Difference between revisions of "Alger Hiss"

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As a result of his [[father]]'s [[death]], Alger [[inheritance|inherited]] $10,000,<ref>"...provided a $10000 bequest to each of the Hiss children..." G. Edward White, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=FvR4HBTiYzAC Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy]'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 9</ref> the [http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl equivalent] of more than $200,000 today. After graduation from [http://www.baltimorecitycollege.us/ Baltimore City College] and a year at Powder Point Academy<ref>Tony Hiss, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=SPV2AAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss]'' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), p. 32</ref> (a private [[prep school]] in Duxbury, [[Massachusetts]])<ref>''[http://books.google.com/books?id=pCUrAAAAYAAJ A Handbook of the Best Private Schools of the United States and Canada]'' (P.E. Sargent, 1915), p. 31</ref> and the [http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~law00092 Maryland Institute of Art], Hiss attended [[Baltimore]]'s [http://www.times.com/books/97/03/09/reviews/chambers-prophecy.html Johns Hopkins University], where he was voted "[http://www.newsweek.com/id/103447  best hand-shaker]" in his class. As an [[undergraduate]], Hiss was drawn to the work of (among others) the [[Fabian socialism|Fabian]]<ref>Archibald Henderson, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=twQBAAAAYAAJ George Bernard Shaw: His Life and Works]'' (Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd, 1911) ISBN 1417961775, p. 102. Shaw became a loyal apologist for [[Stalinism]], penning a 1933 [http://www.garethjones.org/soviet_articles/bernard_shaw.htm Letter to the Editor] of the ''Manchester Guardian'', denouncing Malcolm Muggeridge's reporting on [[Stalin]]'s [[Holodomor|Terror Famine]] as a "lie" and a "slander"; the following year he published a 16,000-word ''[http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300561h.html#p01 apologia]'' for Stalin's mass murders. In 1949, he even wrote a [http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/shaw/works/lysenko.htm defense] of Stalin's pseudo-scientific [[Lysenkoism]].</ref> George Bernard Shaw, [[Socialist]]<ref>"To John M. Gillette," September 15, 1912, in Maxwell Anderson (Laurence G. Avery, Ed.), ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=iINNqp6FxU0C Dramatist in America: Letters of Maxwell Anderson, 1912-1958]'' (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001) ISBN 0807849405, p. 3</ref> Maxwell Anderson, "[http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2805 card-carrying socialist]" Sinclair Lewis and [[Communist]]<ref>Theodore Dreiser, "Request to Become a Communist," ''The Daily Worker'', July 30, 1945, reprinted in Albert Fried, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=mLJbT3NMbN4C Communism in America: A History in Documents]'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997) ISBN 0231102356, p. 348-350</ref> Theodore Dreiser<ref>John Chabot Smith, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=bCYrAAAAIAAJ Alger Hiss: The True Story]'' (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976) ISBN 0030137764, p. 52</ref>&mdash;the latter two [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,881224,00.html famous atheists].
 
As a result of his [[father]]'s [[death]], Alger [[inheritance|inherited]] $10,000,<ref>"...provided a $10000 bequest to each of the Hiss children..." G. Edward White, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=FvR4HBTiYzAC Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy]'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 9</ref> the [http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl equivalent] of more than $200,000 today. After graduation from [http://www.baltimorecitycollege.us/ Baltimore City College] and a year at Powder Point Academy<ref>Tony Hiss, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=SPV2AAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss]'' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), p. 32</ref> (a private [[prep school]] in Duxbury, [[Massachusetts]])<ref>''[http://books.google.com/books?id=pCUrAAAAYAAJ A Handbook of the Best Private Schools of the United States and Canada]'' (P.E. Sargent, 1915), p. 31</ref> and the [http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~law00092 Maryland Institute of Art], Hiss attended [[Baltimore]]'s [http://www.times.com/books/97/03/09/reviews/chambers-prophecy.html Johns Hopkins University], where he was voted "[http://www.newsweek.com/id/103447  best hand-shaker]" in his class. As an [[undergraduate]], Hiss was drawn to the work of (among others) the [[Fabian socialism|Fabian]]<ref>Archibald Henderson, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=twQBAAAAYAAJ George Bernard Shaw: His Life and Works]'' (Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd, 1911) ISBN 1417961775, p. 102. Shaw became a loyal apologist for [[Stalinism]], penning a 1933 [http://www.garethjones.org/soviet_articles/bernard_shaw.htm Letter to the Editor] of the ''Manchester Guardian'', denouncing Malcolm Muggeridge's reporting on [[Stalin]]'s [[Holodomor|Terror Famine]] as a "lie" and a "slander"; the following year he published a 16,000-word ''[http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks03/0300561h.html#p01 apologia]'' for Stalin's mass murders. In 1949, he even wrote a [http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/shaw/works/lysenko.htm defense] of Stalin's pseudo-scientific [[Lysenkoism]].</ref> George Bernard Shaw, [[Socialist]]<ref>"To John M. Gillette," September 15, 1912, in Maxwell Anderson (Laurence G. Avery, Ed.), ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=iINNqp6FxU0C Dramatist in America: Letters of Maxwell Anderson, 1912-1958]'' (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001) ISBN 0807849405, p. 3</ref> Maxwell Anderson, "[http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2805 card-carrying socialist]" Sinclair Lewis and [[Communist]]<ref>Theodore Dreiser, "Request to Become a Communist," ''The Daily Worker'', July 30, 1945, reprinted in Albert Fried, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=mLJbT3NMbN4C Communism in America: A History in Documents]'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997) ISBN 0231102356, p. 348-350</ref> Theodore Dreiser<ref>John Chabot Smith, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=bCYrAAAAIAAJ Alger Hiss: The True Story]'' (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976) ISBN 0030137764, p. 52</ref>&mdash;the latter two [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,881224,00.html famous atheists].
  
Hiss' favorite [[instructor|instructors]] included [http://www.nytimes.com/1988/04/30/obituaries/broadus-mitchell-95-professor-historian-and-hamilton-authority.html Broadus Mitchell], who, according to Hiss, was simply a "gifted" [[economics]] [[professor]] who happened to hold some "mildly socialistic" views.<ref>Alger Hiss, Draft of a Chapter Written By Alger Hiss on the Foundations For His Liberalism (Alger Hiss papers, Small Manuscript Collection, Special Collections, Harvard Law School)</ref> But Mitchell, according to the [http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/16/technology/online-the-hiss-defense-doesn-t-rest.html?pagewanted=all personal Web site] of Hiss' [[son]], Tony,<ref> After Hiss' son, a visiting scholar at New York University, originally set up the site on an NYU server, the university [http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/16/technology/online-the-hiss-defense-doesn-t-rest.html?pagewanted=all  requested] that he move it elsewhere "to designate it more clearly as a personal site rather than an academic one." The Web site is run out of the [http://www.slate.com/id/1007346/pagenum/all/ home] of "Web master" Jeff Kisseloff, [http://www.thenation.com/directory/bios/jeff_kisseloff archivist] of ''The Nation'' magazine, and is [http://library2.lawschool.cornell.edu/insiteasp/archive/insite277.html funded] by The Nation Institute, which is in turn [http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/funderprofile.asp?fndid=5181&category=79 funded] by billionaire [http://dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/01/27/george-soros-backs-obama-but-hedges-his-bets/ Obama-booster] [[George Soros]]. Although the site is blazoned "Search for the Truth," [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~th15/aboutus.html buried] within is the admission that its real purpose is to present only "the case for the defense," not both sides. Cornell Law Library [http://library2.lawschool.cornell.edu/insiteasp/archive/insite277.html notes], "The site has a noticeable editorial bias in favor of Hiss." ''New York Times Book Review'' editor Sam Tanenhaus [http://www.slate.com/id/1007346/pagenum/all/ agrees], "It's a blatantly pro-Hiss operation whose agenda is to advocate his innocence." Then-Columbia University historian David Greenberg (now at [http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~davidgr/ Rutgers]) has [http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/16/technology/online-the-hiss-defense-doesn-t-rest.html?pagewanted=all said], "I don't think anyone is going to treat this site as the repository of truth, except for those who have already made up their minds that Hiss was innocent."</ref> was actually a [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~th15/wars.html well-known socialist]. He served as [http://www.hofstra.edu/Libraries/WestCampus/SpecialCollections/sc_afc_broadus_mitchell.cfm candidate] for [[Governor]] of [[Maryland]] for the [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,761370,00.html Socialist Party] (U.S. supporter of the [[Comintern]]),<ref>Document No. 7: "Minority Report Adopted by Overwhelming Party Vote on Referendum on Submission to the Emergency National Convention Held at Chicago, September, 1919," reprinted in Joint Legislative Committee of the State of New York Investigating Seditious Activities, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=Vq0XAAAAYAAJ Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose and Tactics]'', Part I, Vol. I (Albany: J.B. Lyon Company, 1920), p. 626</ref> and distinguished socialism from [[communism]] only in "[[strategy]] and [[procedure]]," not "essential [[theory]]."<ref>Broadus Mitchell, ''A Preface to Economics'' (Henry Holt & Co., 1932-34), pp. 556-557</ref> Another favorite was José Robles,<ref>Matthew Richer, "[http://www.mmisi.org/ma/46_04/richer.pdf The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father]," ''Modern Age'', Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 310 (PDF p. 4)</ref> a committed [http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/reviews/reviewview.cfm?id=2 Stalinist] who would go on to serve in the [[Spanish Civil War]] as a [[Colonel]] in the [[Red Army]] and interpreter for [[General]] [http://www.latfilma.lv/d/106/ Jānis Bērziņš],<ref>Paul Johnson, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=MAuzkb28pKQC Intellectuals]'' (HarperCollins, 1990) ISBN 0060916575, p. 156; James R. Mellow, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=LQptupxaGwsC Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences]'' (Da Capo Press, 1993) ISBN 020162620, p. 506</ref> head of [[GRU|Soviet military intelligence]].<ref>Hugh Thomas, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=6I126r99NQ4C The Spanish Civil War]'' (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) ISBN 0671758764, p. 380. Robles was [http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/10/31/051031crbo_books?currentPage=all never seen again] after Bērziņš was recalled to [[Moscow]] (Roy Aleksandrovich Medvedev, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=zQ8BO3cenfoC Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism]'' [tr. George Shriver] [New York: Columbia University Press, 1989] ISBN 0231063504, p. 428) and shot in [[Stalin]]'s [http://books.google.com/books?id=KzIfHQAACAAJ Great Terror] in 1938. (David J. Nordlander, "Origins of a Gulag Capital: Magadan and Stalinist Control in the Early 1930s," ''Slavic Review'', Vol. 57, No. 4 [Winter, 1998], pp. 791-812) Robles had apparently been [[execution|executed]] by a [[Communist]] "[http://www.nytimes.com/1988/01/24/books/intellectuals-and-assassins-annals-of-stalin-s-killerati.html?pagewanted=all special section]," according to former [http://reconstruction.eserver.org/081/beja.shtml fellow traveller] [http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap7/dospassos.html John Dos Passos], because he "knew too much about the relations between the [[Spain|Spanish]] war ministry and the [[Kremlin]]." Stephen Koch, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=buhlAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles]'' (Madrid: Ediciones Palabra, 2006) ISBN 1582432813, p. 272</ref> Hiss, who apparently knew Robles well enough to spend time at his [[home]],<ref>Tony Hiss, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=SPV2AAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss]'' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, pp. 37-38</ref> would later say he too considered going to [[Spain]] to join the forces<ref>John Chabot Smith, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=bCYrAAAAIAAJ&pgis=1 Alger Hiss: The True Story]'' (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976), ISBN 0030137764, p. 104</ref> characterized as "Stalin's foreign legion."<ref>Herbert Romerstein, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=D5koGQAACAAJ Heroic Victims: Stalin's Foreign Legion in the Spanish Civil War]'' (Washington: Council for the Defense of Freedom, 1994) ISBN 9994812505. Using [[Moscow]]'s [[Comintern]] archives, Romerstein documents how American volunteers (mostly [[Communist]]s) were told they were going to fight [[fascism]], only to be ordered by the Comintern, in the wake of the [[Nazi-Soviet Pact]], to oppose Allied efforts to resist the [[Nazi]]s.</ref>
+
Hiss' favorite [[instructor|instructors]] included [http://www.nytimes.com/1988/04/30/obituaries/broadus-mitchell-95-professor-historian-and-hamilton-authority.html Broadus Mitchell], who, according to Hiss, was simply a "gifted" [[economics]] [[professor]] who happened to hold some "mildly socialistic" views.<ref>Alger Hiss, Draft of a Chapter Written By Alger Hiss on the Foundations For His Liberalism (Alger Hiss papers, Small Manuscript Collection, Special Collections, Harvard Law School)</ref> But Mitchell, according to the [http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/16/technology/online-the-hiss-defense-doesn-t-rest.html?pagewanted=all personal Web site] of Hiss' [[son]], Tony,<ref> After Hiss' son, a visiting scholar at New York University, originally set up the site on an NYU server, the university [http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/16/technology/online-the-hiss-defense-doesn-t-rest.html?pagewanted=all  requested] that he move it elsewhere "to designate it more clearly as a personal site rather than an academic one." The Web site is run out of the [http://www.slate.com/id/1007346/pagenum/all/ home] of "Web master" Jeff Kisseloff, [http://www.thenation.com/directory/bios/jeff_kisseloff archivist] of ''The Nation'' magazine, and is [http://library2.lawschool.cornell.edu/insiteasp/archive/insite277.html funded] by The Nation Institute, which is in turn [http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/funderprofile.asp?fndid=5181&category=79 funded] by billionaire [http://dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/01/27/george-soros-backs-obama-but-hedges-his-bets/ Obama-booster] [[George Soros]]. Although the site is blazoned "Search for the Truth," [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~th15/aboutus.html buried] within is the admission that its real purpose is to present only "the case for the defense," not both sides. Cornell Law Library [http://library2.lawschool.cornell.edu/insiteasp/archive/insite277.html notes], "The site has a noticeable editorial bias in favor of Hiss." ''New York Times Book Review'' editor Sam Tanenhaus [http://www.slate.com/id/1007346/pagenum/all/ agrees], "It's a blatantly pro-Hiss operation whose agenda is to advocate his innocence." Then-Columbia University historian David Greenberg (now at [http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~davidgr/ Rutgers]) has [http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/16/technology/online-the-hiss-defense-doesn-t-rest.html?pagewanted=all said], "I don't think anyone is going to treat this site as the repository of truth, except for those who have already made up their minds that Hiss was innocent."</ref> was actually a [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~th15/wars.html well-known socialist]. He served as [http://www.hofstra.edu/Libraries/WestCampus/SpecialCollections/sc_afc_broadus_mitchell.cfm candidate] for [[Governor]] of [[Maryland]] for the [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,761370,00.html Socialist Party] (U.S. supporter of the [[Comintern]]),<ref>Document No. 7: "Minority Report Adopted by Overwhelming Party Vote on Referendum on Submission to the Emergency National Convention Held at Chicago, September, 1919," reprinted in Joint Legislative Committee of the State of New York Investigating Seditious Activities, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=Vq0XAAAAYAAJ Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose and Tactics]'', Part I, Vol. I (Albany: J.B. Lyon Company, 1920), p. 626</ref> and distinguished socialism from [[communism]] only in "[[strategy]] and [[procedure]]," not "essential [[theory]]."<ref>Broadus Mitchell, ''A Preface to Economics'' (Henry Holt & Co., 1932-34), pp. 556-557</ref> Another favorite was José Robles,<ref>Matthew Richer, "[http://www.mmisi.org/ma/46_04/richer.pdf The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father]," ''Modern Age'', Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 310 (PDF p. 4)</ref> a committed [http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/reviews/reviewview.cfm?id=2 Stalinist] who would go on to serve in the [[Spanish Civil War]] as a [[Colonel]] in the [[Red Army]] and interpreter for [[General]] [http://www.latfilma.lv/d/106/ Jānis Bērziņš],<ref>Paul Johnson, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=MAuzkb28pKQC Intellectuals]'' (HarperCollins, 1990) ISBN 0060916575, p. 156; James R. Mellow, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=LQptupxaGwsC Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences]'' (Da Capo Press, 1993) ISBN 020162620, p. 506</ref> head of [[GRU|Soviet military intelligence]].<ref>Hugh Thomas, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=6I126r99NQ4C The Spanish Civil War]'' (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) ISBN 0671758764, p. 380. Robles was [http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/10/31/051031crbo_books?currentPage=all never seen again] after Bērziņš was recalled to [[Moscow]] (Roy Aleksandrovich Medvedev, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=zQ8BO3cenfoC Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism]'' [tr. George Shriver] [New York: Columbia University Press, 1989] ISBN 0231063504, p. 428) and shot in [[Stalin]]'s [http://books.google.com/books?id=KzIfHQAACAAJ Great Terror] in 1938. (David J. Nordlander, "Origins of a Gulag Capital: Magadan and Stalinist Control in the Early 1930s," ''Slavic Review'', Vol. 57, No. 4 [Winter, 1998], pp. 791-812) Robles had apparently been [[execution|executed]] by a [[Communist]] "[http://www.nytimes.com/1988/01/24/books/intellectuals-and-assassins-annals-of-stalin-s-killerati.html?pagewanted=all special section]," according to former [http://reconstruction.eserver.org/081/beja.shtml fellow traveller] [http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap7/dospassos.html John Dos Passos], because he "knew too much about the relations between the [[Spain|Spanish]] war ministry and the [[Kremlin]]." Stephen Koch, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=buhlAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles]'' (Madrid: Ediciones Palabra, 2006) ISBN 1582432813, p. 272</ref> Hiss, who apparently knew Robles well enough to spend time at his [[home]],<ref>Tony Hiss, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=SPV2AAAAMAAJ&pgis=1 Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss]'' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, pp. 37-38</ref> would later say he too considered going to [[Spain]] to join the forces<ref>John Chabot Smith, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=bCYrAAAAIAAJ&pgis=1 Alger Hiss: The True Story]'' (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976), ISBN 0030137764, p. 104</ref> characterized as "[[Stalin]]'s foreign legion."<ref>Herbert Romerstein, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=D5koGQAACAAJ Heroic Victims: Stalin's Foreign Legion in the Spanish Civil War]'' (Washington: Council for the Defense of Freedom, 1994) ISBN 9994812505. Using [[Moscow]]'s [[Comintern]] archives, Romerstein documents how American volunteers (mostly [[Communist]]s) were told they were going to fight [[fascism]], only to be ordered by the Comintern, in the wake of the [[Nazi-Soviet Pact]], to oppose Allied efforts to resist the [[Nazi]]s.</ref>
  
 
===Harvard Law School===
 
===Harvard Law School===

Revision as of 19:40, 14 June 2009

Alger Hiss.
Photo courtesy U.S. Bureau of Prisons

Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a high-ranking U.S. State Department official and Secretary General of the founding conference of the United Nations. He was convicted of perjury in 1950, after denying involvement in Soviet espionage.

"Belief in the guilt or innocence of Alger Hiss became a defining issue in American intellectual life," wrote Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D.-N.Y.), who was instrumental in securing the release of FBI and Venona project files on the case, which had been classified for half a century. Concluded the liberal Democrat in 1998: "Parts of the American government had conclusive evidence of his guilt, but they never told."[1]

Early life

Alger Hiss was born November 11, 1904, in Baltimore, Maryland to a financially comfortable upper-middle-class[2] WASP family.[3] Alger's father, an executive with a wholesale dry goods firm, committed suicide by slashing his throat with a razor when the boy was just two years old. When Hiss was 25, his sister Mary Ann also committed suicide, by drinking a bottle of Lysol.[4] Alger's older brother Bosley had died two and a half years before from Bright’s disease, a kidney disorder reportedly induced[5] or aggravated by his excessive alcohol consumption.

Johns Hopkins University

As a result of his father's death, Alger inherited $10,000,[6] the equivalent of more than $200,000 today. After graduation from Baltimore City College and a year at Powder Point Academy[7] (a private prep school in Duxbury, Massachusetts)[8] and the Maryland Institute of Art, Hiss attended Baltimore's Johns Hopkins University, where he was voted "best hand-shaker" in his class. As an undergraduate, Hiss was drawn to the work of (among others) the Fabian[9] George Bernard Shaw, Socialist[10] Maxwell Anderson, "card-carrying socialist" Sinclair Lewis and Communist[11] Theodore Dreiser[12]—the latter two famous atheists.

Hiss' favorite instructors included Broadus Mitchell, who, according to Hiss, was simply a "gifted" economics professor who happened to hold some "mildly socialistic" views.[13] But Mitchell, according to the personal Web site of Hiss' son, Tony,[14] was actually a well-known socialist. He served as candidate for Governor of Maryland for the Socialist Party (U.S. supporter of the Comintern),[15] and distinguished socialism from communism only in "strategy and procedure," not "essential theory."[16] Another favorite was José Robles,[17] a committed Stalinist who would go on to serve in the Spanish Civil War as a Colonel in the Red Army and interpreter for General Jānis Bērziņš,[18] head of Soviet military intelligence.[19] Hiss, who apparently knew Robles well enough to spend time at his home,[20] would later say he too considered going to Spain to join the forces[21] characterized as "Stalin's foreign legion."[22]

Harvard Law School

After graduating in 1926, Hiss went on to Harvard Law School, where he resumed his friendship with boyhood friend Henry Collins, who was attending Harvard Business School. Collins would later be identified as a Soviet agent by chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S. Anatoly Gorsky and by another friend at Harvard, State Department official Laurence Duggan[23] (himself identified by Comintern courier[24] Whittaker Chambers, OGPU recruiter Hede Massing,[25] and Venona decrypts). Hiss served on the Harvard Law Review under editor Lee Pressman, who would eventually testify that he had been a member of the "Ware group," an underground group of Communists in the Federal government.[26] Hiss became the protégé of one instructor, future Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter—who, said former U.S. President William Howard Taft, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, "seems to be closely in touch with every Bolshevist, Communist movement in this country." Frankfurter was at the time the leading champion of the convicted murderers Sacco and Vanzetti,[27] revolutionary terrorists who became a Communist[28] cause célèbre,[29] and whom Alger Hiss would later emulate.[30]

Early Career

Wall Street bombing, 1920, attributed to Galleanists. World-Telegram Photo
Sacco and Vanzetti had been members of a terrorist[31] group known as the Galleanists,[32] which was responsible for the May Day 1919 attempted bombing of a number of public figures,[33] including Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes.[34] Ironically, when Hiss graduated from law school in 1929, Frankfurter got him the coveted job of law clerk to Holmes. Influential as Frankfurter was, Hiss said he was probably even more influenced by Holmes, whom Hiss admired as "a skeptic of the first order" who "denied the existence of God."[35]

In violation of a condition of this employment,[36] Hiss married the former Mrs. Priscilla Fansler Hobson, a supporter of perennial Socialist Party presidential nominee Norman Thomas.[37] Hiss had had met her on a transatlantic cruise when he was nineteen,[38] but since then she'd had a marriage, a Mexican divorce,[39] a pregnancy by a married man and an abortion.[40] Hiss went on to prestigious[41] law firms in Boston and New York.

Bombing of the Federal building, Chicago, moments after 93 Wobblies were convicted there, 1918. Photo courtesy National Archives and Records Administration
By 1932, Priscilla Hiss had [registered as a member of the Socialist Party,[42] and was an active member of American Labor Associates. Alger was becoming "radicalized," joining (together with Pressman)[43] the International Juridical Association (IJA), which "consistently followed the Communist Party line."[44]

During this period, Hiss' letters to his wife reflected his increasing radicalism. In 1930, he made a coy reference to the terrorist[45] Industrial Workers of the World (whose leader, "Big Bill" Haywood, had fled the U.S. for Moscow where he became a trusted adviser to the Bolshevik government), writing to Priscilla, "[D]id thee call thyself a Wobbly with an I.W.W. tongue in thy socialistic (I couldn't bring myself to write 'Communistic') cheek." Suggesting that an article questioning the legitimacy of the existing “capitalist order”[46] did not go far enough, Hiss wrote to Priscilla in 1932, “Has thee seen Archibald MacLeish's[47] article on capitalism in last week's Saturday Review? Felix says it is soft thinking after Wilson.”[48]

New Deal

Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Victims of Stalin's Terror-Famine, Ukraine, 1933. Image courtesy Julien Fonjallaz
In 1933, Frankfurter sent Hiss a telegram urging him to join President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal as assistant general counsel to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA). At the peak of Stalin's Terror Famine (during which the Soviets killed some 14 million[49] people through collectivization of agriculture), the AAA curtailed U.S. farm production in order to drive up food prices in the depths of the Great Depression.[50]

The agency was the brainchild of FDR's Secretary of Agriculture (and future Vice President), so-called "farm dictator" Henry Wallace—who would run for President on the Communist-inspired[51] Progressive Party ticket in 1948, finally recanting his support for the Soviet Union in 1952.[52]

Mother of seven children without food, California, ca. February 1936. Image courtesy Library of Congress
In response to a query about candidates for employment at AAA, Pressman, already at the agency, wrote, "I have talked to Alger Hiss and Nat Witt who are considering" taking posts at AAA (Hiss would later deny under oath that he had discussed the position with Pressman).[53]

At AAA, Hiss reunited with IJA colleagues Pressman and Witt as well as Collins, and became acquainted with the Communist Harold Ware. Even before the Federal Bureau of Investigation would learn of Whittaker Chambers' charges, one of Hiss' colleagues at the AAA would tip off FBI investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.[54] Hiss' superior at AAA, New Dealer Jerome Frank,[55] believing Hiss to be closely linked to a coterie of Communist lawyers at the agency, would later refuse to appear as a character witness for him.[56] Collins would refuse to testify on grounds of potential self-incrimination, but another AAA official, Nathaniel Weyl, would later testify that he attended Communist cell meetings with Hiss[57] and saw him pay his party dues,[58] testimony he would reaffirm in his 2004 autobiography.[59]

Ex-Communists Ralph de Sola and George Hewitt would both also testify to having seen Hiss at Communist Party meetings,[60] and a former GRU station chief in London and New York reported that during the early and middle 1930s Hiss was a source of agent information for a Soviet spy ring in Washington, the Silvermaster group, according to Pavel Sudoplatov, former deputy director of Foreign Intelligence for the USSR.[61]

Nye Committee

In 1934, again with an assist from Pressman (according to New Dealer Gardner Jackson),[62] Hiss became General Counsel for the U.S. Senate's Nye committee, which investigated people Chairman Gerald P. Nye (R.-N.D.) called Wall Street's "merchants of death," whom he accused of conspiracy to lead the U.S. into war with Germany. One scholar has dubbed this a "witch-hunt" for "subversive capitalists," in which Hiss was to Nye what Roy Cohn would later be to Senator Joe McCarthy (R.-Wisc.)[63] On the theory that "capitalism was a cause of aggression,"[64] Hiss employed what would later come to be known as "McCarthyite" methods, badgering witnesses such as Bernard Baruch,[65] reportedly the first man to openly assert that Hiss was a communist.

The Soviets took great interest in the work of the committee for its propaganda value[66] as well as its access to classified documents on U.S. armaments and foreign policy.[67] Moscow had at least one source on the staff of the committee, who provided valuable documents to the Kremlin in 1935,[68] the same year an agent later code-named "Ales" (pronounced "Alles") began working for Soviet military intelligence. Nye would tell FBI investigators that he believed Hiss was a Communist at the time,[69] and would later say he believed Hiss used his position on the committee for espionage.[70]

Barely a month after joining the committee staff,[71] Hiss met Whittaker Chambers. According to Chambers, they were introduced by Communist underground boss[72] J. Peters;[73] Hiss would claim that Chambers had wandered into his office without introduction, as a free-lance writer looking for a story.

Chambers' version would be corroborated by the radical novelist Josephine Herbst, whose then-husband, John Herrmann, was an AAA official, a member of the Ware group[74] and a courier for the Communist underground[75] subordinate to Chambers.[76] Hiss would later claim that he did not even know Herrmann—a "lie," according to Herbst's biographer.

Justice Department

In 1935, Hiss transferred into the Justice Department as special assistant to the Solictor General, where he unsuccessfully defended the Agricultural Adjustment Act before the United States Supreme Court (which ruled the AAA unconstitutional in 1936).

Hiss' 1929 Ford

In the summer of 1936, J. Peters arranged a dummy transaction, according to Chambers, in which Hiss donated his 1929 Ford to the Communist Party.[77] Hiss would deny this, testifying instead that he had sold or loaned or given the car to Chambers in June 1935, after buying a new car. But Hiss did not buy a new car until some three months after this, and he continued to pay insurance on the Ford for a year after he claimed to have gotten rid of it.

Chambers' version would be corroborated by the car's certificate of title, which showed that Hiss actually transferred the car on July 23, 1936, to the Cherner Motor Company, which sold it the same day to the Communist[78] William Rosen for $25. The company's records of the transaction had vanished.[79] Rosen would refuse to answer questions about his role in the transfer or the Communist Party on grounds of potential self-incrimination.[80] Hiss' attorney, Edward McLean, wrote that Rosen's lawyer, Emmanuel Bloch, told him:

…that Rosen did lend himself to a dummy transaction concerning the Ford car.... [A]t some later date, a man came to see Rosen and told him that the title certificate to the Ford was in Rosen's name and asked Rosen to sign an assignment of it to some other person. Rosen did this. The man who came to see Rosen was a very high Communist. His name would be a sensation in this case. The man who ultimately got the car is also a Communist. Bloch implied that Rosen was a Communist too but did not say so expressly.[81]

The title transfer bore a signature Hiss acknowledged to be his own, notarized by Hiss' Justice Department colleague W. Marvin Smith. In 1948 Smith would tell HUAC that he had notarized Hiss' signature on the transfer, but before he could so testify in the Hiss trial, Smith would plunge down a five-story Justice Department stairwell to his death; there would be no witnesses.[82]

Hede Massing and Noel Field

The name “Alger Hiss” in Cyrillic (Алджер Хисс) from Alexander Vassiliev's notes on an April 1936 report from Hede Massing to Moscow Center. Image source: Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
At a 1935 dinner at the home of State Department official (and Soviet intelligence source) Noel Field, Hiss argued with OGPU recruiter Hede Massing that Field should work with Hiss' GRU group, rather than Massing's OGPU group, according to Massing.[83]

Field would defect in 1948 to Communist Czechoslovakia, where he would tell the secret police that he was fleeing to avoid testifying in the trial of Alger Hiss, whom he identified as a fellow Communist underground agent in the State Department during the mid-thirties, according to official records published in 1990 by Karel Kaplan, former archivist of the Central Committee of the Czech Communist Party.[84] A 1955 Czechoslovak secret police reinvestigation (obtained in 2000 by Czech human rights activist Karel Skrabek) states, "Noel Field said that … Hiss worked for the USSR as a spy."[85] Field would end up in Communist Hungary, where in 1954 he would tell Hungarian secret police that he and Hiss "mutually realized we were Communists. Around the summer of 1935 Alger Hiss tried to induce me to do service for the Soviets."[86]

The transcripts also record Field saying that he turned over State Department documents to Hede Massing in the 1930s. In other statements Field twice said that although Hiss knew that Field “was a Communist,” he strongly supported Field at the State Department and even tried to help him obtain a job as a State Department adviser in the Philippines in 1940.[87] The dossier likewise records a statement by Field that he briefly visited Hiss in 1939 in America, where they agreed that if either's cover was ever blown, he would communicate to the other indirectly.[88]

The name “A. Hiss” and code name "Yurist" (Jurist) in Cyrillic (А. Хисс—"Юрист") from Vassiliev's notes on a Moscow Center annotation. Image source: Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
In a 1936 memorandum, found in the NKVD archives by former KGB agent Alexander Vassiliev, Massing complains to Moscow that Field (whom she refers to by his code name "Ernst")[89] "was approached by Alger Hiss" (Massing uses his real name), who "informed him that he is a Communist" with "ties to an organization working for the Sov. Union" —a serious breach of discipline. (A Moscow Center annotation identifies "A. Hiss" as the GRU agent designated by the code name "Jurist.")[90] As a result, noted Boris Bazarov, OGPU "illegal" station chief for the United States, Field "and Hiss [Bazarov also used Hiss's real name] have been openly identified" as Soviet agents.[91]

According to Massing, Hiss also asked Field to use his connections to help Hiss get into the State Department.[92]

State Department

Hiss took a pay cut[93] to transfer into the State Department in September 1936, the same month a GRU agent designated by the code name "Jurist" began working there.[94] Hiss was now special assistant to Assistant Secretary of State for Trade Agreements Francis B. Sayre, son-in-law of Woodrow Wilson. Two years later, Alger's younger brother Donald, who had followed him to Johns Hopkins, Harvard Law, and a clerkship for Justice Holmes, would join him at State, rising to the position of assistant to future Secretary of State Dean Acheson.

In a cable of the era found in the NKVD archives by Vassiliev, NKVD illegal Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov reports to Moscow that J. Peters (code-named "Storm")[95] told him that "Hiss [Akhmerov used his real name] used to be a member of bratskiy organization (the CPUSA underground) who had been implanted into 'Surrogate' (cover name for the State Department)[96] and sent to the Neighbors [the GRU][97]...."[98]

The year before, at the funeral of Marshal Józef Piłsudski in Warsaw, U.S. Ambassador to Moscow William C. Bullitt had had given confidential assurance to the Polish government that the United States would stand by Poland in the event of a Nazi invasion. But after Bullitt reported back to Washington that he had done so, someone at the State Department passed this information to the Kremlin, which in turn transmitted it to German intelligence (with which Soviet intelligence had maintained liaison since the time of Lenin).[99] Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels exploited this information to portray the United States as a warmonger. According to reporter Ralph de Toledano, who covered the Hiss trial for Newsweek, the State Department source who passed this information to the Soviets was Alger Hiss.

At some point in 1935-37, Chambers gave Hiss a rug from Bokhara, in Soviet Uzbekistan. Just before Christmas 1936, Soviet Colonel Boris Bykov, head of Soviet military intelligence in the U.S., had given Chambers $800 to buy four Bokhara rugs for Hiss, Harry Dexter White, George Silverman, and Julian Wadleigh, according to Chambers; Hiss would later claim that Chambers had given him his rug in 1935 in partial payment for rent.

Chambers' version was corroborated by Marxist[100] Columbia University art historian Meyer Schapiro, who confirmed that he arranged the purchase (and produced the canceled check dated December 23, 1936); by the Massachusetts Importing Company of Manhattan, which confirmed selling him the rugs (and produced the Bill of Sale); by White's widow and Silverman (who confirmed that they had received their rugs sometime between late 1936 and the fall of 1938); and by Wadleigh, who confessed to having been a member of Chambers' apparatus and delivering documents to him, confirmed that he had received his rug for New Year's 1937,[101] and conceded that he understood the rug to be a gift from the Soviets.

By 1937, the peak of Stalin's Great Terror[102] (whose victims would number over ten million), Hiss was delivering packets of documents to Whittaker Chambers at intervals of a week or ten days, according to Oleg Gordievsky, the highest-ranking KGB officer ever to defect.[103]

That year, Akhmerov cabled Moscow that Michael Straight (code-named "Nigel"), an American member of the NKVD's Cambridge spy ring (and future FDR speech writer[104] and publisher of The New Republic), then working at the State Department, mentioned Hiss (using his real name) as someone with "progressive" views "who occupied a responsible position."[105] Akhmerov worried that Straight "might guess that Hiss [Akhmerov again used Hiss' real name] belongs to our family" or "find out Hiss's nature" as a GRU agent.[106]

On November 23, 1937, Whittaker Chambers bought a car, using $400 he said Alger Hiss loaned him.[107] Hiss would deny making the loan, but records showed that the Hisses withdrew $400 in cash from their savings four days before Chambers bought the car.[108] At first the Hisses claimed that they had used the money to buy furniture for a new house, but they had not signed a lease at the time,[109] and could not produce receipts for any purchases, nor explain why they had used cash from savings rather than the checking and charge accounts they otherwise used for such purchases.[110]

In 1938, Whittaker Chambers made his final break with the Communists.[111] Wary after the murder of Ignace Poretsky[112] and disappearance of Juliet Poyntz,[113] Chambers asked his wife's nephew[114] to hide what he called his "life preserver"—a packet of copies of documents, hand-written memos and microfilm of documents.[115] On the advice of Herbert Solow, former press agent for the Communist League of America,[116] Chambers made it known to the Soviet underground, via Schapiro and the ex-Communist[117] Ludwig Lore, that he had "photographic copies of handwritten matters the appearance of which would seriously embarrass them," which would be made public in the event anything were to happen to him.[118]

In 1939, Sayre became United States High Commissioner to the Philippines, and Hiss transferred to become personal aide to Stanley Hornbeck, political advisor to the State Department's Far Eastern Division. As his replacement, Hiss urged Sayre to hire Soviet Intelligence source Noel Field, despite his lack of experience.[119] Due to the fact that Field had been identified to the State Department as a member of various Red front groups starting in 1926, and as a Communist Party member the previous year,[120] he did not get the appointment. After his defection behind the Iron Curtain, Field would confirm to East bloc authorities that Hiss knew he was a Communist when he recommended Field as his replacement.[121]

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov signs the Nazi-Soviet Pact; Nazi Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop and Soviet dictator Josef Stalin stand behind him, Moscow, August 23, 1939. Image courtesy National Archives and Records Administration
When in the wake of the Hitler-Stalin pact the Communist Party organ The Daily Worker came under suspicion for reversing its anti-Nazi posturing, Politburo member Roy Hudson[122] discussed what to do about it with Soviet agent[123] Robert Minor, according to Daily Worker editor Louis Budenz. Someone mentioned that Nathan Witt and Lee Pressman could not be of much help as they, too, were under suspicion at the time. According to Budenz, Alger Hiss was then mentioned as a good Comrade who would be helpful.[124]

That year, French Premier Édouard Daladier informed Bullitt (now Ambassador to France) that two brothers named Hiss, both in the U.S. government, were Soviet agents.[125] Bullitt “laughed it off as a tall tale, never having heard their names.”[126]

The year before, in Paris, defecting former GRU chief in Europe Walter Krivitsky[127] had identified Hiss as an agent of Soviet military intelligence, according to Alexander Barmine, former Charge d'Affairs at the Soviet Embassy in Athens, who had defected in 1937.[128] When news of the Hitler-Stalin Pact (which Krivitsky had predicted)[129] broke on August 23, 1939, Krivitsky warned his Saturday Evening Post ghostwriter, Russian emigré Isaac Don Levine, "Everything that went on in the embassy, especially the major communications between Washington and Bullitt, were quickly relayed to the Soviet secret police."[130]

Chambers' meeting with Berle

In 1938, Whittaker Chambers confessed to Levine that he had been a courier for the Communist underground. As the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland[131] was gearing up, Levine sought to get Chambers an appointment with President Roosevelt, but was diverted by the White House to Assistant Secretary of State for Administration (in charge of security) Adolf Berle.[132] On September 2, 1939, Chambers told Berle of an underground apparatus of the Communist Party for employees of the Federal government in Washington, D.C. Its organizer, said Chambers, was Harold Ware, its treasurer Henry Collins;[133] among its members he identified Lee Pressman, Nathan Witt, and the brothers Alger and Donald Hiss.

While Chambers talked, Berle took notes. Under the heading “Underground Espionage Agent,” he listed several names, including “Alger Hiss,” with the notation, “Ass’t. to Sayre—CP—1937,” and “Member of the Underground Com.—Active.” In Berle's diary, the first entry after his meeting with Levine and Chambers reads:

Joint victory parade of Nazi and Soviet armies, Brest-Litovsk, Poland, September 22, 1939
Saturday night ... Isaac Don Levine ... brought a Mr. X around to my house ... Through a long evening, I slowly manipulated Mr. X to a point where he had told some of the ramifications hereabout; and it becomes necessary to take a few simple measures. I expect more of this kind of thing, later. A good deal of the Russian espionage was carried on by Jews; we know now that they are exchanging information with Berlin; and the Jewish units are furious to find out they are, in substance, working for the Gestapo...[134]

Before the month was out, the Nazi and Soviet armies staged a joint victory parade through the streets of occupied Brest-Litovsk, Poland.[135]

After Berle relayed Chambers' revelations to President Roosevelt, Levine asked Berle how FDR responded. In his 1973 memoir, Levine wrote, “To the best of my recollection, the President dismissed the matter rather brusquely with an expletive remark on this order: ‘Oh, forget it, Adolf.’”[136]

In 1940, after Levine informed Bullitt of what Chambers had told him about Hiss, Bullitt relayed to Hornbeck what Daladier had told him the year before. Bullitt advised Alice Roosevelt Longworth and de Toledano that he also took this information directly to FDR.[137]

Levine also told David Dubinsky, president of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union about Chambers' revelations. Dubinsky, wrote Levine, "took up the Chambers matter with the President at the first opportunity and was brushed off with an amiable slap on the back." Levine wrote that he also told fellow journalist Walter Winchell of "a ring of six Soviet agents operating within the State Department alone. In his broadcast of December 12, Winchell announced that he had carried my information to President Roosevelt. Still there was no action."[138] Winchell's posthumously published memoir confirms Levine's story.[139]

By 1944, Hiss would be deputy director of the State Department's Office of Special Political Affairs, a policy-making office for postwar planning and international organization.[140] In August, he would organize the Dumbarton Oaks Conference,[141] where he would serve as executive secretary, presiding over the drafting of the proposed United Nations Charter.

By 1948 Berle would be serving as chairman of New York's Liberal Party. That year, the New York bureau of the Christian Science Monitor would send a teletype to the home office in Boston, relating a background interview with the party's publicity director, Arnold Beichman:

From a thoroughly reliable contact: According to this informant Berle has said privately that classified material which Hiss was handling was reaching the Russians. It was coded stuff. Berle took the handling out of Hiss' hands and the leaks stopped.[142]

But in the wake of Dumbarton Oaks, Berle had been ousted as Assistant Secretary of State in charge of security, defeated by the State Department's pro-Soviet faction, Hiss prominent among them. As Berle put it:

[I]n the fall of 1944 there was a difference of opinion in the State Department. I felt that the Russians were not going to be sympathetic and cooperative....[I]ntelligence reports which were in my charge indicated a very aggressive policy, not at all in line with the kind of cooperation everyone was hoping for. I was pressing for a pretty clean-cut showdown then when our position was strongest. The opposite group in the State Department was largely ... Mr. Acheson's group ... with Mr. Hiss as his principal assistant in the matter.... [A]t that time Mr. Hiss did take what we would call today the pro-Russian point of view....[143] I got trimmed in that fight, and, as a result, went to Brazil, and that ended my diplomatic career.

Hatch Act Investigation

FBI chart illustrating the dissemination to the White House, State Department and Attorney General of dozens of secret memos and reports on Alger Hiss in 1942-47. Image source: J. Edgar Hoover Official & Confidential File #34, FOIA Reading Room, Federal Bureau of Investigation
By 1940 Hiss was among a handful of the Soviets' most important agents, who were run individually and not through spy networks, according to Oleg Gordievsky. Hiss' wartime controller, wrote Gordievsky, was Akhmerov, the leading NKVD illegal in the United States, who, in a lecture before a KGB audience, identified Hiss as a Soviet agent during World War II.[144]

In 1941, during the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, the Dies committee obtained the membership list of the Washington Committee for Democratic Action, which would be confirmed as a Communist front the following year by Roosevelt's Attorney General Francis Biddle.[145] Included on the roster was the name of Priscilla Hiss,[146] with the notation appended, "Husband with State Department."[147] As mandated by the Hatch Act, the FBI subsequently conducted an investigation of Hiss, in the course of which one of Hiss' former colleagues at the AAA told investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.[148] Hiss denied everything, although he said he thought his wife might have been a member of the League of Women Shoppers, a Popular Front group[149] identified by the committee in 1939 as a Communist front.[150] In 1942, the FBI sent a report of this investigation to the Secretary of State,[151] the first of what would become a veritable avalanche of FBI memos and reports on Hiss disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and White House over the ensuing five years.

After Ludwig Lore identified Chambers as a former GRU man, the Bureau interviewed Chambers for the first time in 1942.[152] Chambers repeated his identification of Hiss, among others, as a Communist. In 1943, the FBI obtained the notes Berle had taken during his meeting four years earlier with Chambers and Levine.[153] That year, an encrypted cable (decrypted in the Venona project and released in 1995) from Pavel B. Mikhailov (code-named "Mol'er"), who (under cover as Soviet Vice Consul in New York) was controller of military intelligence for the NKVD,[154] to NKVD chief of foreign intelligence Pavel Fitin (code-named "Viktor"), identifying the real names and code names of several agents in the U.S., said the GRU (code-named "Neighbors") reported someone "from the State Department by the name of Hiss."

World War II U.S. propaganda poster proclaims Soviet Army "fights for FREEDOM." Courtesy Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State
In March 1943, Maj. George R. Jordan, American liaison officer to the Soviet Purchasing Commission at Gore Field (Great Falls, Montana),[155] opened several diplomatic cases bound for the Soviet Union as part of the Lend-Lease program. He found "hundreds of maps, patent documents, blueprints of industrial plants, railroad tables, and top-secret U.S. government documents," including "five or six State Department folders, bound with stout rubber bands. Clipped to each was a tab." From one tab, said Jordan, he copied the legend: “From Hiss.” According to Jordan, "I had never heard of Alger Hiss, and made the entry because the folder bearing his name happened to be second in the pile. It contained hundreds of Photostats of what seemed to be military reports."[156]

In April 1944, Victor Kravchenko, chief of the metals section of the Soviet Purchasing Commission in Washington, defected. He released a statement warning:

I cannot keep silent any longer.... I can no longer support double-faced political maneuvers... toward collaboration with the United States and Britain while pursuing aims incompatible with such collaboration.

The Soviet Government has dissolved the Communist International but only in form.... The new democratic terminology is only a maneuver... to promote the inclusion of Communists, obedient to the Kremlin, in the future Governments... of Italy, Austria and other countries.[157]

Yalta

On February 4, 1945, Hiss accompanied FDR to his meeting with Stalin and Churchill at Yalta, in Soviet Crimea, as [aide to Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., over whom (according to J. Anthony Panuch, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Administration) Hiss exercised "Svengali-like influence."[158] Stettinius gave Hiss remarkable control over FDR's access to information, directing that "all memoranda for the President on topics to be discussed at the Meeting of the Big Three should be in the hands of Mr. Alger Hiss not later than Monday, January 15."[159]

That month, Hiss requested top-secret files from the Office of Strategic Services (precursor of the CIA) on British, Soviet, French and Chinese internal security policies, as well as Far East policy,[160] according to a State Department internal security probe of Hiss ordered by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, and made public in 1993;[161] FBI surveillance at this time found that Hiss also developed "a keen interest in atomic energy," and other matters relating to military intelligence,[162]—all of which was well outside the purview of his office.[163] Loy Henderson, director of the State Department Office of Near East Affairs (NEA), quietly ordered members of NEA to keep confidential materials and information from Hiss.[164]

According to Sudoplatov, "One of the officials [at Yalta] we had established confidential relations with was Alger Hiss," who was "highly sympathetic to the interests of the Soviet Union."[165] According to confidential GRU sources, during the conference, Hiss gave daily briefings to Stalin's military adviser, General Mikhail Abramovich Milshtein (deputy director of the GRU), revealing not only the American negotiating strategy but insights into the attitudes of the American negotiators.[166] Sudoplatov added:

In conversation, Hiss disclosed to Oumansky, and then Litvinov,[167] official U.S. attitudes and plans; he was also very close to our sources who were cooperating with Soviet intelligence and to our active intelligence operators in the United States. Within this framework of exchange of confidential information were references to Hiss as the source who told us the Americans were prepared to make a deal in Europe.[168]

When Roosevelt asked the Secretary of State "to get a lawyer to consult with him over the wording of the Polish boundary statement," wrote Stettinius, "I called Alger Hiss."[169] The U.S. ended up ceding eastern Poland to the Soviet Union,[170] essentially ratifying the deal Stalin had made with Hitler in the "secret protocols" of the Nazi-Soviet pact. U.S. Ambassador to Poland Arthur Bliss Lane resigned in protest, writing, "As I glanced over the document, I could not believe my eyes: To me, almost every line spoke of a surrender to Stalin."[171]

A secret agreement also gave the Soviet Union three votes in the UN to one for the U.S., and forced "repatriation" of refugees for slave labor or death in the Soviet Gulag.[172] In addition, Roosevelt made a secret agreement with Stalin (Churchill was not informed), giving the Soviets Japanese territory, as well as economic rights in Manchuria. The complete text of all the agreements was not disclosed until 1947. Asked if he had "drafted or participated in the drafting" of parts of the Yalta agreement, Hiss would testify, "I think it is accurate and not an immodest statement to say that I did to some extent, yes."

The conference ended February 11; the next day, Roosevelt was dead. Hiss went on to Moscow,[173] where he was reportedly decorated with the Order of the Red Star[174] and honored by Foreign Minister V.M. Molotov. Five members of a Soviet military intelligence apparatus in Washington (one of whom had been a GRU source in the 1930s, and had access to high-level intelligence about U.S. foreign policy) received Soviet decorations in February 1945, according to a 2006 report in the Russian military journal Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star).

On April 25, 1945, Pavel Fitin, head of NKVD foreign intelligence, reported to NKVD Chief Vsevolod Merkulov that Harold Glasser, a Soviet agent in the U.S. Treasury code-named "Ruble,"[175] learned of this award from his friend, "Ales," a GRU agent:

Vishinskii (2nd from left), Molotov (5th from left), Stettinius (7th from left), Alger Hiss (right), ca. January 1945. Image courtesy Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, National Archives and Records Administration
According to data from Vadim the group of agents of the "military" neighbors whose part Ruble was earlier, recently was decorated with orders of the USSR. Ruble learned about this fact from his friend Ales, who is the head of the mentioned group.[176]

This memo apparently refers to Venona decrypt 1822, dated March 30, 1945, in which "Vadim" (Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S.)[177] reports,[178] following up on a conversation with "Ales," that "Ales has been continuously working with the neighbors since 1935"; that for "a few years now he has been the director of a small group of probationers [agents][179] of the neighbors [GRU],[180] for the most part drawn from his relatives"; that they were "working on obtaining only military information," since Soviet military intelligence "allegedly are not very interested" in "materials about the Bank [United States Department of State]";[181] that recently, "Ales and his whole group were awarded Soviet medals"; and that after "the Yalta conference, back in Moscow, one very high-ranking Soviet worker allegedly had contact with Ales (Ales implied that it was Comrade Vyshinskii) and at the request of the military neighbors he conveyed to him their thanks, etc." Regarding "Ales," one FBI memo reports:

It would appear likely that this individual is Alger Hiss in view of the fact that he was in the State Department and the information from Chambers indicated that his wife, Priscilla, was active in Soviet espionage and he also had a brother, Donald, in the State Department. It also is to be noted that Hiss did attend the Yalta conference as a special adviser to President Roosevelt, and he would, of course, have conferred with high officials of other nations attending the conference.[182]

In its unanimous final report in 1997, the bipartisan Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy agreed regarding Ales, "This could only be Alger Hiss."[183] Analysts at the National Security Agency have also gone on record that Ales could only have been Alger Hiss. U.S. Air Force historian Eduard Mark calls the FBI and NSA's conclusions "eminently reasonable," agreeing that the evidence showed that "ALES was very probably Hiss."[184] John R. Schindler, professor of strategy at the Naval War College and himself a former NSA analyst, concurs, calling this identification "exceptionally solid" and the evidence "compelling." John Ehrman of the CIA's Directorate of Intelligence concludes, "it is clear that Hiss alone remains the best candidate to be ALES."

The name "Alger Hiss" in English, from Vassiliev's notes on Perlo's March 15, 1945 list to Moscow Center. Image courtesy Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
On March 15, Victor Perlo (code-named "Raid") gave Moscow (in English) a list of people not in his Perlo Group whom he knew worked with Soviet intelligence. Included on that list was the name "Alger Hiss."[185] Five days later, State Department security officer Raymond Murphy interviewed Chambers. Murphy's notes record that Chambers reiterated his identification of Hiss as a member of the Communist Party underground apparatus, but added that he was also the leader of a cell and not merely a Communist but, said Chambers, an espionage agent who "disclosed much confidential matter," as well as an agent of influence who sought to shape U.S. policy "in keeping with the desires of the Communist Party."

On March 24, FBI agent E.A. Tamm, assistant to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, alerted Robert Lynch, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, to Chambers' allegations that Hiss had been a member of the underground organization of the Communist Party, and to Hiss' links to Nathan Witt and Lee Pressman. After interviewing Hiss the next day,[186] FBI official D.M. Ladd furnished Frederick B. Lyon, Chief of the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation of the Department of State, a summary memorandum outlining this information.[187] On March 26, State Department security officer Robert Bannerman sent Donald Russell, Assistant Secretary of State for Administration, a comprehensive secret report on Chambers' allegations regarding Hiss, recommending "that immediate action be taken to terminate Mr. Hiss's services with the Department."[188]

United Nations

Secretary General Alger Hiss presides over the UN Charter Conference, 1945. At his right, Molotov
That month, Hiss was promoted to become Director of the State Department Office of Special Political Affairs. Shortly thereafter, he was named Secretary-General of the upcoming United Nations Charter Conference in San Francisco. "As Secretary-General, managing the agenda," reported Time, Hiss "will have a lot to say behind the scenes about who gets the breaks.

At the conference, "Vadim" (Anatoly Gorsky,[189] then chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S.) wanted to meet with "Ales," according to a cable Vassiliev discovered in the Soviet archives. His notes indicate that "Ales" had worked with "Ruble" (Harold Glasser) as a member of a group run by "Karl" (Whittaker Chambers). The cable adds that "'Ruble' gives 'Ales' an exceptionally good political reference as a member of the Comparty.... completely aware that he is Communist in an illegal position, with all the ensuing consequences," and recommends (according to the notes) that he be approached at the UN conference by "Sergei" (NKVD agent Vladimir Pravdin,[190] then under cover as head of the Soviet news agency TASS)[191] or Gorsky, "alluding either to the password, or to 'Ruble', or simply to 'Ales's' progressive attitudes."

At the conference, Stettinius was named U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. His successor as Secretary of State, James F. Byrnes, was immediately "faced with the problem of what he would do with Alger," who was already under FBI suspicion. Byrnes said that despite his categorical instructions not to recommend any U.S. citizen for posts in the UN Secretariat, Hiss recommended several dozen federal employees—members of Communist cells in the government, whose jobs were at risk under a tightened security program.[192] Communist[193] screen writer Dalton Trumbo boasted that he was Ambassador Stettinius' ghost-writer at the conference.[194] Press accounts attributed the hiring of Trumbo, who would become infamous as one of the "Hollywood Ten," to Hiss.[195]

Hiss arrives in Washington from San Francisco with UN Charter in fireproof safe with parachute. Image courtesy United States Air Force
In April 1945, Glasser slipped a warning to Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S., that the FBI had notified Stettinius that Bureau surveillance had followed a bundle of State Department documents from Washington to New York, where they were photographed, then returned within 24 hours to Washington. Only three people had access to these documents, one of whom was "Ales." Stettinius told "Ales": "I hope it is not you."[196]

That same month, at the San Francisco conference, Soviet UN Ambassador Andrei Gromyko[197] nominated Hiss temporary Secretary General (and thus a candidate for the first permanent Secretary General) of the United Nations.[198] As one scholar notes, "It was astonishing for a Soviet diplomat to propose an American for what was then the UN's highest and most sensitive diplomatic post."[199] In London that September, Gromyko repeated to Stettinius, now the new U.S. Ambassador to the UN, that he "would be very happy to see Alger Hiss appointed temporary secretary general."[200] As Weinstein notes, "The endorsement of a leading American official by the Russians remains practically unique in the annals of Soviet-American diplomacy at this time."[201]

The same day Gromyko reiterated his endorsement of Hiss to Stettinius in London, Hiss made an extraordinary proposal that the State Department create a new post, that of "special assistant for military affairs," linked to his Office of Special Political Affairs,[202] thus giving Hiss access to information regarding atomic energy, arms procurement and military intelligence.[203] Hiss also proposed a State Department reorganization scheme, under which, wrote Panuch, Hiss would acquire "working control" over the flow of papers within the department. "If this ambitious project should be approved," warned Panuch, "the Hiss group will have achieved infiltration in, or control of" what he identified as "critically strategic points" within State.[204]

On June 4, 1945, six weeks after becoming President, Harry Truman was briefed about Venona, according to former National Security Agency officer Oliver Kirby, deputy director of the Russian code-breaking project.[205] Based on notes Kirby made at the time, Jerrold Schecter, former National Security Council spokesman for the Carter administration, reported that Brigadier General Carter Clarke, chief of the Army Security Agency (precursor of the NSA), advised President Truman that the code-breakers were decrypting messages that revealed massive Soviet intelligence operations in the United States, though it was too early to identify operatives or operations.[206] According to Kirby, Clarke described this meeting as "NDG" (no damn good), the president telling the general that his account of code-breaking sounded "like a fairy story." On June 26, The UN Charter was signed in San Francisco.

Two days later, State Department liaison Lt. Andrew Roth of the Office of Naval Intelligence was arrested in the Amerasia spy case. Communist Party General Secretary Eugene Dennis told Communist Party National Committee member Jack Stachel[207] that Roth suggested that Alger Hiss might be used to quash the case, according to former CPUSA Politburo member Louis Budenz.[208]

Defections and Investigations

Igor Gouzenko

Stettinius (foreground left) with Alger Hiss (center), ca. January 1945. Courtesy Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, National Archives and Records Administration
Two days before Hiss proposed the creation of a "special assistant for military affairs," GRU code clerk Igor Gouzenko had defected from the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, telling the FBI that one Lt. Kulakov in the office of the Soviet military attaché told him that he had learned in Moscow prior to his departure in May 1945 that an assistant to then U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius was a Soviet spy.[209] Stettinius' aide at the time was Alger Hiss.[210] Following up on Gouzenko's revelations, Raymond Murphy of the State Department again interviewed Chambers, who repeated that Hiss' assignment was "to mess up policy."[211]

Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King wrote that acting under-secretary of state for external affairs Robertson told him that Gouzenko’s documents disclosed that “everything was much worse than we would have believed…. Stettinius [had] been surrounded by spies, etc….”[212]

On September 25, Walter Winchell again broached the subject on his broadcast, reporting, "It can be categorically stated that the question of the loyalty and integrity of one high American official has been called to the attention of the President." Weinstein calls this "a clear reference to Hiss," adding that Winchell was FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's "most intimate journalistic confidante."[213]

Elizabeth Bentley

On November 27, the FBI disseminated a secret report to the State Department, the Attorney General, and the Truman White House, reporting Chambers' identification of Hiss as a secret member of the Communist underground apparatus in contact with the Ware group.[214] Three days later, defecting Soviet courier Elizabeth Bentley advised FBI investigators that Victor Perlo told her that Harold Glasser had been taken away from the “Perlo Group” and turned over to a Russian “by some American in some governmental agency in Washington.”

Bentley's unlikely account was corroborated by the previously-cited April 25, 1945 memo from Pavel Fitin, head of NKVD foreign intelligence, to NKVD Chief Vsevolod Merkulov, noting that Glasser had worked for both the NKVD and GRU:

Our agent RUBLE, drawn to work for the Soviet Union in May 1937, passed initially through the military "neighbors" and then through our station (NKVD) valuable information on political and economic issues.[215]

Bentley said that Charles Kramer (who would be identified by both Lee Pressman[216] and Nathaniel Weyl[217] as a member of the Ware group) told her that the person who had done this “was named Hiss and that he was in the U.S. State Department.”[218] She said after "Jack" (Soviet agent Joseph Katz)[219] asked her who Hiss was, she clipped an article in which Hiss was mentioned from the New York daily PM, whose Washington correspondent, I.F. Stone, was (according to Oleg Kalugin, former head of KGB operations in the United States) a fellow traveler[220] who cooperated with Soviet intelligence[221] as an "agent of influence."[222] Bentley said “It is my present recollection that this newspaper article stated Hiss’ full name was Eugene [sic] Hiss and that he was an adviser to Dean Acheson in the State Department.”[223] FBI investigation quickly closed in on Alger Hiss.[224] This was consistent with the above-cited March 5, 1945 cable,[225] in which Gorsky reports: "‘Ales’ and ‘Ruble’ [Harold Glasser][226] used to work in ‘Karl’s’ [Whittaker Chambers][227] informational group, which was affiliated with the neighbors [GRU]."[228] Before the end of 1945, a State Department Security memorandum summarized:

The name “Alger Hiss” in Cyrillic (Алджер Хисс) from Vassiliev's notes on the “Gorsky memo.” Image courtesy John Earl Haynes, Library of Congress
Bentley advised that members of this group had told her that Hiss of the State Department had taken Harold Glasser of the Treasury Department, and 2 or 3 others, and had turned them over to direct control by the Soviet representatives in this country. In this regard, attention is directed to Whittaker Chambers' statement regarding Alger Hiss and to the statement by Gouzenko, regarding an assistant to the Secretary of State who was a Soviet agent.[229]

Three years later, Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S. during World War II, would author an internal Soviet secret police memorandum, in which he would list 43 Soviet sources and intelligence officers likely to have been identified to U.S. authorities by Bentley after her defection. Included on the list was Alger Hiss.[230]

Investigations

On February 9, 1946, Stalin declared that war was inevitable as long as capitalism existed, in a speech regarded by some as the open declaration of Cold War.[231] Two days later, ex-Communist Benjamin Mandel, former manager of the Daily Worker,[232] identified Alger Hiss to the FBI as "a Communist Party member," and one of a "high level group of government employees who would not be found openly connected with the Party or with any Front organizations and who were specifically instructed not to display such connections."[233] The Bureau again interviewed Hiss, who denied ever being a Communist, and denied knowledge of any of his friends being Communists. He did, however, add that he had heard it said that Lee Pressman was either a Party member or followed the Party line.[234]

That year, British intelligence supplied its order of battle against Soviet-led guerrillas in Greece to the Pentagon. Shortly thereafter, this top-secret information appeared in the column of Drew Pearson[235] (whose reporter, David Karr, was a "competent KGB source"),[236] forcing the British army to withdraw, a move that would have delivered Greece to the Kremlin had not the U.S. intervened. According to de Toledano, “Deputy Assistant Secretary of State J. Anthony Panuch, in charge of security, tracked down the source of the leak. He discovered that Hiss had asked the Pentagon for this information, though it had nothing to do with his work as director of the Office of Special Political Affairs.”[237]

State Department security officers discovered that Hiss' desk calendar for September 14, 1946, recorded a meeting Hiss did not schedule through the department (and for which he made no official record) with "McLean [sic], British Emb."[238] Donald Maclean[239] was a diplomat at the British Embassy in Washington who was also a Soviet agent[240] and member of the Cambridge spy ring. He would defect in 1951 to the Soviet Union,[241] where he would be rewarded with the rank of Colonel in the KGB.[242] Another member of that ring, Kim Philby, would likewise defect to Moscow, later writing in his memoir, "it was also the era of Hiss, Coplon,[243] Fuchs,[244] Gold,[245] Greenglass,[246] and the brave Rosenbergs[247]—not to mention others who are still nameless."[248] Such praise from a Soviet master spy is "suggestive," writes Weinstein, that Philby "evidently either knew or believed" that Hiss was a fellow agent.[249]

That year, over strenuous objections on national-security grounds from the State Department's Office of American Republics Affairs (and the government of Panama), the U.S. government reported to the United Nations on the Panama Canal Zone as "occupied territory," a propaganda coup for the Soviets. According to Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs Spruille Braden:

We then tried to run it down, and we found that this report had been submitted and the employment of the words "occupied territory" by the Office of Special Political Affairs, that is to say, Mr. Alger Hiss.[250]

Secretary of State James Byrnes told the FBI he would have fired Hiss, but for the mandatory Civil Service Commission hearing, which would have revealed confidential sources on the case.[251]

In November 1946, the Bureau disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and Truman White House a second secret report, this time reporting Bentley's allegations regarding "Eugene Hiss," suggesting that this might actually be a reference to Alger Hiss.[252] FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover asked President Harry S. Truman for permission to take action against Hiss, but Truman (according to a former chief of CIA Soviet bloc counterintelligence)[253] remained "stubbornly antagonistic" to the allegations.[254]

That month, the Republican Party had won control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the elections of 1928.[255] With a grand jury looking into Soviet espionage, Congress took an interest in Hiss, finally forcing the State Department to remove him from access to secrets.[256] In January, 1947, Byrnes quietly eased Hiss out of the State Department.[257] Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, serving also as a trustee of the Institute of Pacific Relations.[258]

House Committee on Un-American Activities

As the Republican 80th Congress began closing in on suspects such as Lauchlin Currie, Harry Dexter White and Hiss, Truman stonewalled, in March 1948 issuing a Presidential Directive cutting Congress off from all access to FBI and other information on loyalty or security cases:

Any subpena or demand or request for information, reports, or files of the nature described, received from sources other than those persons in the executive branch of the Government... shall be respectfully declined..."[259]

Cut off from investigative data, Congress interviewed witnesses itself. Following up on testimony given by Bentley, on August 3, 1948, the House Committee on Un-American Activities called Whittaker Chambers. He repeated under oath what he had been telling State Department security officials and the FBI about the Ware group for a decade:

I was a member of the Communist Party and a paid functionary of the party.... the apparatus to which I was attached…. was an underground organization of the United States Communist Party developed, to the best of my knowledge, by Harold Ware…. The head of the underground group at the time I knew it was Nathan Witt…. Later, John Abt became the leader. Lee Pressman was also a member of this group, as was Alger Hiss….The purpose of this group at that time was not primarily espionage. Its original purpose was the Communist infiltration of the American Government. But espionage was certainly one of its eventual objectives.[260]

When Chambers testified against Hiss, wrote Sudoplatov, "we considered this to be a setback for GRU intelligence activities in the United States."[261]

Two days later, Hiss testified, denying that he ever even knew Chambers, in a statement Secretary of State Dean Acheson helped write.[262] Hiss "asked the committee to disregard the evidence and follow its emotions:

it is inconceivable that there could have been on my part, during fifteen years or more in public office… any departure from the highest rectitude[263] without its becoming known.[264] It is inconceivable that the men with whom I was intimately associated during those fifteen years should not know my true character better than this accuser. It is inconceivable that… [etc.][265] (emphases in original)

That day, President Truman finally reviewed Hiss’ FBI file. Pronouncing Hiss “guilty as hell,” Truman told White House Special Counsel Samuel Rosenman, “We shouldn't just indict this son of a bitch. We should hang him.”[266] Five minutes later, Truman blustered to a press conference that the Hiss case was just an election-year “red herring,”[267] a characterization he would repeat as late as 1956.[268] When Rosenman later asked why he had lied, Truman explained, “You don't understand. The Republicans aren't after Alger Hiss. They're after me. I had to take the political view.”[269] (That year, Truman told Secretary of Defense James Forrestal there were "too many unknowns" in the partially decoded Venona[270] messages,[271] saying, "Even if part of this is true, it would open up the whole red panic again.")[272]

In her newspaper column, Eleanor Roosevelt set the tone of respectable opinion, writing, "Smearing good people like Lauchlin Currie, Alger Hiss and others is, I think, unforgivable .... Anyone knowing Mr. Currie or Mr. Hiss, who are the two people whom I happen to know fairly well, would not need any denial on their part to know they are not Communists. Their records prove it."[273] (Currie was the NKVD agent[274] in the White House[275] who tipped the Kremlin off in 1944 that the U.S. was on the verge of breaking the Soviet code.)[276]

When Hiss testified, most of those watching, including members of the press, appeared to be on Hiss' side, even giving him a round of applause when he finished.[277] So strong was Hiss' denial that the committee wanted to drop the investigation.[278] But one member, freshman Congressman Richard M. Nixon (R-Calif.) insisted that either Chambers or Hiss was lying about whether they had known one another,[279] and he asked the committee to appoint him to head a subcommittee to find out which one.[280]

"Hiss stoutly continued to deny the charge." reported Time, but "it was clear to everyone" that he and Chambers "had known each other quite well in the mid-'30s." The magazine added that Hiss' "favorite phrase, as he fenced tediously with the committee, was: 'To the best of my recollection.' He used it and similar phrases 198 times."[281] Chambers offered to take a lie-detector test;[282] Hiss refused—a refusal he kept up for the rest of his life.[283]

Hiss demanded that the committee ask Chambers if he had ever been treated for a mental illness. The committee obliged, and Chambers answered: "I have not, period."[284] Truman aide George Elsie wrote to White House Counsel Clark Clifford, "Justice should make every effort to ascertain if Whittaker Chambers is guilty of perjury." No suggestion was made that Justice make any effort at all to ascertain if Hiss might be guilty of perjury, but a handwritten insertion advised "Investigation of Chambers' confinement in a mental institution."[285] (Again, no suggestion was made that Hiss' mental health history might be subject to investigation.) In falling for the fiction that Chambers had been committed to an insane asylum, the Truman administration was "taken in by disinformation being spread by the American Communist party and Alger Hiss's partisans."[286]

Hiss also dared[287] Chambers to repeat his charges outside of the immunity afforded in congressional hearings, so Hiss could sue him. On August 27, on NBC's Meet the Press, Chambers called Hiss' bluff, saying, "Alger Hiss was a Communist and may be now."[288] Embarrassment mounted among Hiss' supporters as a month dragged by and still no suit was filed. Even the Washington Post began to have doubts,[289] writing:

As yet, no formal action to initiate a suit for slander has publicly been taken by Mr. Hiss ... Mr. Hiss himself has created a situation in which he is obliged to put up or shut up ... Mr. Hiss has left himself no alternative. And each day of delay in making it known that he will avail himself of the opportunity Mr. Chambers has accorded him does incalculable damage to his reputation.[290]

Finally, on September 27, Hiss filed his long-threatened slander suit against Chambers.

Hiss' suit against Chambers

The Baltimore Documents

In a pre-trial "discovery" deposition for the suit, Hiss's attorneys told Chambers to produce "any correspondence, either typewritten or in handwriting" from Hiss. Chambers retrieved the packet he had given his wife's nephew in 1938, which had been hidden in a dumbwaiter shaft.[291] Three days later, Chambers turned over to Hiss' attorneys 43 typewritten documents (65 pages) and five handwritten memoranda, some so sensitive that for security reasons they could not safely be made public, though already a decade old.[292] Hiss conceded that the typed pages appeared to be copies of authentic State Department documents, and admitted that four of the handwritten memos appeared to be in his handwriting.[293]

Assistant U.S. Attorney Thomas J. Donegan told the FBI that Assistant Attorney General Alexander M. Campbell, head of the Criminal Division at Truman Justice, “now wants to institute perjury charges against Chambers” for not revealing the documents before this. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's handwritten addendum comments, “I wonder why they don't move against Hiss also.”[294] The Truman administration's determination to indict Chambers rather than Hiss was unusual, as two leading scholars of the case note:

Usually … when a witness gives false testimony and then later comes forward and provides a truthful account, no perjury charge is brought. To charge perjury … in such a case would be a disincentive for a witness to provide a subsequent truthful account…. [A] perjury count is rarely brought if a witness corrects false testimony in a timely fashion…. Chambers corrected his false sworn testimony within two months of his grand jury testimony ... and his false testimony had not produced any miscarriage of justice.[295]

The Pumpkin Papers

One of the 'pumpkin papers,' marked 'STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL FOR THE SECRETARY.' Bullitt relates to Hull report of Litvinov's private comments on Soviet intentions regarding war with Japan, 1938. Image courtesy National Archives and Records Administration

On December 2, in response to a subpoena, Chambers led HUAC investigators on his Maryland farm to a pumpkin he had hollowed out the night before and in which he had secreted five rolls (two developed strips and three undeveloped rolls, one of which later proved to have been lightstruck)[296] of 35 milimeter film.[297] The film included fifty-eight frames, mostly photos of State and Navy Department documents, dated January 5 through April 1, 1938 (the so-called "Pumpkin Papers"). The State Department documents dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including U.S. intentions with respect to the Soviet Union, the Spanish Civil War, and Germany's takeover of Austria.[298] Some of the documents on the film were initialed by Hiss and came from his office.[299] Some were of a highly sensitive, classified nature.[300] Some State Department cables bearing Hiss' handwritten initials had direct bearing on matters of major Soviet interest, including Chinese Communist strategy during the war with Japan and Chinese-Soviet relations.[301]

According to Chambers, some of the microfilm was made by a contact he knew only as "Felix," who would photograph documents with a Leica purchased by the Communist underground. For such work, said Chambers, Felix had been trained in Moscow, where he traveled on a forged U.S. passport. In 1949 Chambers would lead FBI investigators to the Baltimore block in which he thought Felix had lived in the 1930s. The Bureau discovered that a Felix Inslerman had lived on the block, later moving to Schenectady, N.Y., where he worked on a secret guided-missile project, in 1946 becoming one of the few civilians to attend the atomic tests at Bikini.

Both before the grand jury and in the second Hiss trial, Inslerman would refuse to answer questions on grounds of potential self-incrimination. But in Inslerman's Schenectady home, the FBI found a Leica whose imperfections matched the scratch marks on Chambers' famed pumpkin film. In 1954, Inslerman would corroborate Chambers' story under oath.[302] Recently released files reveal that ex-GRU agent[303] William Edward Crane also admitted to the FBI that he photographed documents from the Treasury and State Department for Chambers in Baltimore.[304] (The third photographer identified by Chambers, "David Carpenter," would turn up on the "Gorsky memo.")[305]

The day Chambers revealed the "pumpkin papers," on an FBI memorandum detailing the perjury investigation of Chambers ordered by Truman Justice, Hoover penned, "I can't understand why such effort is being made to indict Chambers to the exclusion of Hiss."[306] As late as December 6, Truman Justice was still contemplating "bringing an indictment against Chambers for perjury."[307]

On that day, Hiss's attorney Edward McLean gave the defense's documents examiner, J. Howard Haring, a batch of old Hiss family letters that Hiss had given him the previous September, two months before Chambers produced the documents. Immediately identifying the typeface as that of a Woodstock typewriter, Haring reported that one of Mrs. Hiss's 1933 letters "was typed on the same machine as the Chambers documents." McLean informed the Hisses of this finding the same day. The next day, according to another of Hiss' lawyers, John F. Davis: "Alger ... asked [me to] check on an old machine which he remembers he gave to Pat, the son of Claudia Catlett...." Yet Hiss continued to swear under oath that he remembered neither the make nor disposition of the typewriter.[308]

Hiss would later change his story, testifying that he gave the typewriter to the Catletts in 1937, before the date of the documents produced by Chambers. Pat Catlett, however, would tell defense lawyers that Hiss gave the Catletts the typewriter in the spring of 1938, just after the dates of the documents.[309]

On December 13, the FBI independently located specimens of Priscilla Hiss's typing from the 1930s. The FBI laboratory concluded, like Haring, that all the papers in question had been typed on the same typewriter, a Woodstock.[310]

Another defense expert, Harry E. Cassidy, concluded that Priscilla Hiss not only typed the Chambers documents, but wrote all the handwritten corrections on the typed documents. Asked by Hiss's attorneys whether it was more likely that Hiss or Chambers had written these corrections, Haring responded: "I am inclined to the opinion that the AH [Alger Hiss] corrections more closely resemble the QUESTIONED writing, than do the writings of WC [Whittaker Chambers]." A third defense expert, Edwin Fearon, agreed, reporting to the Hiss lawyers: "The corrections appearing in Exhibits 5-47 inclusive (exception—Exhibit 10) bear a closer resemblence [sic] to the handwritten corrections made by AH than to those made by WC." Fearon added that all but one of the documents were "typed on Woodstock typewriter no.N230099"—the Hiss' machine.[311]

On December 15, Alger Hiss proposed to the grand jury a theory that someone (perhaps Chambers)[312] had sneaked into the State Department and stolen the documents from his desk[313] then, having somehow obtained access to Hiss' typewriter,[314] typed some of the documents on it[315] and microfilmed others, and then sneaked back into the State Department and replaced the originals,[316] all in an elaborate plot to frame Hiss[317] a decade later.[318] Even Hiss admitted that his theory was "fantastic,"[319] stating, "Until the day I die, I shall wonder how Whittaker Chambers got into my house to use my typewriter," a statement provoking outright laughter among jurors.[320]

Hiss testified that he never gave any documents to Whittaker Chambers, and that he had no contact with Chambers after January 1, 1937. The grand jury indicted Hiss on two counts of perjury, charging that he lied under oath in both these statements. Because the statute of limitations had expired, the grand jury could not consider espionage charges.

Just as Chambers had gained the upper hand by voluntarily waiving immunity from slander, ex-Socialist[321] and Soviet intelligence source[322] Walter Lippman (whose secretary, Mary Price, was a Soviet agent)[323] suggested that Hiss turn the tables by waiving the statute of limitations on espionage. Hiss never took him up on that suggestion.[324]

The Trials

On May 31, 1949, Alger Hiss went on trial for perjury in New York City.[325] At trial, Hiss provided an all-star cast of character witnesses, including such notables as Adlai Stevenson, Justice Felix Frankfurter, and former Democratic presidential candidate John W. Davis.[326] However, both Under Secretary Welles and Sayre testified that delivering the classifed documents to a foreign power would enable them to break America's most secret codes.[327]

At Hiss’ first perjury trial, Hornbeck testified that an unnamed friend had warned him that Hiss was a Communist fellow-traveler, but he disregarded the warning.[328] At the second trial, Hornbeck testified that on at least two occasions he was warned that Hiss was a Communist, and named Bullitt as his source.[329] John Foster Dulles, who had recommended Hiss for the Carnegie Endowment, likewise testified at that trial that various people had warned him that Hiss was a Communist.[330]

The prosecution called Hede Massing, but at the first trial Judge Samuel H. Kaufman ruled that her testimony was irrelevant. At the second trial, Judge Henry W. Goddard allowed her to testify about Hiss' 1935 attempt to get Noel Field to transfer from her OGPU group to Hiss' GRU group.[331] To avoid testifying, Field fled to the East bloc.[332] Writing in Balliol College's Oxonion Review, professed "liberal" Daniel Hemel sums up:

[W]hat is striking about the Hiss trial is not that the prosecution engaged in shameless red-baiting (it did not), but that Hiss’s defense team engaged in shameless gay-baiting. Unable to discredit Chambers based on the facts of the case, Hiss’s lawyers (with the defendant’s encouragement) sought to smear Chambers based on the fact that he was bisexual. Fortunately, the jurors in the Hiss case were not as horrifyingly homophobic as Hiss and his attorneys. In retrospect, if either side of the trial engaged in egregious behaviour, it was the defense—not the prosecution.[333]

Hiss's friend and former colleague, Charles Wyzanski, Senior District Judge of the U.S. District Court in Boston, testified in both trials in defense of Hiss. Wyzanski, who "initially had supposed [Hiss] innocent," later concluded that "Hiss was guilty," as did Hiss' own attorney, William L. Marbury.[334]

Conviction

The first trial ended June 8, 1949 in a hung jury,[335] with eight for conviction and four against. The second trial began on November 17, 1949. In January, 1950, the jury returned a unanimous verdict: Guilty on both counts.[336] In his pre-sentencing statement, Hiss said, "I am confident that in the future the full facts showing how Whittaker Chambers was able to carry out forgery by typewriter will be developed."[337] (Concerning the four handwritten documents Hiss had admitted were in his own handwriting, he was silent.)

Hiss was sentenced to two concurrent five-year terms in federal prison. Secretary of State Dean Acheson provoked outrage by commenting, "Whatever the outcome of any appeal which Mr. Hiss or his lawyer may take, I do not intend to turn my back on Alger Hiss." Eleanor Roosevelt added to the furor with her comment, "It seems rather horrible to condemn someone on the word of someone else who admits to guilt." Time magazine commented that she "obviously had not been paying much attention," being "unaware of, or determined to ignore, the corroborating evidence introduced by the Government."[338]

That year, General of the Army Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, informed President Truman that Venona had "positively identified" Hiss and Harry Dexter White as Soviet agents.[339] According to Bradley, Truman said, "That G—D— stuff. Every time it bumps into us it gets bigger and bigger. It's likely to take us down."[340]

Hiss appealed, but in December 1950 his conviction was affirmed by the U.S. Court of Appeals.[341] The Supreme Court twice denied him certiorari,[342] and denied his repeated petitions for a writ of error coram nobis,[343] orchestrated by long-time Communist Party member[344] Victor Rabinowitz.[345] Hiss served 44 months of his five-year sentence in Lewisburg Federal Prison.

In prison, Hiss' best friends were the Mafia gangsters,[346] whom he later compared to prisoners of war in terms of solidarity, hierarchy and discipline.[347] He called them “the most stable group in any prison”[348] and “the healthiest inmates of the prison” because they “had absolutely no sense of guilt.”[349] Hiss admitted that he, too, never felt guilt about anything he had ever done—as one Hiss biographer comments, “an incredible statement from anyone.”[350]

Later Life

Hiss was released in 1954. Disbarred, he became a salesman. Five years later, Alger and Priscilla Hiss separated.[351] In the late '60s, Hiss met Mrs. Isabel Dowden Johnson, a former editor at The New York Times and ex-wife of the Communist[352] screen writer Lester Cole, a member of the "Hollywood Ten."[353] Priscilla reportedly had a breakdown, in which she said she was “tired of all the lies and cover-ups,”[354] and complained that "Alger was willing to sacrifice us all on the altar of his vindication."[355] Following Priscilla's death in 1984, Alger and Isabel married.[356]

In 1974, the Watergate scandal forced President Nixon to resign, giving "some credence to a wide spectrum of conspiracy theories involving fake typewriters, phony microfilm, and various collusions among the FBI, Nixon, HUAC, the CIA, the radical right, and the KGB."[357] In 1975, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court granted Hiss' petition for readmittance to the State Bar of Massachusetts, although the court's ruling stated "nothing we have said here should be construed as detracting one iota from the fact that in considering Hiss's petition we consider him to be guilty as charged."[358] In 1981, Bard College established an Alger Hiss Distinguished Professorship[359] in Social Studies, formerly held by socialist[360] Joel Kovel,[361] who declared that America's obsession with anti-Communism during the Cold War led the U.S. to become “the enemy of humanity.”[362] By the time Nixon died in 1994, Foreign Policy magazine could assign the task of reviewing his posthumous book, Beyond Peace, to his embittered foe, George McGovern, who took the opportunity to avenge his humiliating landslide defeat by Nixon, writing without explanation, "The evidence that Hiss was a security risk to the United States simply is not convincing."[363] Despite the mountains of evidence against him that only increased as incriminatory Soviet bloc documents came to light following the collapse of Communism, Hiss continued for the rest of his life to claim innocence.

See Related Article: Alger Hiss and the Volkogonov Affair

See Related Article: Legacy of Alger Hiss

References

  1. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Secrecy: The American Experience, New Haven: Yale University Press (1998) ISBN 0300077564, p. 146
  2. The Hisses were "prominent, respected people. They kept their own horse and carriage, and on occasion [Alger's father] would hire a private railroad car for a family outing.... they knew everyone they wanted to know in Baltimore, they belonged to the best clubs, and they were recognized wherever they went." (John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss, the True Story [Geneva, Ill.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976] ISBN 0030137764, p. 34) Young Alger went to camp in Maine; among his hobbies were tennis and horseback riding. (Lance Morrow, The Best Year of Their Lives: Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon in 1948: Learning the Secrets of Power [New York: Basic Books, 2005] ISBN 0465047238, P. 248)
  3. Aaron Beim and Gary Alan Fine, "The Cultural Frameworks of Prejudice: Reputational Images and the Postwar Disjuncture of Jews and Communism," The Sociological Quarterly, Summer 2007, Vol. 48, Issue 3, pp. 373-397; "Hiss was a gentile.... not only a goy but a WASP!" (Susan Jacoby, Alger Hiss and the Battle for History [New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2009] ISBN 0300121334, p. 20); "Alger's mother claimed descent from the Earl of Leicester and, on her mother's side, a leading Baltimore family, the Grundys." (Lance Morrow, The Best Year of Their Lives: Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon in 1948: Learning the Secrets of Power [New York: Basic Books, 2005] ISBN 0465047238, P. 248)
  4. "....Mary Ann... had swallowed a bottle of Lysol, killing herself." G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 5
  5. "Bos.... drank a lot... and contracted Bright's disease, an alcohol-induced kidney ailment...." Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, cited in G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 158
  6. "...provided a $10000 bequest to each of the Hiss children..." G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 9
  7. Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), p. 32
  8. A Handbook of the Best Private Schools of the United States and Canada (P.E. Sargent, 1915), p. 31
  9. Archibald Henderson, George Bernard Shaw: His Life and Works (Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd, 1911) ISBN 1417961775, p. 102. Shaw became a loyal apologist for Stalinism, penning a 1933 Letter to the Editor of the Manchester Guardian, denouncing Malcolm Muggeridge's reporting on Stalin's Terror Famine as a "lie" and a "slander"; the following year he published a 16,000-word apologia for Stalin's mass murders. In 1949, he even wrote a defense of Stalin's pseudo-scientific Lysenkoism.
  10. "To John M. Gillette," September 15, 1912, in Maxwell Anderson (Laurence G. Avery, Ed.), Dramatist in America: Letters of Maxwell Anderson, 1912-1958 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001) ISBN 0807849405, p. 3
  11. Theodore Dreiser, "Request to Become a Communist," The Daily Worker, July 30, 1945, reprinted in Albert Fried, Communism in America: A History in Documents (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997) ISBN 0231102356, p. 348-350
  12. John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976) ISBN 0030137764, p. 52
  13. Alger Hiss, Draft of a Chapter Written By Alger Hiss on the Foundations For His Liberalism (Alger Hiss papers, Small Manuscript Collection, Special Collections, Harvard Law School)
  14. After Hiss' son, a visiting scholar at New York University, originally set up the site on an NYU server, the university requested that he move it elsewhere "to designate it more clearly as a personal site rather than an academic one." The Web site is run out of the home of "Web master" Jeff Kisseloff, archivist of The Nation magazine, and is funded by The Nation Institute, which is in turn funded by billionaire Obama-booster George Soros. Although the site is blazoned "Search for the Truth," buried within is the admission that its real purpose is to present only "the case for the defense," not both sides. Cornell Law Library notes, "The site has a noticeable editorial bias in favor of Hiss." New York Times Book Review editor Sam Tanenhaus agrees, "It's a blatantly pro-Hiss operation whose agenda is to advocate his innocence." Then-Columbia University historian David Greenberg (now at Rutgers) has said, "I don't think anyone is going to treat this site as the repository of truth, except for those who have already made up their minds that Hiss was innocent."
  15. Document No. 7: "Minority Report Adopted by Overwhelming Party Vote on Referendum on Submission to the Emergency National Convention Held at Chicago, September, 1919," reprinted in Joint Legislative Committee of the State of New York Investigating Seditious Activities, Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose and Tactics, Part I, Vol. I (Albany: J.B. Lyon Company, 1920), p. 626
  16. Broadus Mitchell, A Preface to Economics (Henry Holt & Co., 1932-34), pp. 556-557
  17. Matthew Richer, "The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father," Modern Age, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 310 (PDF p. 4)
  18. Paul Johnson, Intellectuals (HarperCollins, 1990) ISBN 0060916575, p. 156; James R. Mellow, Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences (Da Capo Press, 1993) ISBN 020162620, p. 506
  19. Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) ISBN 0671758764, p. 380. Robles was never seen again after Bērziņš was recalled to Moscow (Roy Aleksandrovich Medvedev, Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism [tr. George Shriver] [New York: Columbia University Press, 1989] ISBN 0231063504, p. 428) and shot in Stalin's Great Terror in 1938. (David J. Nordlander, "Origins of a Gulag Capital: Magadan and Stalinist Control in the Early 1930s," Slavic Review, Vol. 57, No. 4 [Winter, 1998], pp. 791-812) Robles had apparently been executed by a Communist "special section," according to former fellow traveller John Dos Passos, because he "knew too much about the relations between the Spanish war ministry and the Kremlin." Stephen Koch, The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles (Madrid: Ediciones Palabra, 2006) ISBN 1582432813, p. 272
  20. Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, pp. 37-38
  21. John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976), ISBN 0030137764, p. 104
  22. Herbert Romerstein, Heroic Victims: Stalin's Foreign Legion in the Spanish Civil War (Washington: Council for the Defense of Freedom, 1994) ISBN 9994812505. Using Moscow's Comintern archives, Romerstein documents how American volunteers (mostly Communists) were told they were going to fight fascism, only to be ordered by the Comintern, in the wake of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, to oppose Allied efforts to resist the Nazis.
  23. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 202. It was apparently to protect Duggan's identity that Ignace Poretsky (alias Ignace Reiss) was murdered: A Moscow Center report of Poretsky's "liquidation" notes, "For now the danger of 19 [Duggan] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 2) being exposed through Raymond's [Poretsky's] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 129) line is significantly diminished." (John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, (Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America [New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009] ISBN 0300123906, p 232) Poretsky was killed by OGPU agent Roland Abbiat (Walter Krivitsky, In Stalin's Secret Service [New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939], pp. 261-263 [PDF 285-287]; Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB [New York: Basic Books, 2000], ISBN 046500312, pp. 47, 78-79), who would later go under cover as Vladimir Pravdin, head of the Soviet government news agency TASS, in which capacity he would become a contact of Walter Lippmann and I.F. Stone, and be suggested as the contact for GRU agent "Ales" at the founding conference of the UN. Five days after Duggan's interview with the FBI (during which he would implicate Collins and Frederick Vanderbilt Field), Hiss would be indicted by a grand jury; five days after that, Duggan would jump or be thrown from his New York office window to his death, leading his friend (and father's protégé), Edward R. Murrow, to broadcast a scathing denunciation of Red-hunters in the U.S. government for hounding an allegedly innocent man to his grave.
  24. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 227-228; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials That Shaped American Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384, p. 110
  25. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 202-203
  26. Testimony of Lee Pressman. Hearings Regarding Communism in the United States Government—Part 2. United States House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington, D.C., August 28, 1950. Reprinted as Exhibit No. 1402, U.S. Congress, Senate, 82nd Cong., Committee on the Judiciary, Hearings to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Second Session on the Institute of Pacific Relations (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1952), p. 5503.
  27. Felix Frankfurter, The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Critical Analysis for Lawyers and Laymen (Buffalo: Wm. S. Hein & Co., 2003) ISBN 157588805X
  28. Stephen Koch, Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Munzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals (New York: Enigma Books, rev. ed. 2004) ISBN 1929631200, pp. 31-37
  29. John F. Neville, Twentieth-Century Cause Celebre: Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Press, 1920-1927 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) ISBN 0275977838 p. 101. Hiss' Harvard classmate, fellow State Department official and Soviet intelligence source Noel Field would later write, "The shock of the Sacco-Vanzetti executions drove me leftward." (Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case [New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978], ISBN 0394495462, p. 199)
  30. New evidence suggests that Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty. (Cf. Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America (Oakland, Calif.: AK Press, 2005) ISBN 1904859275, p. 133)
  31. According to Charles Poggi, Frank Maffi said the 1920 Wall Street bombing that killed more than 30 people was the work of his uncle, a Galleanist named Mario Buda. (Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America [Oakland, Calif.: AK Press, 2005] ISBN 1904859275, p. 133)
  32. Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996) ISBN 0691026041, pp. 59-60
  33. Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996) ISBN 0691026041, p. 146
  34. Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996) ISBN 0691026041, p. 143
  35. John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976) ISBN 0030137764, p. 58. It has been suggested that Hiss himself was an atheist.
  36. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 24
  37. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 457
  38. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 11
  39. Meyer Zeligs Papers (October 13, 1963), Harvard Law School Library Special Collections, cited in Ivan Chen, Alger Hiss, 1926-1929, p. 31
  40. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, pp. 158-159
  41. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 97
  42. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 27
  43. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 27
  44. "Report on the National Lawyers Guild, legal bulwark of the Communist Party," United States Congress. House Committee on Un-American Activities (1950), p. 12
  45. Moments after the sentencing of 93 Wobbies (including Haywood) at the Chicago Federal Building in 1918, a bomb ripped through the building, killing four. (Charles Howard McCormick, Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers [Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2005] ISBN 0761831320, pp. 31-31
  46. Archibald MacLeish, “To the Young Men of Wall Street,” Saturday Review, January 16, 1932
  47. MacLeish was a noted fellow traveller. (David Caute, The Fellow-Travellers: Intellectual Friends of Communism [New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988] ISBN 0300041950, p. 185) The OSS recorder assigned to document the the drafting of the UN Charter (over which Hiss presided), would later say MacLeish "kicked me out" of the session. Following the death of Laurence Duggan—ten days after Duggan implicated Collins and Frederick Vanderbilt Field, and five days after Hiss' indictment by a grand jury—MacLeish, a former Librarian of Congress, would dedicate a poem to the late Soviet agent, denouncing "informers" (apparently Hede Massing and Whittaker Chambers, each of whom had identified Duggan) as liars.
  48. Tony Hiss, The View From Alger's Window (New York: Vintage Books, 2000) ISBN 0375701281, pp. 140-141. The reference is to Edmund Wilson, then an editor at The New Republic who embraced Marxism and welcomed the stock market crash of 1929 as a portent of the death of capitalism. In 1932 he voted for Communist Party presidential candidate William Z. Foster and signed a manifesto calling for "a temporary dictatorship of the class-conscious workers."
  49. Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987) ISBN 0195051807) p. 301
  50. “During the Great Depression of the 1930s, agricultural price support programs led to vast amounts of food being deliberately destroyed at a time when malnutrition was a serious problem in the United States.... For example, the federal government bought 6 million hogs in 1933 alone and destroyed them. Huge amounts of farm produce were plowed under, in order to keep it off the market and maintain prices at the officially fixed level, and vast amounts of milk were poured down the sewers for the same reason. Meanwhile, many American children were suffering from diseases caused by malnutrition.” Thomas Sowell, Basic Economics (New York: Basic Books, 2007) 3rd Ed., ISBN 0465002609, p. 56
  51. Arthur Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000) ISBN 0618219250, pp. 455-456
  52. Henry Agard Wallace, “Where I Was Wrong.” This Week, September 2, 1952
  53. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 133
  54. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  55. "....Jerome Frank, the leading liberal judge on the court; Jerome Frank, the intellectual leader of the New Deal and architect of its most progressive legislation; Jerome Frank, the idol of young progressive law students and leader of the liberals when he taught law at Yale, who had led the fight against the conservatism of the old-guard faculty...." Arthur Kinoy, Rights on Trial: The Odyssey of a People's Lawyer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983) ISBN 0674770137, p. 97
  56. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43
  57. Mr. COHN. Did you know Alger Hiss to be a member of the Communist
    party?
    Mr. WEYL. Yes, I did.
    Mr. COHN. Were you in the same Communist cell with Alger Hiss at one time?
    Mr. WEYL. That is correct.
    Mr. WEYL. ...Hiss and I were among the eight or nine people who met with the first meeting of that organization, I presume. So I was in this Communist cell with him for a period of approximately nine months.
    Testimony of Nathaniel Weyl before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, February 23, 1953, pp. 619-620 (PDF pp. 658-659)
  58. Nathaniel Weyl, “I Was in a Communist Unit with Hiss,” U.S. News and World Report, January 9, 1953
  59. Nathaniel Weyl, Encounters With Communism (Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2004), cited in John Earl Haynes, "Ales: Hiss, Foote, Stettinius?" johnearlhaynes.org, June 7, 2007
  60. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 360
  61. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness, a Soviet Spymaster (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 227-228
  62. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 143
  63. Peter Viereck, Unadjusted Man in the Age of Overadjustment: Where History and Literature Intersect (Edison, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2004) ISBN 0765808064, pp. 156-157
  64. James Grant, Bernard M. Baruch: The Adventures of a Wall Street Legend (John Wiley and Sons, 1997) ISBN 0471170755, p. 261
  65. Arthur M. Herman, Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999) ISBN 0684836254, p. 220
  66. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, pp. 115-116
  67. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 40
  68. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 28-29
  69. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43-44
  70. John E. Wiltz, In Search of Peace: The Senate Munitions Inquiry, 1934-1936 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963) ISBN B000GX1RX0, p. 53
  71. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 40
  72. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, pp. 143-146
  73. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 339
  74. Philip A. Greasley, Dictionary of Midwestern Literature: The Authors, (Indiana University Press, 2001) ISBN 0253336090, p. 264
  75. Arthur M. Herman, Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator (Simon and Schuster, 1999) ISBN 0684836254, p. 85
  76. Elinor Langer, "The Secret Drawer," The Nation, May 30, 1994, p. 756
  77. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 378
  78. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 60
  79. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 47
  80. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  81. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 53
  82. "U.S. Lawyer Who Figured In Hiss Case Killed in Fall," The Washington Post, October 21, 1948, p. 1
  83. Hede Massing, This Deception (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1951), p. 335. Massing's account is corroborated by Czech archives. (Central Intelligence Agency memorandum for Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation: Revelations of Karel Kaplan, June 29, 1977, p. 5 (CIA Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room)
  84. Karel Kaplan, Report on the Murder of the General Secretary (London: I.B. Taurus & Co. Ltd., 1990), ISBN 1-85043-211-2, pp. 19-25
  85. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 133
  86. Transcripts: September 23, 1954; September 29, 1954. Noel Field file, Archives, Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior, quoted in Mária Schmidt, Behind the Scenes of the Showtrials of Central-Eastern Europe, Budapest 1993 (uncorrected manuscript), cited in Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 135; Mária Schmidt, “Noel Field—The American Communist at the Center of Stalin’s East European Purge: From the Hungarian Archives,” American Communist History 3, no. 2 (December 2004); Mária Schmidt, "The Hiss Dossier: A Historian's Report," The New Republic, November 8, 1993, pp. 17-20
  87. Ethan Klingsberg, "Case Closed on Alger Hiss?" The Nation, November 8, 1993
  88. Sam Tanenhaus, “Hiss: Guilty as Charged,” Commentary, April 1993; Sam Tanenhaus, "New Reasons to Doubt Hiss," Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1993
  89. R.C.S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) ISBN 0313319553, p. 76
  90. Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, pp. 6-7; Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 6; Cf. Vassiliev's notebooks, Yellow Notebook No. 2, p. 23 (Original, PDF p. 3; Transcribed, PDF p. 4; Translated, PDF p. 4), Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
  91. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 7; Thomas Powers, Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to Al-Qaeda (New York: New York Review of Books, 2004) ISBN 1590170989, p. 89; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 228
  92. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 228
  93. Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 5
  94. Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 12
  95. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 163
  96. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 5
  97. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 29 (PDF p. 31)
  98. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 230
  99. Aleksandr M. Nekrich, Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997) ISBN 0231106769, p. 2. Cf. Michael Pearson, The Sealed Train: Lenin's Eight Month Journey from Exile to Power (New York: Putnam, 1975) ISBN 0399112626
  100. Alan Wallach, "Marxist Art Historian: Meyer Schapiro, 1904-1996," Against the Current 62 (May-June 1996), p. 52
  101. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384, pp. 117-118
  102. Robert Conquest,The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), ISBN 0195071328
  103. Peter B. Niblo, Influence: The Soviet Task Leading to Pearl Harbor, the Iron Curtain, and the Cold War (Oakland, Ore.: Elderberry Press, 2002) ISBN 1930859147, p. 65. In 2008, Gordievsky would become partially paralyzed, as a result, he told Scotland Yard, of what he suspected was an assassination attempt.
  104. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 153
  105. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 183-184
  106. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 155-156
  107. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 39
  108. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 73
  109. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 198-202
  110. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 73
  111. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 25
  112. Stephen Schwartz, "Russian Requiem: The tragic intersection of the lives of Soviet poets," The Weekly Standard, Volume 11, Issue 6 (October 24, 2005). Poretsky (alias Ignace Reiss) was apparently murdered to protect the identity of Hiss' Harvard friend and State Department colleague, Soviet agent Laurence Duggan: A Moscow Center report of Poretsky's "liquidation" notes, "For now the danger of 19 [Duggan] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 2) being exposed through Raymond's [Poretsky's] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 129) line is significantly diminished." John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, (Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America [New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p 232) He was killed by OGPU agent Roland Abbiat (Walter Krivitsky, In Stalin's Secret Service [New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939], pp. 261-263 [PDF 285-287]; Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB [New York: Basic Books, 2000], ISBN 046500312, pp. 47, 78-79), who would later go under cover as Vladimir Pravdin, head of the Soviet government news agency TASS. (Harvey Klehr, "Devils in America," The New Republic, February 12th, 2004)
  113. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, pp. 131-133
  114. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 319
  115. "Three Rings," Time, December 20, 1948; Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 40-41
  116. Robert Jackson Alexander, International Trotskyism, 1929-1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-822-30975-0, p. 775
  117. Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia (Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), ISBN 0765805316, p. 357
  118. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 318
  119. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 349-350
  120. FBI Report: Whittaker Chambers, Internal Security—C, September 5, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 1)
  121. Ethan Klingsberg, "Case Closed on Alger Hiss?" The Nation, November 8, 1993
  122. Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Kirill Mikhaĭlovich Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998) ISBN 0300071507, p. 45
  123. Scotland Yard (London) Secret Special Report, No. 4, "The Case of Philip Price and Robert Minor," U.S. State Department Decimal File, 316-23-1184 9, Washington, D.C.
  124. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44), p. 30.
  125. Testimony of Ambassador William Bullitt, April 8, 1952, “Communist influence on U.S. policies in the Far East,” Hearings Before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-Second Congress, Second Session. Hearings: March 13, 1951 to June 20, 1952; Report: July 2, 1952; "French in 1939 Called Hiss Red, Bullitt Says," Washington Post, April 9, 1952
  126. Ralph De Toledano, “Hiss defenders covering for the `old man',” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  127. Roman Brackman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life (Florence, Ky: Routledge, 2001) ISBN 0714650501, p. 299
  128. FBI Report: Alger Hiss, February 4, 1949
  129. Julien Steinberg, ed., Verdict of Three Decades: From the Literature of Individual Revolt Against Soviet Communism, 1917-1950 (Manchester, NH: Ayer Publishing, 1971) ISBN 0836920775, p. 358
  130. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, p. 191. Loy Henderson, then charge d'affaires at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, would later confirm that at that time "in the [State] Department were a number of persons who did not hesitate to give [Litvinov] copies of my secret memoranda relating to United States-Soviet relations." Krivitsky would be found shot dead in his Washington hotel room in 1941.(Roland Perry, Last of the Cold War Spies: The Life of Michael Straight—The Only American in Britain's Cambridge Spy Ring [Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2006] ISBN 030681482X, p. 131) Although he had warned his friends that if he were to be found dead, then he had been murdered, his death was ruled a suicide. Krivitsky had been liquidated by one of the NKVD's Mobile Groups for Special Tasks, according to former Soviet espionage official Alexander Orlov. (Alexander Orlov, The Secret History of Stalin’s Crimes [Norwich, Norfolk: Jarrold's, 1954], pp. 232-233; cf. Flora Lewis, "Who Killed Krivitsky?" The Washington Post, February 13, 1966, p. E1) Orlov's account is corroborated by the Nicolaevsky and Honeyman collections in the archives of the Hoover Institution.
  131. William Fortescue, The Third Republic in France, 1870-1940: Conflicts and Continuities (Oxford: Routledge, 2000) ISBN 0415169445, p. 231; William L. Shirer: The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (Simon and Schuster, 1990) ISBN 0671728687, pp. 626-632
  132. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 105
  133. Testimony of Whittaker Chambers] before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 3, 1948)
  134. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 55-58)
  135. Olaf Groehler, Selbstmorderische Allianz: Deutsch-russische Militarbeziehungen, 1920-1941 (Berlin: Vision Verlag 1993), pp. 21-22, 123-124; Aleksandr M. Nekrich, Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941 (Columbia University Press, 1997)
  136. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 197-8
  137. Ralph De Toledano, “Hiss defenders covering for the `old man',” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  138. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 197-9
  139. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 331
  140. Gregor Dallas, 1945: The War that Never Ended (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) ISBN 0300109806), p. 412
  141. Hiss even suggested the location from which the conference derives its name. (Robert C. Hilderbrand, Dumbarton Oaks: The Origins of the United Nations and the Search for Postwar Security [Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2001] ISBN 0807849502, p. 67)
  142. Ralph de Toledano, "Foreward," in William F. Buckley, Jr., ed., Odyssey of a Friend: Whittaker Chambers' Letters to William F. Buckley, Jr., 1954-1961 (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969) ISBN 0895265672, pp. 38-39 (PDF pp. 42-43)
  143. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), p. 28 (PDF p. 34). J. Anthony Panuch concurred: “Mr. Acheson and Mr. Hiss at the time I was in the department were sympathetic to the Soviet policy.” (Chesly Manly, "Acheson's Apologia," Modern Age, Spring 1970, pp. 203-204 [PDF pp. 1-2])
  144. Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (New York: Harpercollins, 1990) ISBN 0060166053, p. 287
  145. M. Stanton Evans, Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies (New York: Crown Forum, 2007) ISBN 978-1-4000-8105-9, p. 55, n. 6 (p. 610)
  146. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 329; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 48
  147. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, October 21, 1946, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)] (FBI file: Silvermaster, Vol. 82)
  148. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  149. Michael Denning, The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century (New York: Verso, 1998) ISBN 1859841708, p. 410
  150. Meg Jacobs, Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-century America (Princeton University Press, 2005) ISBN 0691086648, p. 171
  151. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  152. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 340
  153. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 92
  154. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 224
  155. Katherine A. S. Sibley, Red Spies in America (Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 2007) ISBN 0700615555, p. 94
  156. George Racey Jordan with Richard L. Stokes, From Major Jordan's Diaries (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1952), p. 42
  157. In 1966, Kravchenko would be found shot to death in his Manhattan apartment. Although his death would be ruled a suicide, his son Andrew maintains that he was executed by a SMERSH assassination squad.
  158. Panuch to Russell, March 7, 1946, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session, June 25, 1953 Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, Part 13 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), p. 853. (Cf. Louis Francis Budenz, The Techniques of Communism (New York: Ayer Publishing, 1977) ISBN 0405099428, p. 287) Dean Acheson subsequently forced Panuch, not Hiss, out of the State Department. (Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments [Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953], pp. 9-10)
  159. Rothwell to Rockefeller, January 10, 1945, United States Department of State, [Foreign relations of the United States. Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945] (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1945)/ p. 441 (University of Wisconsin Digital Collections)
  160. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 361-362
  161. Sam Tanenhaus, "New Reasons to Doubt Hiss," Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1993
  162. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, pp. 519; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 172; Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case, New York: Random House, (ed. 1997), pp. 321-322.
  163. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 363
  164. H. W. Brands, Inside the Cold War: Loy Henderson and the Rise of the American Empire, 1918-1961 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991) ISBN 0-19-506707-X, pp. 297-298
  165. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness, a Soviet Spymaster (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 227
  166. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History(Washington: Potomac Books Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574883275, p. 130
  167. Hugh D. Phillips, Between the revolution and the West: a political biography of Maxim M. Litvinov (New York: Westview Press, 1992) ISBN 0813310385
  168. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness, a Soviet Spymaster (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 227
  169. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Roosevelt and the Russians (Whitefish, Mont.: Kettinger Publishing, 2005) ISBN 1419103105, p. 270
  170. Gregor Dallas, 1945: The War That Never Ended (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) ISBN 0300109806, p. 557
  171. Arthur Bliss Lane, I Saw Poland Betrayed: An American Ambassador Reports to the American People (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1948) ASIN B000NWTIF8, p. 56
  172. Nikolai Tolstoy, The Secret Betrayal (New York: Scribner, 1978) ISBN 0684156350; Julius Epstein, Operation Keelhaul: The Story of Forced Repatriation from 1944 to the Present (Old Greenwich, Conn.: Devin-Adair Co., 1973) ISBN 978-0815964070
  173. Eduard Mark, "Who was 'Venona's' 'Ales'? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case," Intelligence and National Security 18 (Autumn 2003), pp. 54-55, 57-88, 62, 64
  174. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 278; Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 282; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 226; Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History(Washington: Potomac Books Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574883275, p. 131
  175. KGB file 43072, vol. 1: "Ruble"—Harold Glasser (Alexander Vassiliev, White Notebook #3, p. 36 [PDF p. 44]), Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
  176. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 268-269; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 226
  177. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 90
  178. The translation used here is that of John R. Schindler. Cf. Eric Breindel, "Goodies from the Venona files: Hiss’ Guilt," The New Republic, April 15, 1996, reprinted in The Congressional Record Vol. 142, No. 50 (Thursday, April 18, 1996), pp. H03644-H03645
  179. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 17, 29 (PDF pp. 19, 31)
  180. John Earl Haynes, KGB sources and the Hiss/'Ales' dispute, H-Diplo Discussion Logs, Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online (Michigan State University), January 5, 2005
  181. "A Word About the Covernames," Introductory History of VENONA and Guide to the Translations (National Security Agency)
  182. FBI memo: Belmont to Ladd, May 15, 1950 (FBI file: Venona), p. 8 (PDF p. 11); Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 137
  183. Report of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1997), Appendix A, p. A-34 (PDF p. 36)
  184. Eduard Mark, "Who was 'Venona's' 'Ales'? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case," Intelligence and National Security 18 (Autumn 2003), pp. 54–55, 57–88, 62, 64 (italics in original).
  185. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 14. Cf. Vassiliev's White Notebook No. 3 (original, p. 40; transcribed, p.78; translated, p. 78), Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
  186. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 359
  187. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss Chambers, Vol. 44)
  188. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 364
  189. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 90
  190. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 31 (PDF p. 34)
  191. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 124; "Pravdin" was actually Rolland Abbiat, murderer of Ignace Reiss.
  192. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate, Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, Vol. 16 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), p. 1072
  193. Victor Navasky, Naming Names (New York: Macmillan, 2003) ISBN 0809001837, p. 367
  194. "To Elsie McKeough," Helen Manfull, Ed., Additional Dialogue: Letters of Dalton Trumbo, 1942-1962 (New York: M. Evans and Company, 1970), p. 37
  195. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A p. 110; Westbrook Pegler, "New U.N. Building is Monument to Men Who Betrayed U.S.," The Evening Independent, July 3, 1950
  196. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 267-268
  197. "Andrei Gromyko," Time, October 1, 1979
  198. Frank J. Rafalko, ed., "Counterintelligence in World War II, 1940-47," A Counterintelligence Reader: An American Revolution Into the New Millennium, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 (Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive), p. 110 (PDF p. 111)
  199. Stephen J. Whitfield, The Culture of the Cold War (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996) ISBN 0801851955, p. 28
  200. Thomas M. Campbell and George C. Herring, eds., The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1943-1946 (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975) ISBN 0531055701, p. 416
  201. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 361
  202. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 172; Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, p. 519; Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 321-322.
  203. Arthur Herman, Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999) ISBN 0684836254, p. 86 (fn)
  204. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), pp. 9-10 (PDF pp. 15-16). De Toledano observes that this plan would have given Hiss "[virtual control of the State Department," which would thus, note two commentators, "have taken a long step forward in the direction of becoming an adjunct to the Soviet Foreign Office." (William F. Buckley Jr. and L. Brent Bozell, McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning [Washington: Regnery, 1954] ISBN 0895264722, p. 10)
  205. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 147
  206. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 110
  207. Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Kirill Mikhaĭlovich Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998) ISBN 0300071507, p. 45
  208. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44), p. 30. See also FBI Report: (REDACTED), Security Matter—C, June 8, 1950, p. 9 (FBI file: Institute of Pacific Relations, Vol 29, PDF p. 16)
  209. Amy W. Knight, How the Cold War Began: The Igor Gouzenko Affair and the Hunt for Soviet Spies (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2006) ISBN 0786718161, p. 33; FBI letter: Hoover to Lyon, September 24, 1945, p. 5 (CIA file: Igor Gouzenko), reprinted in Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), p. 67
  210. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-Glass War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) , p. 49
  211. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 366
  212. William Lyon Mackenzie King, diary entry for September 7, 1945. "Mr. Smiley's World of Social Studies and English Page" (Halifax Regional School Board Teacher Webspace)
  213. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 366
  214. FBI Report: Soviet Espionage Activities in the United States Between World War I and World War II, November 27, 1945, p. 13
  215. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 268-269; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 226
  216. "The Road Back," Time, September 4, 1950
  217. "Another Witness," Time, March 3, 1952
  218. Silvermaster file, Vol. 6, p. 105 (PDF p. 106)
  219. Robert J. Lamphere and Tom Shachtman, The FBI-KGB War: A Special Agent's Story (Atlanta: Mercer University Press, 1995) ISBN 0865544778, p. 296
  220. Oleg Kalugin and Fen Montaigne, The First Directorate: My 32 Years in Intelligence & Espionage Against the West (Darby, Penn.: Diane Publishing Company, 1994), ISBN 0788151118, p. 74. As Stone put it, "In a way, I was half a Jeffersonian and half a Marxist. I never saw a contradiction between the two, and I still don't." (The Nation, July 10, 1989, cited in L. Brent Baker and Tim Graham, eds., "Notable Quotables," Media Research Center, July 10, 1989)
  221. Paul Berman, "The Watchdog," The New York Times, October 1, 2006
  222. Myra MacPherson, 'All Governments Lie': The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006) ISBN 0684807130, p. 327. MacPherson goes on to quote Kalugin explaining that such agents "could shape public opinion, manipulate public opinion," and that Stone "was willing to perform tasks." Stone was identified in the Venona project with the code name "Blin" (Pancake) (Index of Cover Names, New York-Moscow Communications, p. 10), an identification confirmed by a 13 April 1936 KGB New York station report. The following month, the station reported that "Relations with 'Pancake' have entered 'the channel of normal operational work,'" meaning that Stone had become a "fully active agent." [Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, "I.F. Stone, Soviet Agent—Case Closed," Commentary; Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 150] Stone also met with "Sergei" (1506 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 October 1944) (NKVD agent Vladimir Pravdin, (Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story [Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History], p. 31 [PDF p. 34]), who, under cover as head of the Soviet government news agency TASS (Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB [New York: Basic Books, 2000], ISBN 046500312, p. 124), was actually Roland Abbiat (Harvey Klehr, "Devils in America," The New Republic, February 12th, 2004), murderer of Ignace Reiss. (Walter Krivitsky, In Stalin's Secret Service [New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939], pp. 261-263 [PDF 285-287])
  223. Silvermaster file, Vol. 6, p. 105 (PDF p. 106)
  224. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 108 (PDF p. 119)
  225. Alexander Vassiliev’s notes on a cipher telegram from Vadim [Anatoly Gorsky], 5 March 1945, cited in John Earl Haynes, "Ales: Hiss, Foote, Stettinius?"
  226. Index of KGB Covernames: Washington-Moscow Communications, p. 3 (National Security Agency)
  227. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  228. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 29 (PDF p. 31)
  229. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate, Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), Vol. 16, p. 1072 (PDF p. 12)
  230. Alexander Vassiliev, Black Notebook (tr. Philip Redko), p. 77; cf. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  231. Walter LaFeber, America, Russia, and the Cold War: 1945-1984 (New York: Knopf, 1985) ISBN 0394343913, p. 38
  232. Conrad Black, Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full (Jackson, Tenn.: PublicAffairs, 2008), ISBN 1586486748, p. 93
  233. FBI memo: Hottel to Hoover, February 11, 1946, pp. 2-3 (FBI file: Silvermaster, Vol. 42, pp. 55-56)
  234. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 110 (PDF p. 121)
  235. Jim Heintze, Biography of Drew Pearson, February 9, 2006 (Drew Pearson Papers, American University Library Collections)
  236. Yevgenia Albats, The State Within a State: The KGB And Its Hold on Russia Past, Present and Future (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1994), pp. 250-251; Yevgenia Albats, "Senator Edward Kennedy Requested KGB Assistance With a Profitable Contract for his Businessman-Friend," Izvestia, June 24, 1992, p. 5. Albats adds that Karr "submitted information to the KGB on the technical capabilities of the United States and other capitalist countries." Cf. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 139; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 247. See also Venona decrypt 998 KGB New York to Moscow 15 July 1944. Another Pearson legman, Andrew Older, was identified under oath by FBI undercover operative Mary Markward as a secret member of the Communist Party in Washington, DC. (Security Hearings Pursuant to S. Res. 40, Part 1, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, 83rd Cong., 1st Sess., August 17-18, 1953 [Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953], p. 16 [PDF p. 20]; cf. Westbrook Pegler, "Close Scansion of Record Discovers Curious Matter," King Features Syndicate and The Deseret News, July 21, 1951, p. 2B)
  237. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  238. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 363-364
  239. Donald Maclean, The Spy Museum
  240. Statement of Vladimir Petrov (defected from Soviet Embassy, Canberra, 1954), Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States," Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, June 6, 1956, p. 1521 (PDF p. 79)
  241. "Donald Maclean," The Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008
  242. "Agent: Maclean, D.," The Spy Museum
  243. Hayden B. Peake, "The Judith Coplon Story," Studies in Intelligence, vol. 47, no. 2, 2003; 27 New York to Moscow 8 January 1945
  244. Fuchs' confession, "Race for the Bomb" The American Experience (PBS); 850 New York to Moscow, 15 June 1944;
  245. Greg Barker, Director, "The Red Files: Secrets of the Russian Archives Revealed," PBS, 1999 ISBN 0-7806-2796-2; 1606(a) New York to Moscow 16 November 1944
  246. Rebecca Leung, "The Traitor: David Greenglass Testified Against His Own Sister, CBS News, July 16, 2003
  247. Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, The Rosenberg File (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997) ISBN 0300072058, pp. 53-58; 1340 New York to Moscow 21 September 1944
  248. Kim Philby, My Silent War (New York: Random House, Inc., 2002) ISBN 0375759832, p. 150
  249. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 360, footnote
  250. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, Interlocking subversion in Government Departments (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953), Part 19-20, 1365 (PDF p. 25)
  251. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43
  252. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, November 21, 1946, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)
  253. Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games, Yale University Press
  254. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  255. Andrew E. Busch, "1946 Midterm Gives GOP First Majority Since 1928 Elections, Helps Ensure Truman’s Reelection," John M. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs (Ashland University), June 2006
  256. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  257. Ron Capshaw, "Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon," FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007
  258. Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, SISS report (July 30, 1953), pp. 8-10.
  259. 50. Directive on the Need for Maintaining the Confidential Status of Employee Loyalty Records, March 15, 1948. Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S. Truman, 1945-53 (Harry S. Truman Library and Museum); Presidential Directive (13 F. R. 1359), reprinted in Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, United States Congress, Annual Report for the Year 1953 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1954), pp. 186-187 (PDF pp. 194-195
  260. Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 3, 1948)
  261. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 228
  262. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 17
  263. "Publican & Pharisee," Time, May. 26, 1952
  264. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  265. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 274
  266. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  267. 170. The President's News Conference, August 5, 1948. Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S. Truman, 1945-1953 (Harry S. Truman Library & Museum); Alonzo L. Hamby, Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) ISBN 0195124979, p. 453; "Off the Record," Time, January 18, 1954; See also (Harry S. Truman) to the Attorney General, 16 December 1948, Harry S. Truman Library, Tom Clark Papers, "Attorney General-- White House/President, 1948," box 83, reprinted (as Document 22) in Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), p. 119
  268. "The Old Familiar Fish," Time, September 17, 1956
  269. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  270. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 148
  271. Robert D. Novak, "Did Truman Know About Venona?" The Weekly Standard, June 2003
  272. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004. The next year, Forrestal would be found dead from a fall from the tower of Bethesda Naval Hospital. (Admiral M.D. Willcutts, Report on the Death of James V. Forrestal [Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University], PDF p. 22)
  273. Eleanor Roosevelt, Washington Daily News, August 16th, 1948
  274. Robert J. Hanyok, Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945 (Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2005), pp. 118-119 (PDF p. 123-124), n. 185; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 146
  275. "Cold War Counterintelligence," A Counterintelligence Reader: An American Revolution Into the New Millennium, Vol. 3, Chapter 1 (Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive) pp. 30-31 (PDF pp. 29-30); Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 167
  276. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 130; Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), pp. xiv, xxiv; FBI memo: Belmont to Boardman, February 1, 1956, p. 9 (FBI file: Venona, p. 71) Currie admitted to the FBI that he knew Hiss. (FBI report: Institute of Pacific Relations, April 7, 1950. FBI file: Institute of Pacific Relations, Section 6, p. 36 [PDF p. 31])
  277. Denise Noe, "A Change of Heart," The Alger Hiss Case (TruTV Crime Library)
  278. American Values through Film (English Language Office, Public Affairs section, U.S. Embassy, Moscow), p. 81 (PDF p. 82)
  279. Douglas O. Linder, "The Alger Hiss Trials: A Commentary," The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50. Famous Trials (University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Law)
  280. "House Un-American Activities Committee," Mundt Archives (Dakota State University); Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 15-16
  281. "Burden of Proof," Time, September 6, 1948
  282. Robert G. Whalen, "Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men," The New York Times, December 12, 1948
  283. "The Confrontation," Time, August 30, 1948
  284. Thomas Sanction, "The Case of Alger Hiss," The Nation, September 4, 1948
  285. George M. Elsey, Memorandum for Mr. Clifford, 16 August 1948, Harry S. Truman Library, Clark M. Clifford Papers, "Loyalty Investigations," box 11
  286. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 15
  287. Geoffrey C. Ward, “Unregretfully, Alger Hiss,” American Heritage Magazine, Vol. 39, Issue 7 (November 1988)
  288. Meet the Press Transcript for April 8, 2007, p. 5
  289. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 162
  290. "No Alternative," Time, September 13, 1948
  291. "Three Rings," Time, December 20, 1948
  292. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  293. FBI "By Special Messenger": SAC, Washington Field to Hoover, December 1, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss Chambers, Vol. 1)
  294. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, November 23, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 1)
  295. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384, p. 108
  296. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  297. The Pumpkin Papers, Time, August 11, 1975
  298. Doulglas O. Linder, “The Pumpkin Papers: Key Evidence in the Alger Hiss Trials,” Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
  299. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  300. Denise Noe, “The Pumpkin Papers,” The Alger Hiss Case, TruTV Crime Library
  301. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 116
  302. "New Witness," Time, March 1, 1954
  303. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 166
  304. Reply by Allen Weinstein, "The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Vol. 23, No. 9 (May 27, 1976)
  305. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 30
  306. FBI memorandum: Fletcher to Ladd, December 2, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 2)
  307. FBI memorandum: Fletcher to Ladd, December 6, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 2)
  308. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  309. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  310. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  311. Reply by Allen Weinstein, "The Hiss Case: Another Exchange!" The New York Review of Books, Vol. 23, No. 14 (September 16, 1976)
  312. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 270
  313. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 178, 253, 257, 299, 397
  314. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 298, 300
  315. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 281, 298
  316. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 254
  317. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 299
  318. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 281
  319. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 299
  320. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 300
  321. "Joined the Harvard Socialist Club and later became president... Elected to Executive Committee, Intercollegiate Socialist Society... Joined the Socialist Party, New York County, and the Socialist Press Club of New York City." Walter Lippmann Papers. Part 4: Early Papers, 1904-1920 (Reels 164-170): Chronology. Manuscript and Archives Division, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University; Neil Smith American Empire: Roosevelt's Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2004) ISBN 0520243382, p. 120; cf. The Intercollegiate Socialist (Cambridge, Mass.: Intercollegiate Socialist Society, 1918), p. 36. Even after ending his formal membership, Lippmann remained a loyal fellow-traveler: In the midst of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, "WJL" (Walter J. Lippmann) wrote to "ECC" (Edward C. Carter, head of the American Russian Institute and Institute of Pacific Relations), urging "cooperation with the European revolutionaries and the Soviet Union in their attempt to build a socialist Europe as a nucleus for a world socialist order, with the obvious corollary of the establishment of socialism in this country." Walter Lippmann to Edward C. Carter, June 10, 1940, p. 5 (PDF p. 100), FBI file: Institute of Pacific Relations, Section 54, Part 11, pp. 96-101.
  322. 1289 New York to Moscow, September 9, 1944. According to Eric Alterman, a columnist and blogger for The Nation, Lippmann "offered much more useful information to the Soviets than [I.F.] Stone ever did." (Eric Alterman, "Stone Cold Untruths," The American Prospect, October 3, 2006)
  323. 868 KGB New York to Moscow, 8 June 1943. Cf. 588 New York to Moscow, 29 April 1944. See also Institute of Pacific Relations Hearings, Part 2, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 82nd Cong., 1st Sess., August 9, 14, 16, 20, 22, and 23, 1951 (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1951), p. 406; Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 439 and John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 99
  324. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 384
  325. The Truman Administration During 1949: A Chronology, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Admnistration
  326. Davis, John W. (1873-1955), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-Present
  327. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A pp. 221-223.
  328. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A, p. 235
  329. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A, pp. 258-259
  330. "The Alger Hiss Issue," Time, November 3, 1952
  331. "Woman with a Past," Time, December 19, 1949
  332. Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?" The New York Times, October 15, 1993
  333. Daniel Hemel, “Who Killed Alger Hiss? The Oxionian Review (Balliol College, Oxford), Issue 9.4 (May 18, 2009)
  334. Charles E. Wyzanski, Jr., to Francis Russell, March 31, 1986. Francis Russell Papers, Boston Athenaeum. Cited in Richard Newby, Letters to the Editor, Journal of American History, Vol. 87, No. 1 (June 2000)
  335. The Truman Administration During 1949: A Chronology, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Admnistration
  336. United States v. Hiss, 88 F. Supp. 559 (S.D.N.Y. 1950); William R. Conklin, "Hiss Guilty On Both Perjury Counts; Betrayal of U.S. Secrets Is Affirmed; Sentence Wednesday; Limit 10 Years," The New York Times, January 22, 1950; The Truman Administration During 1949: A Chronology, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Administration
  337. "Trial by Typewriter," Time, February 4, 1952
  338. "'I Do Not Intend to Turn My Back'," Time, February 6, 1950
  339. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 149
  340. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004
  341. Alger Hiss Collection, 1934-1979, Library of Maryland History, Maryland Historical Society; United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  342. Asked if they had “one shred” of evidence to back their thesis in seeking a new trial, the Hiss lawyers answered, “No, your Honor.” Ralph de Toledano, "Towards a Higher Imperative," Modern Age, Fall 1978, p. 412 (PDF p. 1)
  343. The Supreme Court refused to hear Hiss' appeal three times, the last time in 1983. (Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss: Guilty as Charged," Commentary, April 1993)
  344. Rabinowitz claimed to have joined the Party in 1942, adding "There was no formal act marking the end of the relationship.... though I continued to meet with party members to discuss both political and legal matters for many years thereafter." (Victor Rabinowitz, Unrepentant Leftist: A Lawyer's Memoir [Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1996] ISBN 025202253X, pp. 73, 87). Rabinowitz' law partner (representing Cuba's Communist Castro regime) was Leonard Boudin, father of convicted Weather Underground terrorist Kathy Boudin (Michael Law, Leftist Lawyer Victor Rabinowitz Passes Away at 96, Law Vibe: International Law News, November 21, 2007), whose son was adopted and raised by William Ayers (Jodi Wilgoren, "From a Radical Background, A Rhodes Scholar Emerges," The New York Times, December 9, 2002), political booster of Barack Obama (Scott Shane, "Obama and ’60s Bomber: A Look Into Crossed Paths," The New York Times, October 3, 2008).
  345. Eric Breindel, "The faithful traitor: Alger Hiss's refusal to recant helped create the myth of his innocence," National Review, February 10, 1997
  346. Geoffrey C. Ward, “Unregretfully, Alger Hiss,” American Heritage Magazine, Vol. 39, Issue 7 (November 1988)
  347. Alger Hiss, Recollections of a Life (Arcade, 1989) ISBN 1559700246, p. 168
  348. Brock Brower, “The Problems of Alger Hiss,” Esquire, December 1960
  349. Hiss to C. Vann Woodward, May 2, 1959, quoted in Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 581; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-Glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2005) ISBN 0195182553, pp. 87-88. Cf. Arianna Huffington, “Alger Hiss and O.J. Simpson,” Arianna Online, November 21, 1996
  350. Ron Capshaw, “Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon,” FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007
  351. Matthew Richer, "The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father," Modern Age, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 309 (PDF p. 3)
  352. Cole, who titled his 1981 memoir Hollywood Red, "remained a hardcore Communist" until his death in 1985. Ronald Radosh and Allis Radosh, Red Star Over Hollywood (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2005) ISBN 1893554961, p. 29; Cf. Kenneth Lloyd Billingsley, Hollywood Party: How Communism Seduced the American Film Industry in the 1930s and 1940s (Rocklin, Calif: Prima Publishing, 1998) ISBN 0761513760, pp. 266-267; Biography for Lester Cole, IMDb: The Internet Movie Database
  353. Hiss, Isabel (Dowden) Johnson, 1908-2000. Papers, 1907-2000: A Finding Aid. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
  354. Ron Capshaw, "Framing Alger: A Communist Plot," FrontPageMagazine.com, June 12, 2007
  355. Ron Capshaw, "Portrait of an American Traitor," FrontPageMagazine.com, September 24, 2007
  356. "Isabel J. Hiss, 91, Widow of Alger Hiss," The New York Times, May 7, 2000
  357. "The Alger Hiss Spy Case," HistoryNet.com
  358. In the Matter of Alger Hiss, 368 Mass. 447, 1975; 333 N.E.2d 429; 1975 Mass. LEXIS 1014
  359. Guide to the Agnese Nelms Haury Papers, Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York University
  360. Kovel advocates what he calls "ecosocialism," which he defines as Marxian communism—the "realization" of what he calls "'first-epoch' socialism" (that is, "neither more nor less than the original announcement of the Communist Manifesto")—not in pursuit of "unfettered productivity' a la Marx, but to further fetter productivity in the interest of environmentalism. Joel Kovel, "A Socialism for the Next Epoch," On Ecology and Socialism. Congres Marx International Paris, September 29, 2001
  361. About Joel Kovel
  362. Steven G. Marks, "In Denial by John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr," Commentary, October 2003
  363. George McGovern, "Nixon: The Last Word," Foreign Policy, Fall 1994

Further reading

External links