Ales' an exceptionally good political reference as a member of the Comparty.... completely aware that he is Communist in an illegal position, with all the ensuing consequences," and recommends (according to the notes) that he be approached at the UN conference by "Sergei" (NKVD agent Vladimir Pravdin,[263] then under cover as head of the Soviet TASS news agency)[264] or Gorsky, "alluding either to the password, or to 'Ruble', or simply to 'Ales's' progressive attitudes."[265]

Shortly thereafter, Hiss presided as Secretary General over the United Nations Charter Conference in San Francisco. James F. Byrnes, who became Secretary of State during the conference, said that despite his categorical instructions not to recommend any U.S. citizen for posts in the UN secretariat, Hiss recommended several dozen federal employees—members of Communist cells in the government, whose jobs were at risk under a tightened security program.[266]

In April 1945, Glasser slipped a warning to Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S., that the FBI had notified Stettinius that Bureau surveillance had followed a bundle of State Department documents from Washington to New York, where they were photographed, then returned within 24 hours to Washington. Only three people had access to these documents, one of whom was "Ales." Stettinius told "Ales": "I hope it is not you."[267]

That same month, at the San Francisco conference, Soviet UN Ambassador Andrei Gromyko nominated Hiss to be temporary secretary general of the United Nations.[268] As one scholar notes, "It was astonishing for a Soviet diplomat to propose an American for what was then the UN's highest and most sensitive diplomatic post."[269] In London that September, Gromyko repeated to Stettinius, now the new U.S. Ambassador to the UN, that he "would be very happy to see Alger Hiss appointed temporary secretary general."[270] As Weinstein notes, "The endorsement of a leading American official by the Russians remains practically unique in the annals of Soviet-American diplomacy at this time."[271] The same day Gromyko reiterated his endorsement of Hiss to Stettinius in London, Hiss proposed that the State Department create a new post, that of "special assistant for military affairs," linked to his Office of Special Political Affairs.[272][273][274]

On June 4, 1945, six weeks after becoming President, Harry Truman was briefed about Venona, according to former National Security Agency officer Oliver Kirby, deputy director of the Russian code-breaking project.[275] Based on notes Kirby made at the time, Jerrold Schecter, former National Security Council spokesman for the Carter administration, reported that Brig. Gen. Carter Clarke, chief of the Army Security Agency (precursor of the NSA), advised President Truman that the code-breakers were decrypting messages that revealed massive Soviet intelligence operations in the United States, though it was too early to identify operatives or operations.[276] According to Kirby, Clarke described this meeting as "NDG" (no damn good),[277] the president telling the general that his account of code-breaking sounded "like a fairy story."[278]

Defections and Investigations

Igor Gouzenko

Two days before Hiss proposed the creation of a "special assistant for military affairs," GRU code clerk Igor Gouzenko had defected from the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, telling the FBI that one Lt. Kulakov in the office of the Soviet military attaché told him that he had learned in Moscow prior to his departure in May 1945 that an assistant to then U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius was a Soviet spy.[279][280] Stettinius' aide at the time was Alger Hiss.[281] Following up on Gouzenko's revelations, Raymond Murphy of the State Department again interviewed Chambers, who repeated that Hiss' assignment was "to mess up policy."[282]

Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King wrote that acting under-secretary of state for external affairs Robertson told him that Gouzenko’s documents disclosed that “everything was much worse than we would have believed…. Stettinius [had] been surrounded by spies, etc….”[283]

On September 25, journalist Walter Winchell again broached the subject on his broadcast, reporting, "It can be categorically stated that the question of the loyalty and integrity of one high American official has been called to the attention of the President." Weinstein calls this "a clear reference to Hiss," adding that Winchell was FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's "most intimate journalistic confidante."[284]

Elizabeth Bentley

On November 27, the FBI disseminated a secret report to the State Department, the Attorney General, and the Truman White House, reporting Chambers' identification of Hiss as a secret member of the Communist underground apparatus in contact with the Ware group.[285] Three days later, defecting Soviet courier Elizabeth Bentley advised FBI investigators that Victor Perlo told her that Harold Glasser had been taken away from the “Perlo Group” and turned over to a Russian “by some American in some governmental agency in Washington.”

Bentley's unlikely account was corroborated by an April 25, 1945 memo from Pavel Fitin, head of NKVD foreign intelligence, to NKVD Chief Vsevolod Merkulov, noting that Glasser had worked for both the NKVD and GRU:

Our agent RUBLE, drawn to work for the Soviet Union in May 1937, passed initially through the military "neighbors" and then through our station (NKVD) valuable information on political and economic issues.... To our work RUBLE gives much attention and energy and is devoted and disciplined agent.

Bentley said that Charles Kramer (who would be identified by both Lee Pressman[286] and Nathaniel Weyl[287] as a member of the Ware group) told her that the person who had done this “was named Hiss and that he was in the U.S. State Department.”[288] She said after "Jack" (Soviet agent Joseph Katz)[289] asked her who Hiss was, she clipped an article in which Hiss was mentioned from the New York daily PM, whose Washington correspondent, I.F. Stone, was (according to Oleg Kalugin, former head of KGB operations in the United States) a fellow traveler[290] who cooperated with Soviet intelligence[291] as an "agent of influence."[292] She said “It is my present recollection that this newspaper article stated Hiss’ full name was Eugene [sic] Hiss and that he was an adviser to Dean Acheson in the State Department.”[293] FBI investigation quickly closed in on Alger Hiss.[294]

Three years later, Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S. during World War II, would author an internal Soviet secret police memorandum, in which he would list 43 Soviet sources and intelligence officers likely to have been identified to U.S. authorities by Bentley after her defection. Included on the list was Alger Hiss.[295]

Investigations

In 1946, ex-Communist Benjamin Mandel, former manager of the Daily Worker,[296] identified Hiss to the FBI as "a Communist Party member," and one of a "high level group of government employees who would not be found openly connected with the Party or with any Front organizations and who were specifically instructed not to display such connections." [297] The Bureau again interviewed Hiss, who denied ever being a Communist, and denied knowledge of any of his friends being Communists. He did, however, add that he had heard it said that Lee Pressman was either a Party member or followed the Party line.[298] That year, British intelligence supplied its order of battle against Soviet-led guerrillas in Greece to the Pentagon. Shortly thereafter, this top-secret information appeared in the column of Drew Pearson (whose reporter, David Karr, was a "competent KGB source"),[299][300] forcing the British army to withdraw, a move that would have delivered Greece to the Kremlin had not the U.S. intervened. According to de Toledano, “Deputy Assistant Secretary of State J. Anthony Panuch, in charge of security, tracked down the source of the leak. He discovered that Hiss had asked the Pentagon for this information, though it had nothing to do with his work as director of the Office of Special Political Affairs.”[301]

State Department security officers discovered that Hiss' desk calendar for September 14, 1946, recorded a meeting Hiss did not schedule through the department (and for which he made no official record) with "McLean [sic], British Emb."[302] Donald Maclean was a diplomat at the British Embassy in Washington who was also a Soviet agent and member of the Cambridge spy ring. He would defect in 1951 to the Soviet Union,[303] where he would be rewarded with the rank of Colonel in the KGB.[304]

That year, over strenuous objections on national-security grounds from the State Department's Office of American Republics Affairs (and the government of Panama), Hiss submitted (with the approval of Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson) to the United Nations the annual report of the Governor of Panama to the War Department, a propaganda coup for the Soviets.[305]

Secretary of State James Byrnes told the FBI he would have fired Hiss, but for the mandatory Civil Service Commission hearing, which would have revealed confidential sources on the case.[306] In November 1946, the Bureau disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and Truman White House a second secret report, this time reporting Bentley's allegations regarding "Eugene Hiss," suggesting that this might actually be a reference to Alger Hiss.[307] FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover asked President Harry S. Truman for permission to take action against Hiss, but Truman remained "stubbornly antagonistic" to the allegations.[308]

After a 1946 grand jury began looking into Soviet espionage, Congress took an interest in Hiss, finally forcing the State Department to remove him from access to secrets.[309] In January, 1947, Byrnes quietly eased Hiss out of the State Department.[310] Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, serving also as a trustee on the Institute of Pacific Relations.[311]

House Committee on Un-American Activities

Following up on testimony given by Bentley, on August 3, 1948, the House Committee on Un-American Activities called Whittaker Chambers. He repeated under oath what he had been telling State Department security officials and the FBI about the Ware group for a decade.[312] When Chambers testified against Hiss, wrote Sudoplatov, "we considered this to be a setback for GRU intelligence activities in the United States."[313]

Two days later, Hiss testified, denying that he ever even knew Chambers, in a statement Secretary of State Dean Acheson helped write.[314] Hiss "asked the committee to disregard the evidence and follow its emotions:

it is inconceivable that there could have been on my part, during fifteen years or more in public office… any departure from the highest rectitude[315] without its becoming known.[316] It is inconceivable that the men with whom I was intimately associated during those fifteen years should not know my true character better than this accuser. It is inconceivable that… [etc.][317] (emphases in original)

That day, President Truman finally reviewed Hiss’ FBI file. Pronouncing Hiss “guilty as hell,” Truman told White House Special Counsel Samuel Rosenman, “We shouldn't just indict this son of a bitch. We should hang him.”[318] Five minutes later, Truman blustered to a press conference that the Hiss case was just an election-year “red herring”[319][320][321] (a characterization he would repeat as late as 1956).[322] When Rosenman later asked why he had lied, Truman explained, “You don't understand. The Republicans aren't after Alger Hiss. They're after me. I had to take the political view.”[323] (That year, referring to Venona,[324] Truman told Secretary of Defense James Forrestal there were "too many unknowns" in the partially decoded Soviet messages,[325] saying, "Even if part of this is true, it would open up the whole red panic again.")[326]

So strong was Hiss' denial that the committee wanted to drop the investigation.[327] But one member, freshman Congressman Richard M. Nixon (R-Calif.) insisted that either Chambers or Hiss was lying about whether they had known one another,[328] and he asked the committee to appoint him to head a subcommittee to find out which one.[329][330]

On August 16, Chambers offered to take a lie-detector test.[331] Hiss refused (a refusal he kept up for the rest of his life),[332] but he dared Chambers to repeat his charges outside of the immunity afforded in congressional hearings, so Hiss could sue him. In her newspaper column that day, Eleanor Roosevelt set the tone of respectable opinion, writing, "Smearing good people like Lauchlin Currie, Alger Hiss and others is, I think, unforgivable .... Anyone knowing Mr. Currie or Mr. Hiss, who are the two people whom I happen to know fairly well, would not need any denial on their part to know they are not Communists. Their records prove it."[333] (Currie was the NKVD agent[334][335] in the White House[336][337] who tipped the Kremlin off in 1944 that the U.S. was on the verge of breaking the Soviet code.)[338][339][340]

The next day, Truman aide George Elsie wrote to White House Counsel Clark Clifford, "Justice should make every effort to ascertain if Whittaker Chambers is guilty of perjury." No suggestion was made that Justice make any effort at all to ascertain if Hiss might be guilty of perjury, but a handwritten insertion advised "Investigation of Chambers' confinement in a mental institution."[341] (Again, no suggestion was made that Hiss' mental health history might be subject to investigation.) In falling for the fiction that Chambers had been committed to an insane asylum, the Truman administration was "taken in by disinformation being spread by the American Communist party and Alger Hiss's partisans."[342]

On August 27, on NBC's Meet the Press, Chambers called Hiss' bluff, saying, "Alger Hiss was a Communist and may be now."[343] Embarrassment mounted among Hiss' supporters as a month dragged by and still no suit was filed. Even the Washington Post began to have doubts.[344] Finally, on September 28, Hiss filed his long-threatened slander suit against Chambers.

Hiss' suit against Chambers

The Baltimore Documents

In a pre-trial "discovery" deposition for the suit, Hiss's attorneys told Chambers to produce "any correspondence, either typewritten or in handwriting" from Hiss. Chambers retrieved the packet he had given his wife's nephew in 1938, which had been hidden in a dumbwaiter shaft.[345] Three days later, Chambers turned over to Hiss' attorneys 43 typewritten documents (65 pages) and five handwritten memoranda, some so sensitive that for security reasons they could not safely be made public, though already a decade old.[346] Hiss conceded that the typed pages appeared to be copies of authentic State Department documents, and admitted that four of the handwritten memos appeared to be in his handwriting.[347]

Assistant U.S. Attorney Thomas J. Donegan told the FBI that Assistant Attorney General Alexander M. Campbell, head of the Criminal Division at Truman Justice, “now wants to institute perjury charges against Chambers” for not revealing the documents before this. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's handwritten addendum comments, “I wonder why they don't move against Hiss also.”[348] The Truman administration's determination to indict Chambers rather than Hiss was unusual, as two leading scholars of the case note:

Usually … when a witness gives false testimony and then later comes forward and provides a truthful account, no perjury charge is brought. To charge perjury … in such a case would be a disincentive for a witness to provide a subsequent truthful account…. [A] perjury count is rarely brought if a witness corrects false testimony in a timely fashion…. Chambers corrected his false sworn testimony within two months of his grand jury testimony ... and his false testimony had not produced any miscarriage of justice.[349]

The Pumpkin Papers

On December 2, in response to a subpoena, Chambers led HUAC investigators on his Maryland farm to a pumpkin he had hollowed out the night before and in which he had secreted five rolls (two developed strips and three undeveloped rolls, one of which later proved to have been lightstruck)[350] of 35 milimeter film.[351] The film included fifty-eight frames, mostly photos of State and Navy Department documents, dated January 5 through April 1, 1938 (the so-called Pumpkin Papers). The State Department documents dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including U.S. intentions with respect to the Soviet Union, the Spanish Civil War, and Germany's takeover of Austria.[352] Some of the documents on the film were initialed by Hiss and came from his office.[353] Some were of a highly sensitive, classified nature.[354] Some State Department cables bearing Hiss' handwritten initials had direct bearing on matters of major Soviet interest, including Chinese Communist strategy during the war with Japan and Chinese-Soviet relations.[355]

According to Chambers, some of the microfilm was made by a contact he knew only as "Felix," who would photograph documents with a Leica purchased by the Communist underground. For such work, said Chambers, Felix had been trained in Moscow, where he traveled on a forged U.S. passport. In 1949 Chambers would lead FBI investigators to the Baltimore block in which he thought Felix had lived in the 1930s. The Bureau discovered that a Felix Inslerman had lived on the block, later moving to Schenectady, N.Y., where he worked on a secret guided-missile project, in 1946 becoming one of the few civilians to attend the atomic tests at Bikini.

Both before the grand jury and in the second Hiss trial, Inslerman would refuse to answer questions on grounds of potential self-incrimination. But in Inslerman's Schenectady home, the FBI found a Leica whose imperfections matched the scratch marks on Chambers' famed pumpkin film. In 1954, Inslerman would corroborate Chambers' story under oath.[356]

The day Chambers revealed the "pumpkin papers," on an FBI memorandum detailing the perjury investigation of Chambers ordered by Truman Justice, Hoover penned, "I can't understand why such effort is being made to indict Chambers to the exclusion of Hiss."[357] As late as December 6, Truman Justice was still contemplating "bringing an indictment against Chambers for perjury."[358]

On that day, Hiss's attorney Edward McLean gave the defense's documents examiner, J. Howard Haring, a batch of old Hiss family letters that Hiss had given him the previous September, two months before Chambers produced the documents. Immediately identifying the typeface as that of a Woodstock typewriter, Haring reported that one of Mrs. Hiss's 1933 letters "was typed on the same machine as the Chambers documents." McLean informed the Hisses of this finding the same day. The next day, according to another of Hiss' lawyers, John F. Davis: "Alger ... asked [me to] check on an old machine which he remembers he gave to Pat, the son of Claudia Catlett...." Yet Hiss continued to swear under oath that he remembered neither the make nor disposition of the typewriter.[359]

Hiss would later change his story, testifying that he gave the typewriter to the Catletts in 1937, before the date of the documents produced by Chambers. Pat Catlett, however, would tell defense lawyers that Hiss gave the Catletts the typewriter in the spring of 1938, just after the dates of the documents.[360]

On December 13, the FBI independently located specimens of Priscilla Hiss's typing from the 1930s. The FBI laboratory concluded, like Haring, that all the papers in question had been typed on the same typewriter, a Woodstock.[361]

Another defense expert, Harry E. Cassidy, concluded that Priscilla Hiss not only typed the Chambers documents, but wrote all the handwritten corrections on the typed documents. Asked by Hiss's attorneys whether it was more likely that Hiss or Chambers had written these corrections, Haring responded: "I am inclined to the opinion that the AH [Alger Hiss] corrections more closely resemble the QUESTIONED writing, than do the writings of WC [Whittaker Chambers]." A third defense expert, Edwin Fearon, agreed, reporting to the Hiss lawyers: "The corrections appearing in Exhibits 5-47 inclusive (exception—Exhibit 10) bear a closer resemblence [sic] to the handwritten corrections made by AH than to those made by WC." Fearon added that all but one of the documents were "typed on Woodstock typewriter no.N230099"—the Hiss' machine.[362]

On December 15, Alger Hiss proposed to the grand jury a theory that someone (perhaps Chambers)[363] had sneaked into the State Department and stolen the documents from his desk[364] then, having somehow obtained access to Hiss' typewriter,[365] typed some of the documents on it[366] and microfilmed others, and then sneaked back into the State Department and replaced the originals,[367] all in an elaborate plot to frame Hiss[368] a decade later.[369] Even Hiss admitted that his theory was "fantastic,"[370] stating, "Until the day I die, I shall wonder how Whittaker Chambers got into my house to use my typewriter," a statement provoking outright laughter among jurors.[371]

Hiss testified that he never gave any documents to Whittaker Chambers, and that he had no contact with Chambers after January 1, 1937. The grand jury indicted Hiss on two counts of perjury, charging that he lied under oath in both these statements. Because the statute of limitations had expired, the grand jury could not consider espionage charges.

Since Chambers had gained the upper hand by voluntary waiving immunity from slander, the columnist Walter Lippman (whose secretary, Mary Price, was a Soviet agent)[372][373][374][375] suggested that Hiss turn the tables by waiving the statute of limitations on espionage. Hiss never took him up on that suggestion.[376]

The Trials

At trial, Hiss provided an all-star cast of character witnesses, including such notables as Adlai Stevenson, Justice Felix Frankfurter, and former Democratic presidential candidate John W. Davis. However, both Under Secretary Welles and Sayre testified that delivering the classifed documents to a foreign power would enable them to break America's most secret codes.[377]

At Hiss’ first perjury trial, Hornbeck testified that an unnamed friend had warned him that Hiss was a Communist fellow-traveler, but he disregarded the warning.[378] At the second trial, Hornbeck testified that on at least two occasions he was warned that Hiss was a Communist, and named Bullitt as his source.[379] John Foster Dulles, who had recommended Hiss for the Carnegie Endowment, likewise testified at that trial that various people had warned him subsequently that Hiss was a Communist.[380]

The prosecution called Hede Massing, but at the first trial Judge Samuel H. Kaufman ruled that her testimony was irrelevant. At the second trial, Judge Henry W. Goddard allowed her to testify about Hiss' 1935 attempt to get Noel Field to transfer from her OGPU group to Hiss' GRU group.[381] To avoid testifying, Field fled to the East bloc.[382]

Hiss's friend and former colleague, Charles Wyzanski, Senior District Judge of the U.S. District Court in Boston, testified in both trials in defense of Hiss. Wyzanski, who "initially had supposed [Hiss] innocent," later concluded that "Hiss was guilty," as did Hiss' own attorney, William L. Marbury.[383]

Conviction

The first trial ended in a hung jury, with eight for conviction and four against. The second trial produced a unanimous verdict: Guilty on both counts. In his pre-sentencing statement, Hiss said, "I am confident that in the future the full facts showing how Whittaker Chambers was able to carry out forgery by typewriter will be developed."[384]

Hiss was sentenced to five years in federal prison. Secretary of State Dean Acheson provoked outrage by commenting, "Whatever the outcome of any appeal which Mr. Hiss or his lawyer may take, I do not intend to turn my back on Alger Hiss." Eleanor Roosevelt added to the furor with her comment, "It seems rather horrible to condemn someone on the word of someone else who admits to guilt." Time magazine commented that she "obviously had not been paying much attention," being "unaware of, or determined to ignore, the corroborating evidence introduced by the Government."[385]

That year, General of the Army Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, informed President Truman that Venona had "positively identified" Hiss and Harry Dexter White as Soviet agents.[386] According to Bradley, Truman said, "That G—D— stuff. Every time it bumps into us it gets bigger and bigger. It's likely to take us down."[387]

Hiss appealed, but his conviction was affirmed by the Court of Appeals[388] and his writ of coram nobis (orchestrated by long-time Communist Party member Victor Rabinowitz)[389] denied certiorari by the Supreme Court. Hiss served 44 months of his five-year sentence in Lewisburg Federal Prison before being released in 1954.

Disbarred, Hiss became a salesman. But, despite the mountains of evidence against him that only increased as incriminatory Soviet bloc documents came to light following the collapse of Communism, Hiss continued for the rest of his life to claim innocence.

Corroboration from Soviet archives

According to Library of Congress Cold War historian John Earl Haynes,[390] Alger Hiss’s known cryptonyms were "Lawyer"[391] ("Advocate"[392] or "Advokat"[393]), during his time at the United States Department of Justice (1935-36), "Ales"[394][395][396] in 1945, and "Leonard" in the "Gorsky memo."[397]

The Volkogonov affair

After the fall of Soviet Communism in 1991, former President Nixon and the director of his presidential library, John H. Taylor, petitioned the new Russian President Boris Yeltsin to open the Soviet archives relating to the Hiss-Chambers case. Meanwhile Hiss and his lawyer[398] appealed to retired Soviet Army General Dmitri Volkogonov and the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) for confirmation that Lowenthal's "client, Alger Hiss," had never been "an agent of the NKVD."[399] (This despite the fact that the evidence implicates Hiss as an agent of the GRU, not the NKVD.)[400][401][402][403][404][405][406][407][408]

Volkogonov, as apparatchik in charge of Soviet military history under the Communists[409] had written with official blessing[410] a 1988 biography of Stalin in which he defended Stalin's claim that a majority in the Baltics favored incorporation into the Soviet Union in August 1940, described Stalin's invasion of Poland as "largely justified," blamed the West for the Cold War,[411] and accepted the claim that Stalin's purges were provoked by Trotskyist and Nazi agents.[412]

At a 1992 press conference, Lowenthal released to the media a statement from Volkogonov claiming that "Alger Hiss was never an agent of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union." Hiss dubbed this a "final verdict," adding, "I can't imagine a more authoritative source than the files of the old Soviet Union." Lowenthal said Volkogonov was apparently "willing to stake his reputation as a general, historian and politician" on this statement.[413]

The CBS Morning News reported that Hiss was "apparently exonerated."[414] On NBC's Today, co-host Scott Simon said, "This week's revelations about Alger Hiss may help us remember how vulnerable something as real as a reputation may be...So Mr. Hiss may have lived long enough to feel vindicated, but no one lives so long that they have years to give away to suspicions and mistakes."[415] CNN's Gary Tuchman asked why "Hiss's own government has not exonerated him." The New Yorker ran a seven-page essay by Tony Hiss on "My Father's Honor."[416]

But when questioned Volkogonov admitted that he spent only two days in the Foreign Intelligence Archive,[417] and that he had not actually examined any archives. Instead, according to the former director of the U.S. Information Agency's Office to Counter Soviet Disinformation and Active Measures,[418] he asked Yevgeny Primakov, head of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (formerly the KGB), to provide him with the information.[419] Volkogonov said that Primakov said that employees of the foreign intelligence archive said that "A. Hiss was not registered in the documents as a recruited agent."[420]

According to the Director of Cold War Studies at Harvard University, Volkogonov admitted that he had "not seen anything from the GRU archive" and that without going through the files there, there was "no basis for saying anything that would shed greater light on the question of Hiss.”[421] “I looked only through what the KGB had,” said Volkogonov. “The Ministry of Defense also has an intelligence service, which is totally different,” admitted Volkogonov. "There's no guarantee…that it was not in other channels….”[422]

Asked if he had examined the files of the Comintern, Volkogonov admitted, “I have not had the opportunity to see these documents.”[423] In addition, even in the KGB archive, “many documents have been destroyed,” admitted Volkogonov. “There's no guarantee that [Hiss’ file] was not destroyed.”[424]

“What I saw gives no basis to claim a full clarification,” concluded Volkogonov. “[Hiss’] attorney, Lowenthal, pushed me hard to say things of which I was not fully convinced,”[425] he said. Volkogonov added that he felt he had been "deceived" by Lowenthal.[426]

Finally, after almost a month, The New York Times, which had devoted half a page to Volkogonov's alleged "vindication" of Hiss, gave one column to his retraction.[427] Four years later, on November 15, 1996, Alger Hiss died. His original Associated Press obituary said that Hiss proclaimed vindication "when a Russian general in charge of Soviet intelligence archives declared that Hiss had never been a spy, but rather a victim of Cold War hysteria and the McCarthy Red-hunting era."[428] That night, NBC's Tom Brokaw said, "Hiss considered vindication a declaration by a Russian General, who controlled the KGB archives, saying that Hiss had never been a spy."[429] ABC's Peter Jennings said Hiss "protested his innocence until the very end and last year we reported that the Russian President Boris Yeltsin said that KGB files had supported Mr. Hiss's claim."[430] MSNBC anchor Brigitte Quinn said, "In 1987 [sic], a Russian general declared that Hiss was never a spy, but a victim of Cold War hysteria." None of these stories mentioned Volkogonov's retraction. Three days passed before Brokaw corrected the record; four days for Jennings (who belatedly admitted that the source was not Yeltsin, but Volkogonov).[431]

Meanwhile, the U.S. government had released the Venona project files, Mária Schmidt had published the Hungarian files, the Russian government shut down research access to Soviet-era files, Volkogonov died and retired KGB General Julius N. Kobyakov (whom Harvey Klehr and John Earl Haynes write "insists that Hiss was not a spy, while nostalgically applauding the greatness of the KGB and lamenting the fall of the USSR")[432] had claimed that it was not Volkogonov but he who had actually searched the Soviet files.[433]

Like Volkogonov, Kobyakov admitted that he had not even seen the GRU files ("No, I did not examine Soviet military archives"); instead, he took the GRU's word for their contents ("I wrote a letter to the GRU and received the relevant answer"). What was that answer? Kobyakov isn't telling: "That of course was, and, I believe, still is a classified correspondence." Why correspondence about 60- or 70-year-old files of a regime that no longer exists is classified, he did not say—although he did mention that he strongly disapproved of the post-Communist government allowing researchers access to Soviet archives, adding, "fortunately they had no access to the files I worked with."[434]

Kobyakov also claimed that former KGB General-Lieutenant Vitaly Pavlov, who ran Soviet intelligence work in North America in the late 1930s and early 1940s for the NKVD, claimed that Hiss never worked for the USSR as one of his agents.[435] That is hardly surprising, note scholars, since the evidence implicates Hiss as an agent of the GRU, not the NKVD.[436][437][438][439][440][441][442]

After the Volkogonov fiasco, Russian officials stripped Soviet archives of all files regarding Hiss and Chambers, reported the editor of the New York Times Book Review.[443] In an interview with PBS Nova, aired in 2002, former KGB agent Alexander Vassiliev said, "The Rosenbergs, Theodore Hall and Alger Hiss did spy for the Soviets, and I saw their real names in the documents, their code names, a lot of documents about that. How you judge them is up to you. To me they're heroes."[444]

Legacy

Few serious scholars still regard the matter of Hiss's guilt as unresolved. As the Britannica Online Encyclopedia states, Venona "provided strong evidence of Hiss's guilt."[445] Oxford University Press' U.S. Military Dictionary dubs this evidence "compelling."[446] TruTV's Crime Library concludes, "the bulk of evidence points to Hiss's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt."[447] Writing in American History magazine, James T. Gay of West Georgia College agrees, "the preponderance of evidence does weigh heavily against Hiss."[448] Stephen Koch writes, "I for one have been brought close to certainty, on the basis of archival information, that Chambers was telling the truth."[449]

Archivist of the United States Allen Weinstein, who had the cooperation of Hiss and access to his attorneys' files in his research,[450] set out "intending to prove Hiss' innocence. But he was an honest man and the facts he found convinced him (as they do any reader of his book) that Hiss was guilty," writes the former chief of Soviet bloc counterintelligence at the CIA.[451] Weinstein concluded:

"the body of available evidence proves that Hiss perjured himself when describing his secret dealings with Chambers, so that the jury in his second trial made no mistake in finding Alger Hiss guilty as charged."[452]

The bipartisan Moynihan commission went further—not just on perjury, but on espionage—the commission's unanimous Final Report concluding, "The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled."[453]

Regarding Hiss, "corroborative evidence now available puts that identification beyond reasonable doubt," write former British MP Christopher Andrew and former KGB agent Vasili Mitrokhin.[454] Hiss' "role as a spy was eventually proven," says American University historian Robert Beisner.[455] Weinstein presented "overwhelming evidence of Hiss's espionage," writes Beisner, who calls Venona the "coup de grâce."[456] "In August 1948, Alger Hiss lied before HUAC," writes Ryan Ervin of Eastern Illinois University. "His testimony before HUAC proves this beyond any doubt. Intercepted Soviet cables during the Cold War, released in 1996, further prove Hiss’s Communist ties."[457] "The broad sweep of Chambers' allegations are now beyond doubt," writes David McKnight of the University of New South Wales.[458] In light of recent scholarship, notes Hayden Peake, curator of CIA’s Historical Intelligence Collection, "it is hard to see how even the most frequently made counterargument—that there was no Communist involvement in espionage—can be sustained…. The same is true when it comes to specific cases, but supporters of Alger Hiss … will no doubt persist."[459]

Even on the left, few authorities disagree. "My own sense of things was that Hiss had been a [Communist] party member in the Thirties and did give Soviet agents documents," wrote Arthur Schlesinger[460] (an "unabashedly liberal partisan"[461] who "equates capitalism with sexism and racism"),[462] who concluded of Hiss, "I believe him to be guilty."[463] Berkeley professor J. Bradford DeLong, a former Clinton official, writes, "Was Alger Hiss at some time a spy for the Soviet Union? Probably."[464] (Another Clinton official, National Security Advisor Anthony Lake, actually went so far as to retract[465] a statement—made in the wake of Hiss' death—suggesting that the evidence against Hiss was less than conclusive.)[466] Socialist[467] Michael Harrington wrote upon Hiss' death, "We now know that Alger Hiss was not the victim of a miscarriage of justice...."[468] Yeshiva University Professor Ellen Schrecker (who defends American Communist spies as demurring from "traditional forms of patriotism")[469][470] concedes, "There is now too much evidence from too many different sources for anyone but the most die-hard loyalists to argue convincingly for the innocence of Hiss…."[471] Kai Bird, a contributing editor at The Nation, and his coauthor, Svetlana Chervonnaya of the Russian Academy of Sciences, write, in an article defending Hiss, "We do not propose to address the larger question of whether Hiss was guilty or innocent of espionage."[472] Even long-time Nation publisher Victor Navasky, "instead of forcefully arguing that Hiss wasn't guilty as he once did ... now acknowledges that Hiss wasn't telling the truth when he testified that he didn't know Whittaker Chambers." Navasky doesn't like the word "espionage," however, preferring "exchanges of information among people of good will" that happened to be in "violation of law."[473] (As critics have noted, such "exchanges" only went one way.)[474] Referring to Hiss in a review of The Haunted Wood, Hamilton College history professor Maurice Isserman, probably the best regarded of the left-wing scholars of Communism, wrote, "Let's face it, the debate just ended."[475]

Scholarly Consensus

A broad range of scholars—across the political spectrum—now agree that the historical consensus is that Hiss was guilty. "Those who have studied the Hiss case by and large believe that he was guilty of perjury and quite likely also guilty of espionage, that is, of passing government documents to the Soviets," write Gilbert Geis and Leigh B. Bienen.[476] "'ALES' is assumed by most scholars to be Alger Hiss," observes Douglas O. Linder of the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law.[477] David Oshinsky says "the vast majority of modern American historians today .... see evidence pointing overwhelmingly to Hiss being guilty as charged.”[478] "For the majority of scholars, the critical ALES transmission puts to rest any doubt about Hiss’s complicity in the Soviet underground," agrees R. Bruce Craig.[479] "In the end, the publication of the Venona intercepts... settled the matter—to all but the truest of believers, 'Ales' could only be Alger Hiss," writes Stanley Kutler of the University of Wisconsin Law School.[480] "The basic question—whether Alger Hiss was a spy for the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s—was finally settled during the 1990s.... Today, only a small band of true believers, headed by Hiss’s son, still tries to argue his innocence,"[481] writes foreign affairs analyst John Ehrman of the United States Directorate of Intelligence. "Hiss’ defenders stubbornly tried to rebut each revelation, but eventually they were overwhelmed," recounts Ehrman, concluding that Navasky is "now virtually alone in his rejection of the case against Hiss."[482] "Outside the ranks of Nation readers and a dwindling coterie of academic leftists, there are few people still willing to claim that Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White were not Soviet agents," agrees Harvey Klehr, Andrew Mellon professor of politics and history at Emory University.[483] Ronald Radosh, emeritus professor of history at the City College of New York, concurs, "Except for a dwindling group—mostly Nation magazine readers and editors …. the consensus has solidified: Hiss was undoubtedly a Soviet spy."[484] Rutgers historian David Greenberg likewise refers to "the dwindling band of those who believe in Hiss."[485] Nation contributor Athan Theoharis concedes that the "conventional assessment" is that Hiss was "an unreconstructed Soviet spy."[486] Even Bird and Chervonnaya admit, "Most historians have conceded the argument to Weinstein."[487] (Chervonnaya has since suggested that this consensus amounts to an orthodoxy, writing of her "hope of dethroning the autocracy of cold war historical scholarship on the matter of Alger Hiss," describing her motive as "to overthrow the regime.")[488] Speaking of the thesis that Hiss was guilty, Navasky himself concedes that “for the last 10 years, that has been the consensus.”[489]

Hiss in the Mass Media

So broad is this academic consensus that it has begun to penetrate even the popular press. By 1991, the New York Times was reporting that "a handful of Hiss supporters continues to doubt his guilt, but for most historians it is all but certain."[490] Two years later, the paper reported "a growing consensus that Hiss, indeed, had most likely been a Soviet agent."[491] In 2004, the Times' former executive editor, Pulitzer-prize winner Max Frankel, wrote that "most historians" now "accept Hiss's guilt."[492] The following year, the paper reported that "no serious cold war historian now questions ... that Hiss lied."[493] "The sum and substance of this growing body of material is that.... Alger Hiss, a darling of the establishment, was guilty," wrote liberal[494] columnist Nicholas Von Hoffman.[495] That Hiss “brought home stolen State Department documents for handoff to a fellow Communist and spy named Whittaker Chambers” is “the commonly accepted story line,” agrees the Washington Post.[496] Time magazine concurs that Hiss' supporters are "dwindling" as "the weight of historical evidence indicates that Hiss was... a Soviet spy."[497] The New York Review of Books concludes, "The evidence now... is simply overwhelming.... Hiss was one of a number of... converts to communism hurrying about Washington in the 1930s recruiting others to serve 'real, existing Socialism' in the Soviet Union...."[498] London's Independent reports that "some of the individuals defended by the 1950s left and savaged by McCarthy were actually Soviet spies. The most prominent is the left's old cause célèbre, Alger Hiss."[499] Salon.com says "Hiss' defenders have dwindled to a small handful of true believers."[500] Slate.com (where more than 98 percent of staff and contributors supported Barack Obama)[501] admits that "even many on the left—including younger historians such as Rick Perlstein" have become convinced "that Hiss was guilty, although old-school loyalists like Navasky remained skeptical,"[502] and adds, "Heads up: Alger Hiss was guilty,"[503] concluding, "if we paleo-libs continue in our ancient rancors, we'll start looking like those troglodytes who still plump for Alger Hiss' innocence."[504]

References

  1. Press Release: National Archives to Make Available Alger Hiss Grand Jury Materials, United States National Archives and Records Administration, October 11, 1999
  2. Louis Uchitelle, "The Rehabilitation of Morning in America," The New York Times, February 23, 1997
  3. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Secrecy: The American Experience, New Haven: Yale University Press (1998) ISBN 0300077564, p. 146
  4. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  5. Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  6. Aaron Beim and Gary Alan Fine, "The Cultural Frameworks of Prejudice: Reputational Images and the Postwar Disjuncture of Jews and Communism," The Sociological Quarterly, Summer 2007, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp. 373-397
  7. Janny Scott, "Alger Hiss, 92, Central Figure in Long-Running Cold War Controversy," The New York Times, November 16, 1996
  8. Lance Morrow, "Fred Astaire Meets the Sad-Sack Dostoevskian Pudge," Time, November 25, 1996
  9. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 5
  10. Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Haughton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, cited in G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 158
  11. Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  12. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 9
  13. Inflation Calculator, United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
  14. Historical Note: Chronology of Alger Hiss. Zeligs, Meyer Aaron. Papers, 1923-1978: Finding Aid (Harvard Law School Library)
  15. Alger Hiss, Draft of a Chapter Written By Alger Hiss on the Foundations For His Liberalism (Alger Hiss papers, Small Manuscript Collection, Special Collections, Harvard Law School)
  16. James Barron, "Online, the Hiss Defense Doesn't Rest," The New York Times, August 16, 2001
  17. Jeff Kisseloff, "Distorted Reflections," The Alger Hiss Story
  18. Matthew Richer, "The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father," Modern Age, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 310 (PDF p. 4)
  19. Document No. 7: "Minority Report Adopted by Overwhelming Party Vote on Referendum on Submission to the Emergency National Convention Held at Chicago, September, 1919," reprinted in Joint Legislative Committee of the State of New York Investigating Seditious Activities, Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose and Tactics, Part I, Vol. I (Albany: J.B. Lyon Company, 1920), p. 626
  20. Broadus Mitchell, A Preface to Economics (Henry Holt & Co., 1932-34), pp. 556-557
  21. Matthew Richer, "The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father," Modern Age, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 310 (PDF p. 4)
  22. Jason Powell, "Review: The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles," eHistory (Ohio State University), January 2006
  23. Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Haughton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, pp. 37-38
  24. Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) ISBN 0671758764, pp. 705-706
  25. George Packer, "The Spanish Prisoner," The New Yorker, October 31, 2005
  26. Roy Aleksandrovich Medvedev, Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (tr. George Shriver) (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989) ISBN 0231063504, p. 428
  27. Robert Conquest,The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), ISBN 0195071328
  28. David J. Nordlander, "Origins of a Gulag Capital: Magadan and Stalinist Control in the Early 1930s," Slavic Review, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Winter, 1998), pp. 791-812
  29. Stephen Koch, The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles (Madrid: Ediciones Palabra, 2006) ISBN 1582432813, p. 272
  30. John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976), ISBN 0030137764, p. 104
  31. Testimony of Alger Hiss, Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the United States Government, United States House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington, D. C., Wednesday, August 25, 1948
  32. Gorsky Report: Dec 23, 1949 (KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 46-55, attached to Alexander Vassiliev to Hartwig, 1 Feb 2002, in Alexander Vassiliev and Frank Cass & Co Ltd, High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division Claim No. HQ1X03222, Amended Particulars of Claim) by David Lowenthal, checked and corrected by Dr. Svetlana A. Chervonnaya, Jury Bundle pages 303, 304 & 305 and Gorski 1, pp. 46-49 1a, pp. 46-49 and 2, p. 60, May 2, 2005
  33. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 202
  34. Adolf Berle’s Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers
  35. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 202-203
  36. e.g, MGB 1025, 1035-6 New York to Moscow, June 30, 1943, p. 2
  37. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  38. Testimony of Lee Pressman. Hearings Regarding Communism in the United States Government—Part 2. United States House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington, D.C., August 28, 1950. Reprinted as Exhibit No. 1402, U.S. Congress, Senate, 82nd Cong., Committee on the Judiciary, Hearings to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Second Session on the Institute of Pacific Relations (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1952), 5503.
  39. "Felix Frankfurter," Time, September 7, 1962
  40. Felix Frankfurter, "The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti," The Atlantic, March 1927
  41. Felix Frankfurter, The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Critical Analysis for Lawyers and Laymen (Buffalo: Wm. S. Hein & Co., 2003) ISBN 157588805X
  42. Stephen Koch, Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Munzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals (New York: Enigma Books, rev. ed. 2004) ISBN 1929631200, pp. 31-37
  43. John F. Neville, Twentieth-Century Cause Celebre: Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Press, 1920-1927 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) ISBN 0275977838 p. 101. Hiss' Harvard classmate, fellow State Department official and Soviet intelligence source Noel Field would later write, "The shock of the Sacco-Vanzetti executions drove me leftward."(Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case [New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978], ISBN 0394495462, p. 199) New evidence suggests that Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty.
  44. Ron Capshaw, "Alger Hiss: Recruiting Poster for the Left," FrontPageMagazine.com, February 25, 2004
  45. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  46. "Your Witness, Mr. Murphy," Time, July 4, 1949
  47. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 457
  48. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 11
  49. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 97
  50. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 27
  51. Douglas Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)
  52. Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  53. Douglas Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)
  54. "Report on the National Lawyers Guild, legal bulwark of the Communist Party," United States Congress. House Committee on Un-American Activities (1950), p. 12
  55. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 27
  56. "I.W.W. Bomb Kills Four in Chicago," The New York Times, September 5, 1918
  57. "36 Were Marked as Victims By Bomb Conspirers," The New York Times, May 1, 1919
  58. Archibald MacLeish, “To the Young Men of Wall Street,” Saturday Review, January 16, 1932
  59. Following the death of Laurence Duggan—ten days after Duggan implicated Collins and Frederick Vanderbilt Field, and five days after Hiss' indictment by a grand jury—MacLeish, a former Librarian of Congress, would dedicate a poem to the late Soviet agent, denouncing "informers" (apparently Hede Massing and Whittaker Chambers, each of whom had identified Duggan) as liars.
  60. Tony Hiss, The View From Alger's Window (New York: Vintage Books, 2000) ISBN 0375701281, pp. 140-141. The reference is to Edmund Wilson, then an editor at The New Republic who embraced Marxism and welcomed the stock market crash of 1929 as a portent of the death of capitalism. In 1932 he voted for Communist Party presidential candidate William Z. Foster and signed a manifesto calling for "a temporary dictatorship of the class-conscious workers." (Alex Ross, "Ghost Sonata: Edmund Wilson’s adventure with Communism," The New Yorker, March 24, 2003)
  61. Dan Cryer, "We're a long way from the end of this," Salon.com, June 1, 1999
  62. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  63. Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987) ISBN 0195051807)
  64. Peter Finn, "Aftermath of a Soviet Famine," The Washington Post, April 27, 2008, Page A14
  65. "Agricultural Adjustment Administration," Encyclopedia Britannica (2008)
  66. James D. Hamilton, "The New Deal and the Great Depression," Econbrowser: Analysis of current economic conditions and policy (Blog of James D. Hamilton, Professor of Economics at the University of California, San Diego and Menzie Chinn, Professor of Public Affairs and Economics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison)
  67. “During the Great Depression of the 1930s, agricultural price support programs led to vast amounts of food being deliberately destroyed at a time when malnutrition was a serious problem in the United States and hunger marches were taking place in cities across the country. For example, the federal government bought 6 million hogs in 1933 alone and destroyed them. Huge amounts of farm produce were plowed under, in order to keep it off the market and maintain prices at the officially fixed level, and vast amounts of milk were poured down the sewers for the same reason. Meanwhile, many American children were suffering from diseases caused by malnutrition.” Thomas Sowell, Basic Economics: A Common Sense Guide to the Economy (New York: Basic Books, 2007) 3rd Ed., ISBN 0465002609, p. 56
  68. Henry Agard Wallace, 33rd Vice President (1941-1945), United States Senate, Art & History Home
  69. "Roosevelt Is Urged to Ask Wide Power as 'Farm Dictator,'" The New York Times, March 12, 1933, p. 1
  70. Arthur Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000) ISBN 0618219250, pp. 455-456
  71. Linda Rodriguez, "A celebration of almost-great men," CNN, undated
  72. Henry Agard Wallace, “Where I Was Wrong.” This Week, September 2, 1952
  73. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 133
  74. Kai Bird and Svetlana Chervonnaya, "The Mystery of Ales," The American Scholar, Summer, 2007
  75. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  76. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  77. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43
  78. Testimony of Alger Hiss, Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the United States Government, United States House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington, D. C., Wednesday, August 25, 1948
  79. Another Witness,” Time, March 3, 1952
  80. Testimony of Nathaniel Weyl before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, February 23, 1953
  81. Nathaniel Weyl, “I Was in a Communist Unit with Hiss,” U.S. News and World Report, January 9, 1953
  82. Nathaniel Weyl, Encounters With Communism (Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2004), cited in John Earl Haynes, "Ales: Hiss, Foote, Stettinius?" johnearlhaynes.org, June 7, 2007
  83. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 227-228
  84. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 143
  85. Biographical Sketch. Alger Hiss Collection, 1934-1979 (Maryland Historical Society)
  86. 1921-1940: September 4, 1934, "Merchants of Death" (United States Senate: Historical Minutes)
  87. Peter Viereck, Unadjusted Man in the Age of Overadjustment: Where History and Literature Intersect (Edison, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2004) ISBN 0765808064, pp. 156-157
  88. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, pp. 115-116
  89. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 40
  90. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 28-29
  91. Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945
  92. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43-44
  93. John E. Wiltz, In Search of Peace: The Senate Munitions Inquiry, 1934-1936 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963) ISBN B000GX1RX0, p. 53
  94. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 40
  95. William Fitzgibbon, "The Hiss-Chambers Case: A Chronology Since 1934," The New York Times, June 12, 1949
  96. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, pp. 143-146
  97. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 339
  98. "The Confrontation," Time, August 30, 1948
  99. Winifred Farrant Bevilacqua, "An Introduction to Josephine Herbst," Books at Iowa, November 1976
  100. Elinor Langer, "The Secret Drawer," The Nation, May 30, 1994, p. 756
  101. Elinor Langer, "The Great Pumpkin," The Nation, February 17, 1997
  102. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  103. United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936)
  104. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 378
  105. "Your Witness, Mr. Murphy," Time, July 4, 1949
  106. Jacob Cohen, "Innocent after all? The Kremlin files and the guilt or innocence of convicted spy Alger Hiss," National Review, January 18, 1993
  107. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 60
  108. Denise Noe, The Shadowy Mr. Crosley, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  109. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 47
  110. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  111. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 53
  112. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  113. "U.S. Lawyer Who Figured In Hiss Case Killed in Fall," The Washington Post, October 21, 1948, p. 1
  114. Noel Haviland Field, National Archives, United Kingdom ("Field worked for the US State Department and the League of Nations in the 1930s acting as a source for Soviet Intelligence.")
  115. Hede Massing, This Deception (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1951), p. 335
  116. Karel Kaplan, Report on the Murder of the General Secretary (London: I.B. Taurus & Co. Ltd., 1990), ISBN 1-85043-211-2, pp. 19-25
  117. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 133
  118. Transcripts: September 23, 1954; September 29, 1954. Noel Field file, Archives, Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior, quoted in Mária Schmidt, Behind the Scenes of the Showtrials of Central-Eastern Europe, Budapest 1993 (uncorrected manuscript), cited in Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 135
  119. Mária Schmidt, “Noel Field -- The American Communist at the Center of Stalin’s East European Purge: From the Hungarian Archives,” American Communist History 3, no. 2 (December 2004)
  120. Mária Schmidt, "The Hiss Dossier: A Historian's Report," The New Republic, November 8, 1993, pp. 17-20
  121. Ethan Klingsberg, "Case Closed on Alger Hiss?" The Nation, November 8, 1993
  122. Sam Tanenhaus, “Hiss: Guilty as Charged,” Commentary, April 1993
  123. Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?" The New York Times, October 15, 1993
  124. Sam Tanenhaus, "New Reasons to Doubt Hiss," Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1993
  125. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 6
  126. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 7
  127. Thomas Powers, Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to Al-Qaeda (New York: New York Review of Books, 2004) ISBN 1590170989, p. 89
  128. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 228
  129. Thomas Powers, "The Plot Thickens," The New York Review of Books, May 11, 2000 (Volume 47, Number 8)
  130. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150
  131. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 228
  132. Francis Bowes Sayre (April 30, 1885 -- March 29, 1972), Woodrow Wilson House
  133. Glenn Fowler, "Donald Hiss, 82, Ex-U.S. Official And Lawyer in Washington Firm," The New York Times, May 20, 1989
  134. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 163
  135. Kai Bird and Svetlana Chervonnaya, "The Mystery of Ales," The American Scholar, Summer, 2007
  136. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  137. Gorsky Report: Dec 23, 1949 (KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 46-55, attached to Alexander Vassiliev to Hartwig, 1 Feb 2002, in Alexander Vassiliev and Frank Cass & Co Ltd, High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division Claim No. HQ1X03222, Amended Particulars of Claim) by David Lowenthal, checked and corrected by Dr. Svetlana A. Chervonnaya, Jury Bundle pages 303, 304 & 305 and Gorski 1, pp. 46-49 1a, pp. 46-49 and 2, p. 60, May 2, 2005
  138. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "'Ales' is Still Hiss: The Wilder Foote Red Herring," 2007 Symposium on Cryptologic History. The Center for Cryptologic History, October 19, 2007
  139. John Earl Haynes, Cover Name, Cryptonym, CPUSA Party Name, Pseudonym, and Real Name Index: A Research Historian’s Working Reference
  140. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 5
  141. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 29 (PDF p. 31)
  142. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150
  143. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 230
  144. Michael Pearson, The Sealed Train: Lenin's Eight Month Journey from Exile to Power (New York: Putnam, 1975) ISBN 0399112626
  145. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  146. Alan Wallach, "Marxist Art Historian: Meyer Schapiro, 1904-1996," Against the Current 62 (May-June 1996), p. 52
  147. William R. Conklin, "Aided Red Spy Ring, Wadleigh Admits; Tells Hiss Jury He Channeled Up to 500 U.S. Documents to Soviet in 1936-37," The New York Times, December 9, 1949, p. 16
  148. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384, pp. 117-118
  149. Jacob Cohen, "Innocent after all? The Kremlin files and the guilt or innocence of convicted spy Alger Hiss," National Review, January 18, 1993
  150. Robert Conquest,The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), ISBN 0195071328
  151. Norman Davis, "Now It Can Be Told, Even in Russia," The New York Times, May 13, 1990
  152. Peter B. Niblo, Influence: The Soviet Task Leading to Pearl Harbor, the Iron Curtain, and the Cold War (Oakland, OR: Elderberry Press, 2002) ISBN 1930859147, p. 65
  153. Testimony of Ambassador William Bullitt, April 8, 1952, “Communist influence on U.S. policies in the Far East,” Hearings Before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-Second Congress, Second Session. Hearings: March 13, 1951 to June 20, 1952; Report: July 2, 1952
  154. "French in 1939 Called Hiss Red, Bullitt Says," Washington Post, April 9, 1952
  155. Jim Caldwell, “Korea - 50 years ago this week, April 4 - 10, 1952,” Army News Service, April 1, 2002
  156. Ralph De Toledano, “The Last Word,” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  157. Richard Norton-Taylor, "Michael Straight: Cambridge spy whose testimony was crucial in exposing Anthony Blunt," The Guardian, January 9, 2004
  158. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 153
  159. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, "Michael Straight, Who Wrote of Connection to Spy Ring, Is Dead at 87," The New York Times, January 5, 2004
  160. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 183-184
  161. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 155-156
  162. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 39
  163. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  164. "Counterattack," Time, January 2, 1950
  165. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 73
  166. Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  167. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 198-202
  168. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 73
  169. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 25
  170. Stephen Schwartz, "Russian Requiem: The tragic intersection of the lives of Soviet poets," The Weekly Standard, Volume 11, Issue 6 (October 24, 2005)
  171. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, pp. 131-133
  172. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 319
  173. "Three Rings," Time, December 20, 1948
  174. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 40-41
  175. Robert Jackson Alexander, International Trotskyism, 1929-1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-822-30975-0, p. 775
  176. Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia (Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), ISBN 0765805316, p. 357
  177. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 318
  178. Noel Haviland Field, National Archives, United Kingdom ("Field worked for the US State Department and the League of Nations in the 1930s acting as a source for Soviet Intelligence.")
  179. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 349-350
  180. FBI Report: Whittaker Chambers, Internal Security—C, September 5, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 1)
  181. Ethan Klingsberg, "Case Closed on Alger Hiss?" The Nation, November 8, 1993
  182. Scotland Yard (London) Secret Special Report, No. 4, "The Case of Philip Price and Robert Minor," U.S. State Department Decimal File, 316-23-1184 9, Washington, D.C.
  183. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44), p. 30.
  184. Roman Brackman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life (Florence, Ky: Routledge, 2001) ISBN 0714650501, p. 299
  185. FBI Report: Alger Hiss, February 4, 1949
  186. Julien Steinberg, ed., Verdict of Three Decades: From the Literature of Individual Revolt Against Soviet Communism, 1917-1950 (Manchester, NH: Ayer Publishing, 1971) ISBN 0836920775, p. 358
  187. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, p. 191
  188. Roland Perry, Last of the Cold War Spies: The Life of Michael Straight—The Only American in Britain's Cambridge Spy Ring (Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2006) ISBN 030681482X, p. 131
  189. Phillip Knightley, "Ignore the conspiracies. Spies never forgive a traitor," The Independent on Sunday, November 26, 2006
  190. Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?" The New York Times, October 15, 1993
  191. Alexander Orlov, The Secret History of Stalin’s Crimes (Norwich, Norfolk: Jarrold's, 1954), pp. 232-233
  192. Katya Drozdova, "Dark Memories," Hoover Digest, 2007, Number 3
  193. William Fortescue, The Third Republic in France, 1870-1940: Conflicts and Continuities (Oxford: Routledge, 2000) ISBN 0415169445, p. 231
  194. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 105
  195. Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 3, 1948)
  196. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  197. Adolf Berle’s Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers
  198. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 55-58)
  199. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 197-8
  200. Ralph De Toledano, “The Last Word,” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  201. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 197-9
  202. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 331
  203. Olaf Groehler, Selbstmorderische Allianz: Deutsch-russische Militarbeziehungen, 1920-1941 (Berlin: Vision Verlag 1993), pp. 21-22, 123-124; Aleksandr M. Nekrich, Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941 (Columbia University Press, 1997), both cited in Benjamin B. Fischer, "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field," Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000
  204. Douglas O. Linder, The VENONA Files and the Alger Hiss Case," Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
  205. Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (New York: Harpercollins, 1990) ISBN 0060166053, p. 287
  206. M. Stanton Evans, Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies (New York: Crown Forum, 2007) ISBN 978-1-4000-8105-9, p. 55, n. 6 (p. 610)
  207. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 329
  208. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 48
  209. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)
  210. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  211. Michael Denning, The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century (New York: Verso, 1998) ISBN 1859841708, p. 410
  212. Meg Jacobs, Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-century America (Princeton University Press, 2005) ISBN 0691086648, p. 171
  213. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  214. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 340
  215. Douglas Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)
  216. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 92
  217. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 224
  218. Venona 195 New York to Moscow 9th February 1944
  219. Venona 1579 New York to Moscow, 28 September 1943
  220. Gregor Dallas, 1945: The War that Never Ended (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) ISBN 0300109806), p. 412
  221. Douglas O. Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Commentary, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)
  222. Robert G. Whalen, "Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men," The New York Times, December 12, 1948
  223. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  224. Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta, History of the Charter of the United Nations (UN.org)
  225. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  226. M. Stanton Evans, "McCarthyism: Waging the Cold War in America," Human Events, May 30, 1997
  227. Sam Tanenhaus, "New Reasons to Doubt Hiss," Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1993
  228. Ron Capshaw, "Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon," FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007
  229. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 361-362
  230. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 172
  231. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case, New York: Random House, (ed. 1997), pp. 321-322.
  232. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 363
  233. John Ehrman, "Alger Hiss’s Looking-Glass Wars: Intelligence in Recent Public Literature," Studies in Intelligence, Volume 48, Number 4
  234. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. , p. 227
  235. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. , p. 227
  236. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A pp. 107-109.
  237. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History(Washington: Potomac Books Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574883275, p. 130
  238. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History(Washington: Potomac Books Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574883275, p. 131
  239. Ralph De Toledano, “The Last Word,” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  240. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 268-269
  241. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 226
  242. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 90
  243. The translation used here is that of John R. Schindler
  244. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 17, 29 (PDF pp. 19, 31)
  245. Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945
  246. Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945
  247. Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945
  248. FBI memo: Belmont to Ladd, May 15, 1950 (FBI file: Venona), p. 8 (PDF p. 11)
  249. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 137
  250. Report of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1997), Appendix A, p. A-34 (PDF p. 36)
  251. "Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies," Nova (PBS), February 5, 2002
  252. John R. Schindler, "Hiss in VENONA: The Continuing Controversy," Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, 27 October 2005
  253. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44), p. 30. See also FBI Report: (REDACTED), Security Matter—C, June 8, 1950, p. 9 (FBI file: Institute of Pacific Relations, Vol 29, PDF p. 16)
  254. Memorandum of Conversation, Tuesday, March 20, 1945, Westminster, Md.
  255. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 359
  256. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss Chambers, Vol. 44)
  257. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 364
  258. Vadim to Moscow Center, 5 March 1945
  259. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 90
  260. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  261. Gorsky Report: Dec 23, 1949 (KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 46-55, attached to Alexander Vassiliev to Hartwig, 1 Feb 2002, in Alexander Vassiliev and Frank Cass & Co Ltd, High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division Claim No. HQ1X03222, Amended Particulars of Claim) by David Lowenthal, checked and corrected by Dr. Svetlana A. Chervonnaya, Jury Bundle pages 303, 304 & 305 and Gorski 1, pp. 46-49 1a, pp. 46-49 and 2, p. 60, May 2, 2005
  262. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  263. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 31 (PDF p. 34)
  264. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 124
  265. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "'Ales' is Still Hiss: The Wilder Foote Red Herring," 2007 Symposium on Cryptologic History. The Center for Cryptologic History, October 19, 2007
  266. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  267. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 267-268
  268. Frank J. Rafalko, ed., "Counterintelligence in World War II, 1940-47," A Counterintelligence Reader: An American Revolution Into the New Millennium, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 (Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive), p. 110 (PDF p. 111)
  269. Stephen J. Whitfield, The Culture of the Cold War (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996) ISBN 0801851955, p. 28
  270. Thomas M. Campbell and George C. Herring, eds., The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1943-46 (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975) ISBN 0531055701, p. 416
  271. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 361
  272. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 172
  273. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, p. 519
  274. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 321-322
  275. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 147
  276. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 110
  277. Robert D. Novak, "Did Truman Know About Venona?" The Weekly Standard, June 2003
  278. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004
  279. Amy W. Knight, How the Cold War Began: The Igor Gouzenko Affair and the Hunt for Soviet Spies (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2006) ISBN 0786718161, p. 33
  280. FBI letter: Hoover to Lyon, September 24, 1945, p. 5 (CIA file: Igor Gouzenko), reprinted in Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), p. 67
  281. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-Glass War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) , p. 49
  282. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 366
  283. William Lyon Mackenzie King, diary entry for September 7, 1945. "Mr. Smiley's World of Social Studies and English Page" (Halifax Regional School Board Teacher Webspace)
  284. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 366
  285. FBI Report: Soviet Espionage Activities in the United States Between World War I and World War II, November 27, 1945, p. 13
  286. "The Road Back," Time, September 4, 1950
  287. "Another Witness," Time, March 3, 1952
  288. Silvermaster file, Vol. 6, p. 105 (PDF p. 106)
  289. Robert J. Lamphere and Tom Shachtman, The FBI-KGB War: A Special Agent's Story (Atlanta: Mercer University Press, 1995) ISBN 0865544778, p. 296
  290. Oleg Kalugin and Fen Montaigne, The First Directorate: My 32 Years in Intelligence & Espionage Against the West (Darby, Penn.: Diane Publishing Company, 1994), ISBN 0788151118, p. 74. As Stone put it, "In a way, I was half a Jeffersonian and half a Marxist. I never saw a contradiction between the two, and I still don't." (The Nation, July 10, 1989, cited in L. Brent Baker and Tim Graham, eds., "Notable Quotables," Media Research Center, July 10, 1989)
  291. Paul Berman, "The Watchdog," The New York Times, October 1, 2006
  292. Myra MacPherson, 'All Governments Lie': The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006) ISBN 0684807130, p. 327. MacPherson goes on to quote Kalugin explaining that such agents "could shape public opinion, manipulate public opinion," and that Stone "was willing to perform tasks." Stone was designated in encrypted Soviet cables by the code name "Blin." (Index of Cover Names, New York-Moscow Communications, p. 10)
  293. Silvermaster file, Vol. 6, p. 105 (PDF p. 106)
  294. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 108 (PDF p. 119)
  295. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  296. Conrad Black, Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full (Jackson, Tenn.: PublicAffairs, 2008), ISBN 1586486748, p. 93
  297. FBI memo: Hottel to Hoover, February 11, 1946, pp. 2-3 (FBI file: Silvermaster, Vol. 42, pp. 55-56)
  298. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 110 (PDF p. 121)
  299. Yevgenia Albats, The State Within a State: The KGB And Its Hold on Russia Past, Present and Future (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1994), pp. 250-251
  300. See also Venona decrypt KGB New York to Moscow 15 July 1944, p. 2
  301. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  302. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 363-364
  303. "Donald Maclean," The Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008
  304. "Agent: Maclean, D.," The Spy Museum
  305. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, Interlocking subversion in Government Departments (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953), Part 19-20, 1357-66 (PDF pp. 17-26)
  306. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43
  307. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, November 21, 1946, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)
  308. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  309. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  310. Ron Capshaw, "Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon," FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007
  311. Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, SISS report (July 30, 1953), pp. 8-10.
  312. Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 3, 1948)
  313. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 228
  314. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 17
  315. "Publican & Pharisee," Time, May. 26, 1952
  316. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  317. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 274
  318. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  319. Alonzo L. Hamby, Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) ISBN 0195124979, p. 453
  320. "Off the Record," Time, January 18, 1954
  321. See also (Harry S. Truman) to the Attorney General, 16 December 1948, Harry S. Truman Library, Tom Clark Papers, "Attorney General-- White House/President, 1948," box 83, reprinted (as Document 22) in Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), p. 119
  322. "The Old Familiar Fish," Time, September 17, 1956
  323. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  324. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 148
  325. Robert D. Novak, "Did Truman Know About Venona?" The Weekly Standard, June 2003
  326. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004
  327. American Values through Film (English Language Office, Public Affairs section, U.S. Embassy, Moscow), p. 81 (PDF p. 82)
  328. Douglas O. Linder, "The Alger Hiss Trials: A Commentary," The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50. Famous Trials (University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Law)
  329. "House Un-American Activities Committee," Mundt Archives (Dakota State University)
  330. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 15-16
  331. Robert G. Whalen, "Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men," The New York Times, December 12, 1948
  332. "The Confrontation," Time, August 30, 1948
  333. Eleanor Roosevelt, Washington Daily News, August 16th, 1948
  334. Robert J. Hanyok, Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945 (Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2005), pp. 118-119 (PDF p. 123-124), n. 185
  335. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 146
  336. "Cold War Counterintelligence," A Counterintelligence Reader: An American Revolution Into the New Millennium, Vol. 3, Chapter 1 (Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive) pp. 30-31 (PDF pp. 29-30)
  337. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 167
  338. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 130
  339. Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), pp. xiv, xxiv
  340. FBI memo: Belmont to Boardman, February 1, 1956, p. 9 (FBI file: Venona, p. 71)
  341. George M. Elsey, Memorandum for Mr. Clifford, 16 August 1948, Harry S. Truman Library, Clark M. Clifford Papers, "Loyalty Investigations," box 11
  342. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 15
  343. Meet the Press Transcript for April 8, 2007, p. 5
  344. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 162
  345. "Three Rings," Time, December 20, 1948
  346. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  347. FBI "By Special Messenger": SAC, Washington Field to Hoover, December 1, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss Chambers, Vol. 1)
  348. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, November 23, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 1)
  349. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384, p. 108
  350. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  351. The Pumpkin Papers, Time, August 11, 1975
  352. Doulglas O. Linder, “The Pumpkin Papers: Key Evidence in the Alger Hiss Trials,” Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
  353. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  354. Denise Noe, “The Pumpkin Papers,” The Alger Hiss Case, TruTV Crime Library
  355. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 116
  356. "New Witness," Time, March 1, 1954
  357. FBI memorandum: Fletcher to Ladd, December 2, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 2)
  358. FBI memorandum: Fletcher to Ladd, December 6, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 2)
  359. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  360. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  361. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  362. Reply by Allen Weinstein, "The Hiss Case: Another Exchange!" The New York Review of Books, Vol. 23, No. 14 (September 16, 1976)
  363. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 270
  364. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 178, 253, 257, 299, 397
  365. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 298, 300
  366. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 281, 298
  367. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 254
  368. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 299
  369. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 281
  370. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 299
  371. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 300
  372. 868 KGB New York to Moscow, 8 June 1943
  373. 588 New York to Moscow, 29 April 1944, p. 3
  374. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 439
  375. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 99
  376. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 384
  377. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A pp. 221-223.
  378. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A, p. 235
  379. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A, pp. 258-259
  380. "The Alger Hiss Issue," Time, November 3, 1952
  381. "Woman with a Past," Time, December 19, 1949
  382. Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?" The New York Times, October 15, 1993
  383. Charles E. Wyzanski, Jr., to Francis Russell, March 31, 1986. Francis Russell Papers, Boston Athenaeum. Cited in Richard Newby, Letters to the Editor, Journal of American History, Vol. 87, No. 1 (June 2000)
  384. "Trial by Typewriter," Time, February 4, 1952
  385. "'I Do Not Intend to Turn My Back'," Time, February 6, 1950
  386. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 149
  387. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004
  388. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  389. Eric Breindel, "The faithful traitor: Alger Hiss's refusal to recant helped create the myth of his innocence," National Review, February 10, 1997
  390. John Earl Haynes, Cover Name, Cryptonym, CPUSA Party Name, Pseudonym, and Real Name Index: A Research Historian’s Working Reference
  391. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 43
  392. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997)
  393. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 1952)
  394. Venona decrypts (e.g., Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945)
  395. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era (New York: Random House, 1999)
  396. Eduard Mark, "Who Was ‘Venona’s’ ‘Ales’? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case," Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 3 (Autumn 2003)
  397. KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 49-55
  398. Dmitri Volkogonov, Letter to Nezavisimaya Gazeta, November 1992, quoted in John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 167
  399. Julius Kobyakov, Lowenthal and Alger Hiss, Diplomatic History (H-DIPLO) Discussion List, Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online (H-Net), October 10, 2003
  400. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 44
  401. Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 711, note 1
  402. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "Hiss Was Guilty," History News Network (George Mason University), April 16, 2007
  403. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 272
  404. John R. Schindler, "Hiss in VENONA: The Continuing Controversy," Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, 27 October 2005
  405. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258), p. 140
  406. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150
  407. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 167
  408. Tom Post, "'He Was Never A Soviet Spy'," Newsweek, November 9, 1992
  409. Amos Perlmutter, "Western journalists slow to report General Dmitri Volkogonov's explanation of his exoneration of convicted spy Alger Hiss," National Review, January 18, 1993
  410. David Remnick, "The Stalin Tragedy Comes Home; With Official Blessings, a Soviet Historian Works on a Biography," The Washington Post, June 30, 1988, p. B1
  411. Steven M. Miner, "The Incubus of Despotism," The Washington Post, September 15, 1991
  412. Walter Laqueur, The Long Road to Freedom: Russia and Glasnost (New York: C. Scribner's, 1989) ISBN 0684190303, p. 68
  413. David Margolick, "After 40 Years, a Postscript on Hiss: Russian Official Calls Him Innocent," The New York Times, October 29, 1992
  414. George F. Will, "'Exoneration' Of Alger Hiss," Newsweek, February 26, 2008
  415. "Sticking Up for Hiss," MediaWatch (Media Research Center), December 1992
  416. George F. Will, "'Exoneration' Of Alger Hiss," Newsweek, February 26, 2008
  417. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  418. J. Michael Waller, Fighting the War of Ideas Like a Real War: Messages to Defeat the Terrorists (Morrisville, N.C.: Lulu.com, 2007) ISBN 0615144632, p. 45, n. 36
  419. Herbert Romerstein, Human Events, November 28, 1992
  420. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258), p. 140
  421. Mark Kramer, "The Hiss Case and General Volkogonov: A Comment on Victor Navasky's Article," The Nation, April 17, 2007
  422. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  423. Reed Irvine, Ed., “Media Bites on Hiss Hoax,” AIM Report, November B 1992
  424. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  425. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  426. Mark Kramer, “The Hiss Case and General Volkogonov: A Comment on Victor Navasky's Article,” Web Letters, The Nation, April 17, 2007
  427. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 141
  428. L. Brent Bozell III, "Hiss Obituaries Prove Network Laziness," Creators Syndicate, November 21, 1996
  429. Wes Vernon, "Media Won’t Give Up on Red Spy Alger Hiss," AIM Report, July B (July 19, 2007)
  430. Brent Baker, CyberAlert (Media Research Center), Vol. One, No. 115 (November 18, 1996)
  431. Brent Baker, CyberAlert (Media Research Center), Vol. One, No. 116 (November 22, 1996)
  432. Harvey Klehr and John Earl Haynes, "Professors of Denial: Ignoring the truth about American Communists," The Weekly Standard, Volume 010, Issue 25, March 21, 2005
  433. Julius Kobyakov, Lowenthal and Alger Hiss, Diplomatic History (H-DIPLO) Discussion List, Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online (H-Net), October 10, 2003
  434. Julius N. Kobyakov, "Alger Hiss," H-DIPLO (Humanities and Social Services Net Online), October 16, 2003
  435. Julius N. Kobyakov, "Alger Hiss," Humanities and Social Services Net, October 16, 2003
  436. Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 711, note 1
  437. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "Hiss Was Guilty," History News Network (George Mason University), April 16, 2007
  438. John R. Schindler, "Hiss in VENONA: The Continuing Controversy," Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, 27 October 2005
  439. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150
  440. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 167
  441. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258), p. 140
  442. Tom Post, "'He Was Never A Soviet Spy'," Newsweek, November 9, 1992
  443. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, p. 600
  444. "Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies," Nova (PBS), February 5, 2002
  445. "Alger Hiss," Britannica Online Encyclopedia (2006)
  446. US Military Dictionary: The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)
  447. Denise Noe, “The Hiss-Nixon Seesaw,” The Alger Hiss Case, TruTV Crime Library
  448. James T. Gay, "The Alger Hiss Spy Case," American History, June 1998
  449. Stephen Koch, Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Munzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals (New York: Free Press, 1994) ISBN 0-02-918730-3, p. 326
  450. "A Verdict: 'Hiss Has Been Lying'," Time, March 29, 1976
  451. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  452. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997), ISBN 0394495462, p. 513
  453. "Report of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy, Appendix A (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1997), p. A-37 (PDF p. 39)
  454. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West (London: Gardners Books, 2000) ISBN 0-14-028487-7, p. 792, note 81
  455. Sally Acharya, "Historian’s book draws national attention," American Weekly, October 24, 2006
  456. Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 282
  457. Ryan Ervin, "The Hiss-Chambers Case: Three Acts of Espionage Theater," Historia (History Department, Eastern Illinois University and Epsilon Mu Chapter, Phi Alpha Theta), Vol. 14 (2005), p. 14 (PDF p. 7)
  458. David McKnight and Richard J. Aldrich, Espionage and the Roots of the Cold War: The Conspiratorial Heritage (Oxford: Routledge, 2002) ISBN 071465163X, p. 128
  459. Hayden B. Peake, "The VENONA Progeny," Naval War College Review, Summer 2000
  460. Arthur Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000) ISBN 0618219250, pp. 497
  461. Douglas Martin, "Arthur Schlesinger, Historian of Power, Dies at 89," The New York Times, March 1, 2007
  462. Lance Morrow, "A Rich Circularity," Time, November 5, 2000
  463. Arthur Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000) ISBN 0618219250, pp. 498
  464. J. Bradford DeLong, "Kai Bird Thinks That Alger Hiss Wasn't the "Ales" Mentioned in VENONA," Grasping Reality with Both Hands: Economist Brad DeLong's Fair, Balanced, and Reality-Based Semi-Daily Journal, April 9, 2007
  465. "Nomination on Hold," PBS NewsHour, February 27, 1997
  466. "The Dossier on Anthony Lake," The New York Times, January 17, 1997
  467. Herbert Mitgang, "Michael Harrington, Socialist and Author, Is Dead," The New York Times, August 2, 1989
  468. Michael Harrington, "Alger Hiss: A postscript," The Spectator (London), November 30, 1996
  469. Jacob Weisberg, "Cold War Without End," The New York Times, November 28, 1999
  470. John Earl Haynes, Response by John Earl Haynes, "The Cold War Debate Continues: A Traditionalist View of Historical Writing on Domestic Communism and Anti-Communism," Journal of Cold War Studies, Volume 2, Number 1 (Winter 2000)
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  474. Glenn Garvin, "Fools for Communism: Still apologists after all these years," Reason, April 2004
  475. Jacob Weisberg, "Cold War Without End," The New York Times, November 28, 1999
  476. Gilbert Geis and Leigh B. Bienen, Crimes of the Century: From Leopold and Loeb to O.J. Simpson (Lebanon, N.H.: UPNE, 1998), ISBN 1555533604, pp. 130-131
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  479. R. Bruce Craig, "Introduction to the Collection," Alger Hiss Papers from the Tamiment Library Collections (Woodbridge, Conn.: Thomson Gale, 2006) ISBN 1-57803-346-2, p. xx
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  481. John Ehrman, "Alger Hiss’s Looking-Glass Wars: Intelligence in Recent Public Literature," Studies in Intelligence, Volume 48, Number 4
  482. John Ehrman, "A Half-Century of Controversy: The Alger Hiss Case," Studies in Intelligence, Winter-Spring 2001
  483. Harvey Klehr, "Books: Jerrold and Leona Schecter's Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History," The Weekly Standard, July 1, 2002
  484. Ronald Radosh, "To the Bitter End," National Review, March 22, 2004
  485. James Barron, "Online, the Hiss Defense Doesn't Rest," The New York Times, August 16, 2001
  486. Athan Theoharis, "The View from Alger's Window," The Journal of American History, Vol. 87, No. 1 (Jun., 2000), pp. 292-293
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  488. Svetlana Chervonnaya, "Correspondence: Boo, Hiss," TNR Online, July 26, 2007
  489. Victor Navasky, Inaugural Conference, Center for the United States and the Cold War Alger Hiss and History (New York University), April 5, 2007
  490. Ann Douglas, "Family Ties," The New York Times, June 27, 1999
  491. James Barron, "Online, the Hiss Defense Doesn't Rest," The New York Times, August 16, 2001
  492. Max Frankel, "Reading Alger Hiss's Mind," The New York Times, February 29, 2004
  493. Thomas Powers, "'A Matter of Opinion': The Fate of The Nation," The New York Times, May 29, 2005
  494. Nicholas von Hoffman, The Internet Movie Database
  495. Nicholas Von Hoffman, "Was McCarthy right about the left?" The Washington Post, April 14, 1996, p. C1
  496. Lynne Duke, "Stepping Out Of the Shadows," The Washington Post, April 5, 2007
  497. John Elson, "Gentleman and a Spy?" Time, November 25, 1996
  498. Thomas Powers, "The Plot Thickens," The New York Review of Books, May 11, 2000 (Volume 47, Number 8)
  499. Johann Hari, "The exhumation of Joe McCarthy," The Independent, March 26, 2004
  500. Dan Kennedy, "What if they gave a funeral for a cold-war icon — and no one came?" Salon.com, November 19, 1996
  501. David Plotz, "Obama Carries the Great State of Slate," Slate.com, October 28, 2008
  502. Ron Rosenbaum, "Alger Hiss Rides Again," Slate.com, July 16, 2007
  503. Timothy Noah, "The Uncabinet," Slate.com, November 5, 2008
  504. Louis Bayard, "Why Ronald Reagan didn't completely suck," Slate.com, May 13, 2008

Further reading

External links