Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860), was an important German philosopher of the 19th Century. He profoundly affected Friedrich Nietzsche, and was among the first to contend that at its center, the universe is not a rational place. He was inspired by Plato and Immanuel Kant.
Schopenhauer's father chose his son's first name because of its identical spelling in German, French and English.
Schopenhauer wrote "The World as Will and Idea" and "On the Will to Nature" in 1836.